Endre søk
Begrens søket
1 - 35 of 35
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Akhtar, Farid
    et al.
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University.
    Ogunwumi, Steven
    Crystalline Materials Research, Corning Incorporated.
    Hedin, Niklas
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University.
    Structuring adsorbents and catalysts by processing of porous powders2014Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 34, nr 7, s. 1643-1666Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microporous materials such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks, activated carbons and aluminum phosphates are suitable for catalysis and separation applications. These high surface area materials are invariably produced in particulate forms and need to be transformed into hierarchically porous structures for high performance adsorbents or catalysts. Structuring of porous powders enables an optimized structure with high mass transfer, low pressure drop, good heat management, and high mechanical and chemical stability. The requirements and important properties of hierarchically porous structures are reviewed with a focus on applications in gas separation and catalysis. Versatile powder processing routes to process porous powders into hierarchically porous structures like extrusion, coatings of scaffolds and honeycombs, colloidal processing and direct casting, and sacrificial approaches are presented and discussed. The use and limitations of the use of inorganic binders for increasing the mechanical strength is reviewed, and the most important binder systems, e.g. clays and silica, are described in detail. Recent advances to produce binder-free and complex shaped hierarchically porous monoliths are described and their performance is compared with traditional binder-containing structured adsorbents. Needs related to better thermal management and improved kinetics and volume efficiency are discussed and an outlook on future research is also given.

  • 2.
    Alkebro, J
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Begin-Colin, S.
    Ecole des Mines de Nancy.
    Mocellin, A.
    Ecole des Mines de Nancy.
    Warren, R
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanical alloying of alumina-yttria powder mixtures2000Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 20, nr 12, s. 2169-2174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical alloying has been used to prepare powder mixtures of alumina and yttria as a means to create composites with a dominant matrix phase together with small particles of a dispersed second phase. The yttria-alumina system, containing five possible phases, has the potential for creating eight combinations of matrix and dispersed phases. Here compositions designed to give YAlO3(YA) dispersed in Y3Al5O12(Y3A5 i.e. YAG) or Y4Al2O9(Y2A) were studied. After milling with steel tools for times up to 8 h, the powders were subjected to thermal cycles up to 1500 °C during which the phase evolution was monitored using X-ray diffractometry (including high-temperature XRD) and differential thermal analysis. During milling the original crystal structures were quickly broken down, in some cases partially replaced by an intermediate structure after milling. Upon subsequent heating the milled mixtures crystallized to give the expected phases, YA in Y3A5 and YA in Y2A respectively, but the reaction route was seen to be different depending on the amount of amorphization of the yttria. Contamination by iron was seen to affect the phase distribution and the lattice parameters.

  • 3.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Lara-Curzio, E.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
    Warren, R
    Malmö University.
    Thermal degradation of an oxide fibre (Nextel 720)/aluminosilicate composite2004Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 565-578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermal exposure on the microstructure and tensile stress-strain behaviour has been investigated for composites of woven continuous oxide fibres (Nextel 720) in a porous aluminosilicate matrix. The tensile tests were carried out on straight-sided, centre hole notched plates with 0/90° and ±45° orientations. The as-received material was slightly notch sensitive in that the net section fracture stress decreased somewhat with increasing hole diameter but much less than predicted for an ideally elastic, fully notch-sensitive material. After exposure at 1100°C and for long time at 1000°C in air the composite was embrittled. In the 0/90 composite this resulted in a reduced fracture strength, a reduced strain to failure as well as a reduced fracture toughness and damage zone size. After exposure for 100 h at 1100 °C (the most extreme exposure applied) the material also became significantly more notch sensitive and had failure characteristics similar to those of a monolithic ceramic. The ±45 composite was also embrittled which resulted in a reduced strain to failure but an increase in fracture strength. Density measurements and observations on the microstructure and fracture surfaces indicated that the embrittlement was due mainly to localised densification of the matrix and an increase in fibre/matrix bonding.

  • 4.
    Ashkin, A.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ashkin, D.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Babushkin, O.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ekström, T.
    Arrhenius laboratory.
    At-temperature observation of phase development in yttrium α-Sialon1995Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 15, nr 11, s. 1101-1109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A powder mixture of α-Si3N4, AlN and Y2O3 corresponding to an yttrium α-sialon composition, Y0.4Si10.2Al1.8O0.6N15.4, was sintered both in a high temperature X-ray diffraction unit and in a regular sintering furnace. X-ray analysis was performed and it was shown that high temperature X-ray diffraction can be used to monitor the kinetics of the α-sialon phase formation during sintering at temperatures between 1450 and 1580 °C as the reactions take place. A variety of yttrium-rich intermediate and secondary phases are formed during sintering; those formed in the HT-XRD unit were not the same as those formed in the regular sintering furnace, but they do not significantly influence the overall reaction sequence or the amount of α-sialon formed. Quantitative analysis of the acquired data was used to evaluate the kinetics of the α-sialon phase formation; the estimated activation energy of the initial stage α-sialon formation was 330kJ/mol. After this initial stage of relatively rapid α-sialon formation the process became inhibited

  • 5.
    Ashkin, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nitridation Behaviour of Silicon with Clay and Oxide Additions: Rate and Phase Development1997Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 17, nr 13, s. 1613-1624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples pressed from fine powders of Si, Si + SiO2, Si + kaolinite and Si + SiO2 + Al2O3 were nitrided by both the nitrogen demand method and a constant rate of heating using a graphite resistance furnace at temperatures of 1100 to 1450 °C. The nitridation rate for different compositions and input parameters were determined by continuously monitoring the time, temperature and pressure within the furnace. By comparing the different compositions, the effect of impurities, silica and particle size on nitriding rate, phase composition and percent theoretical weight gain were determined. Compositions containing high purity additives were found to nitride at higher temperatures and to be more susceptible to weight loss during nitridation. The prime cause for low weight gains was determined to be volatilization of silicon out of the samples. Si2N2O/O′ Sialon was formed in all compositions containing the as-used additives and acted to retain the oxygen within the sample.

  • 6.
    Babushkin, O.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindbäck, Ture
    Brooks, Keith
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Setter, Nava
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    PZT phase formation monitored by high-temperature X-ray diffractometry1997Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 813-818Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystallisation kinetics of amorphous sol-gel PZT thin films were investigated using high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Crystallisation for different isotherms was monitored as a function of time. Phase transformation data were obtained from integrated X-ray peak intensities which were calibrated based on image analysis of the surface microstructure of the samples at the end of the isothermal treatments. An activation energy of 310 kJ/mol was obtained without assuming a specific kinetic model. From the transformation data, a TTT diagram was constructed for the ranges studied.

  • 7.
    Babushkin, O.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindbäck, Ture
    Luc, J.-C.
    Quartz et Silice Research Institute.
    Leblais, J.-Y.
    Quartz et Silice Research Institute.
    Kinetic Aspects of the Formation of Lead Zirconium Titanate1996Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 16, nr 12, s. 1293-1998Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics of the second calcination step in the formation of PZT solid solution (with perovskite ABO3 lattice) has been investigated by using two different particle sizes of the B-site precursor (1·91 and 5·08 μm), the finer size being obtained by prolonged milling. In-situ analysis performed by high-temperature X-ray diffractometry in a non-isothermal mode (20-800°C) revealed a reduction of the calcination temperature by 100°C with a decrease in particle size of the precursor. In order to clarify the mechanism of the solid-state reaction to PZT, isothermal heat treatment of the mixtures was performed in the temperature range 540-700°C. The activation energies for the fine and the coarse powders were estimated as 150 and 210 kJ mol 1 respectively, and the reaction was found to follow the Jander model for diffusion-controlled solid-state reaction kinetics

  • 8.
    Babushkin, Oleg
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindbäck, Ture
    Luc, J.-L
    Quartz et Silice Research Institute.
    Lebalis, J.-Y. M.
    Quartz et Silice Research Institute.
    Reaction sequence in the formation of perovskite Pb(Zro0.48Ti0.52)O3-Pb(Nb2/3Ni1/3)O3 solid solution: Dynamic heat-treatment1998Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 18, nr 7, s. 737-744Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sequence of the solid state reactions in the PbOZrO 2-TiO2-Nb2O5-NiO system has been investigated. The oxide mixing route utilised in sample preparation was selected in order to determine the basic reaction path in the formation of the PZTPNN perovskite phase. It has been established that the main intermediate phases formed prior to PZTPNN are PbTiO3 and pyrochlore Pb-Nb-based phases. The sequence in the pyrochlore formation was from tetragonal Pb3Nb2O8 (500 °C) to rhombohedral Pb2Nb2O7 (600-750 °C) and finally to cubic Pb3Nb4O13 (650-850 °C). The formation of the perovskite phase proceeded from mutual solubility of PbTiO3 and pyrochlore Pb3Nb4O13 phases, accompanied by dissolving of residuals (PbZrO3 and NiO) in the perovskite solid solution formed

  • 9.
    Carlborg, Markus
    et al.
    Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE Energy Technology Center.
    Ma, Charlie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Backman, Rainer
    Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. RISE Energy Technology Center.
    Exposure of refractory materials during high-temperature gasification of a woody biomass and peat mixture2018Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 777-787Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding resilient refractory materials for slagging gasification systems have the potential to reduce costs and improve the overall plant availability by extending the service life. In this study, different refractory materials were evaluated under slagging gasification conditions. Refractory probes were continuously exposed for up to 27 h in an atmospheric, oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier fired with a mixture of bark and peat powder. Slag infiltration depth and microstructure were studied using SEM EDS. Crystalline phases were identified with powder XRD. Increased levels of Al, originating from refractory materials, were seen in all slags. The fused cast materials were least affected, even though dissolution and slag penetration could still be observed. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were done for mixtures of refractory and slag, from which phase assemblages were predicted and viscosities for the liquid parts were estimated.

  • 10.
    Casellas, D.
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Cumbrera, F. L.
    Universidad de Extremadura.
    Sánchez-Bajo, F.
    Universidad de Extremadura.
    Forsling, Willis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Llanes, L.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Anglada, M.
    Universidad de Extremadura.
    On the transformation toughening of Y-ZrO2 ceramics with mixed Y-TZP/PSZ microstructures2001Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 765-777Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat treatment of Y-TZP at high temperatures produces materials with a mixed Y-TZP/PSZ phase assemblage, which exhibit a unique combination of high mechanical strength and fracture toughness, uncommon in zirconia ceramics. The microstructure and crack growth resistance of the Y-TZP/PSZ materials developed by treating at 1650°C in air a fine-grained Y-TZP was studied. XRD as well as Raman spectroscopy results indicate that the obtained microstructure allow the retention of large tetragonal grains (up to ˜4 μm), resulting in both phase transformability enhancement and pronounced R-curve behavior. The large transformation zone, discerned from accurate measurements with Raman microprobe spectroscopy, sustains the above assessment and points out tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation as the main toughening mechanism in the investigated Y-TZP/PSZ microstructures. This was confirmed by satisfactory agreement between the transformation toughening estimated from numerical analysis and the crack shielding experimentally determined from the R-curve measurements.

  • 11. Deng, Shiqiang
    et al.
    Warren, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Creep properties of single crystal oxides evaluated by a Larson-Miller procedure1995Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 513-520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A collation of published results of compressive and tensile creep studies of single and binary oxide single crystals is presented. For the purposes of comparison the results were normalised by means of a Larson-Miller procedure. This method proved to be effective in providing a ranking of the oxides in terms of their creep resistance. Binary oxides with complex crystal structures exhibited the highest creep strengths; no direct correlation with the melting point could be found.

  • 12.
    Hansson, T.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Swan, A.H.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Warren, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    High temperature fracture of a SiC whisker-reinforced alumina in air and vacuum1994Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 427-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture behaviour of a SiCw/alumina composite was studied between room temperature and 1320°C in vacuum by four-point bend testing of specimens pre-cracked by bridge indentation. The results are compared to those of earlier work on a similar material in air. In vacuum, the composite begins to exhibit stable crack growth (SCG) and increasing apparent toughness at about 1100°C. Between 1100 and 1320°C, the extent of SCG increases and the toughness rises to almost three times the room temperature fracture toughness. The toughness enhancement is due mainly to such processes as crack deflection, crack branching, microcrack zone formation and crack tip blunting rather than any temperature-related increase in intrinsic fracture resistance of the material. In air, the fracture processes are similar to those in vacuum but the toughness increase is delayed by about 100°C and the level of toughening is lower. These differences arise from the formation of a glass phase in air which delays microcrack formation but reduces the resistance to stable crack growth.

  • 13.
    Harrysson, Ralph
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Vomacka, P.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Glass formation in the system Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 under conditions of laser melting1994Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 377-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass formation in the Y2O3---Al2O3---SiO2 system was investigated by means of laser melting using a CO2 laser source (wavelength 106 μm) with a maximum output power of 1700 W. The glass-forming region was found to be more extensive than that observed by other investigators. No glassy phase formed in compositions with less than 20 wt% SiO2. A non-equilibrium phase diagram corresponding to the conditions of laser-induced rapid melting and self-quenching was also determined. All the phases reported in the relevant binary diagrams with the exception of yttrium silicate 2Y2O3.3SiO2 were observed.

  • 14.
    Larker, Hans T
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lundberg, Robert
    Volvo Aero.
    Near net shape production of monolithic and composite high temperature ceramics by hot isostatic pressing (HIP)1999Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 19, nr 13-14, s. 2367-2373Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved properties of high temperature ceramics in general are achieved by compositional and processing research and development-compatible with sintering and forming needs. Pressure can be used to increase the driving force for densification and with hot isostatic pressing (HIP) the form can be closely controlled, even of complex shaped parts, like turbine wheels. Recent development within the EUREKA-AGATA hybrid electric car gas turbine project shows that improved high temperature material properties can be achieved, while at the same time fabricating components like combustion parts and turbine wheels, to near-net-shape. For such components a highly uniform green powder body is desired. Combined with a type of encapsulation during HIP, which does not create shear stresses at the surface of the green body during the shrinkage/sintering to full density, but at the same time prevents penetration into the body, optimal near-net-shape results can be achieved. Recent studies, e.g. by TEM, have confirmed that some encapsulation glass constituents can form new compounds with silicon nitride, at the very surface, which appear to help develop these desired characteristics. Non-homogeneous and non-isotropic ceramics, like fiber reinforced composites, may be fabricated using rigid, shape controlling tools on one or several sides. Particularly for large (and curved) panels such use of a hot isostatic press can be an advantage.

  • 15. Lei, B.
    et al.
    Babushkin, O.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Warren, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nitridation study of reaction-bonded silicon nitride in situ by high temperature X-ray diffraction1997Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 17, nr 9, s. 1113-1117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) nitriding process has been studied using a high temperature X-ray diffractometer (HT-XRD) under isothermal conditions in the temperature interval 1300-1400°C. With HT-XRD, the nitridation reaction and phases formed could be monitored almost instantaneously at temperature. The experimentally observed kinetics of the nitriding reaction were found to be in fair agreement with a theoretical model which predicts that the nitriding reaction occurs predominantly by Knudsen diffusion of nitrogen molecules through channels in a layer of growing Si3N4. However, no single rate law is likely to describe the whole nitridation process. Observation of the microstructure after nitridation indicates that the process occurs partly by reaction of Si vapour with nitrogen gas but that inward diffusion of nitrogen into particles also contributes significantly to the overall nitridation. The phase analysis showed that α-Si3N4 formation predominates over β-Si3N4 formation but the proportion of β-Si3N4 increases as nitridation continues

  • 16.
    Li, W.B.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lei, B.Q.
    Lindbäck, Ture
    A kinetic model for reaction bonding process of silicon powder compact1997Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 17, nr 9, s. 1119-1129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to obtain detailed information about the kinetics and the reaction nature of a complex reaction process like reaction bonding of silicon nitride, mathematical modelling of the process is necessary. The previous quantitative models for this process have been based only on the mechanism that the nitrogen diffuses through the solid silicon nitride without taking into account the multiple reaction mechanisms. In the present study, a comprehensive kinetic model, which is based on analysis of the multiple mechanisms in a silicon powder compact reacting with nitrogen gas and forming silicon nitride, is constructed for a solid-gas reaction bonding process with specific application to the reaction-bonding of silicon nitride. The model will incorporate the rate equation for each mechanism into a constitutive equation from which more complete information of process kinetics can be predicted. The results predicted by the present model have been compared with previous experimental results and satisfactory agreement obtained

  • 17.
    Li, Wen Bin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lei, B.Q.
    Lindbäck, Ture
    Warren, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stresses developed in reaction-bonded ceramics1999Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 277-283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A physical model is presented that predicts the stress distribution created in a particle during its reaction with a surrounding reactant to form a uniform layer of reaction product on its surface, when the reaction involves a volume change. The results of the model are applied specifically to the case of silicon reacting with nitrogen to form Si3N4. The model predicts the generation of a high, tensile hydrostatic stress in the Si core as well as high tensile radial stress and compressive tangential stress in the nitride layer. Although the model is restricted to elastic deformation only and therefore predicts unrealistically high stresses in some cases, the results are anyway of relevance in the consideration of possible non-elastic processes such as creep and fracture and also in assessing the possible effect of stress on the reaction equilibrium. It is predicted that the nitride reaction layer would fracture during the nitridation process. A second model is also presented predicting the residual stresses arising during cooling of a partially reacted particle as a result of the difference in thermal expansion of the reactant core and the reaction product layer. In the case of the reaction of silicon to silicon nitride these thermal expansion mismatch stresses are significant but small compared to the stresses due to the chemical reaction.

  • 18.
    Melk, Latifa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Turon-Vinas, Miquel
    CIEFMA—Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Rovira, Joan Josep Roa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Anglada, Marc
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    The influence of unshielded small cracks in the fracture toughness of yttria and of ceria stabilised zirconia2016Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 147-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture toughness, KIC of two 3Y–ZrO2 with different grain size (177 and 330 nm) and 12Ce–ZrO2 were determined from a sharp micro-machined notch by Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Ablation (UPLA) where a micro-cracked zone and non-transformed is generated in front of the notch. The notch plus the damage behaved as an unshielded edge surface crack. The fracture stress, σf of both 330 nm-3Y–ZrO2 and 12Ce–ZrO2 with similar short crack sizes were found to be comparable in despite of their different published R-curves. The results of KIC were discussed in terms of the type of cracks induced and by using a simple R-curve model. It was concluded that for the development of high strength composites with 12Ce–ZrO2 as the matrix, the relevant KIC that controls the σf with surface unshielded short cracks is much closer to the intrinsic KIC than to the indentation KIC or to the plateau KIC of long cracks.

  • 19.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Maitre, A.
    Laboratoire Science des Procédés Céramiques et Traitements de Surface, UMR CNRS 6638, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87060 Limoges Cedex.
    Frisk, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Odén, Magnus
    Fabrication of transparent yttria by HIP and the glass-encapsulation method2009Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 311-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This method consists of a combination of vacuum sintering at 1600 °C followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1500 °C of a highly agglomerated commercial powder. The use of evacuated glass capsules to perform HIP treatment allowed samples that showed open porosity after vacuum sintering to be sintered to transparency. The sintering response of the investigated powder was studied by careful microstructural observations using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy both in reflection and transmission. The successful key of this method was to keep porosity intergranular during pre-sintering, so that it can be removed subsequently by HIP treatment. It was found that agglomerates of closely packed particles are helpful to reach that purpose, since they densify fully and leave only intergranular porosity. However, performing HIP treatment at 1625 °C was found to result in opaque samples. This was attributed to the diffusion of argon inside the capsule. Contamination at different steps of processing was also investigated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  • 20. Mouzon, Johanne
    et al.
    Nordell, Patricia
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Adrien, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Odén, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Comparison of two different precipitation routes leading to Yb doped Y2O3 nano-particles2007Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 1991-1998Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different precipitation routes leading to (YbxY1-x)2O3 nano-particles (with x = 0; 0.027; and 0.31) were compared, namely, precipitation of hydroxynitrate platelets and amorphous carbonate spherical particles. For both methods, the particle morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies of the unit cell, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy were used to check the ytterbium distribution. The precipitation of amorphous carbonate was found to produce particles with uniform morphology and homogeneous distribution of ytterbium, while hydroxide precipitation favours the formation of hard and dense ytterbium-rich agglomerates. These differences are discussed in terms of precipitation, growth and agglomeration behaviour. The sinterability of both resulting powders is also discussed

  • 21.
    Ojuva, Arto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry.
    Järveläinen, Matti
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Bauer, Marcus
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Keskinen, Lassi
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Valkonen, Masi
    Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Levänen, Erkki
    Group of Tribology and Machine Elements, Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Mechanical performance and CO2 uptake of ion-exchanged zeolite A structured by freeze-casting2015Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 35, nr 9, s. 2607-2618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zeolite 4A has been freeze-cast into highly porous monoliths with a cylindrical shape. The brittle monoliths, with lamellar or columnar pores and wall thicknesses between 8 and 35 μm, show a compressive mechanical response along the main pore axis that could be modeled by a buckling behavior. The failure strength is proportional to the density and the amount of transverse bridging across lamella, which was shown to be related to the pore cross-sectional aspect ratio. Monoliths with highly anisotropic pores with a cross-sectional aspect ratio higher than 3 yielded sequentially from the top surface, whereas monoliths with a pore aspect ratio lower than 3 were found to delaminate into longitudinal splinters. The freeze-cast monoliths show a sharp gas breakthrough front with a 1:9 mixture of CO2 and N2, indicating rapid uptake kinetics of the lamellar structures.

  • 22.
    Ortolani, L.
    et al.
    CNISM and Department of Physics, University of Bologna.
    Comini, E.
    INFM-CNR Sensor Lab.
    Fazzini, P. F.
    CNISM and Department of Physics, University of Bologna.
    Ferroni, M.
    INFM-CNR Sensor Lab.
    Guidi, V.
    INFN.
    Merli, P. G.
    CNR-IMM Sezione di Bologna.
    Morandi, V.
    CNR-IMM Sezione di Bologna.
    Pozzi, G.
    CNISM and Department of Physics, University of Bologna.
    Sberveglieri, G.
    INFM-CNR Sensor Lab.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    INFM-CNR Sensor Lab and Department of Chemistry and Physics for Engineering and Materials, University of Brescia.
    Electrical and holographic characterization of gold catalyzed titania-based layers2007Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 27, nr 13-15, s. 4131-4134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensing properties of titanium oxide have been tailored through doping with niobium and dispersion of nanosized Au particles. The microstructural features of the gold-titania composite system were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and the electronic properties of Au nanoparticles were specifically investigated by electron holography. Holography provides quantitative determination of the mean inner potential with the high spatial resolution attained by transmission electron microscopy. Large increase of the mean inner potential has been measured for ultra small Au particles arising from the nano-scale assembling. Electrical tests were performed at low operating temperatures and demonstrated the considerable enhancement of CO sensitivity owing to the extremely high catalytic activity of gold particles. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Osso, D.
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines.
    Tillement, O.
    Ecole des Mines.
    Mocellin, A.
    Ecole des Mines.
    Caer, G. Le
    Ecole des Mines.
    Babushkin, O.
    Lindbäck, Ture
    Mechanical-thermal synthesis of Al2O3-Cr composite powders1995Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 15, nr 12, s. 1207-1212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different approaches have been investigated to synthesize alumina-chromium composites by displacement reactions between aluminium and chromia. The reactions have been performed either by pure mechanosynthesis or pure thermal ignition or also by a combined mechanical and thermal activation process. Differential thermal analysis, dilatometry and high temperature X-ray diffraction have been used to show the various reaction mechanisms and chemical transformations. High-energy milling of the powder modifies the reactivity of the system. A partial pre-milling treatment not only reduces the reaction temperature but can also induce a different reaction path. It has been shown that an appropriate mechanical-thermal treatment leads to the synthesis of an alumina-chromia composite by a pure solid-state process: intermediate reaction stages exhibit little if any liquid phases.

  • 24.
    Ratko, A.
    et al.
    Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry.
    Babushkin, O.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Baran, A.
    Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry.
    Baran, S.
    Pharmec Ltd.
    Sorption and gas sensitive properties of In2O3 based ceramics doped with Ga2O31998Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 18, nr 14, s. 2227-2232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of structure formation in In2O3 based ceramics doped with Ga2O3 was investigated. The data obtained demonstrated the profound influence of Ga-dopands both on the crystallization path of solids produced by coprecipitation and on their final physical and electrical properties. The limited solubility of Ga2O3 dopands in cubic In2O3 lattice which lies within the 11-12 wt% was also noted. Ga2O3-dopands caused the formation of a porous structure in the In2O3-based ceramics, providing an active interaction surface in the semiconductor for reducing gases. Ga-doped ceramics demonstrated better gas sensor properties then pure In2O3.

  • 25.
    Stjernberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Ion, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Nordin, Lars-Olof
    LKAB.
    Lindblom, Bo
    LKAB.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Division of Nanostructured Materials.
    Extended studies of degradation mechanisms in the refractory lining of a rotary kiln for iron ore pellet production2012Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 1519-1528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes, over a period of 8 years, in the chemical composition and morphology of deposit and lining materials in a production rotary kiln for iron ore pellet manufacture are described. The following have been studied: two types of refractory brick used as lining material; deposited chunk materials from the lining; the interaction zones between deposits and linings. Morphological changes at the deposit/lining interface, and the active chemical reactions, are established. Larger hematite grains in the deposit material (5–50 μm) primarily remain at the original deposit/lining interface. The remainder penetrates fissures, voids and brick joints, forms a laminar structure with corundum from the bricks, and migrates in grains in the lining material. Potassium penetrates more deeply into the bricks than hematite, resulting in the formation of kalsilite, leucite and potassium β-alumina, which contribute to degradation of the lining.

  • 26.
    Sørensen, Bent F.
    et al.
    Materials Department, Risø National Laboratory.
    Talreja, Ramesh
    Toughness of damage tolerant continuous fibre reinforced ceramic matrix composites1995Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 15, nr 11, s. 1047-1059Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple shear-lag model is used to estimate the toughness of a unidirectional fibre reinfored ceramic matrix composite. In the model, which includes the residual axial stresses, the stress transfer across the fibre/matrix interface is by a constant shear stress. The estimates from the model are compared to experimental measurements for four composites and good agreement is found. The effects of distributed and localized energy uptake on fracture stability are discussed, and it is concluded that for most applications the toughness, rather than the pull-out energy absorption, should be maximized

  • 27.
    Vomacka, P.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Influence of ZrO2 addition on the crystallization of yttrium oxynitride glasses to Y3Al5O12-based glass-ceramics1997Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 615-621Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of a ZrO2 addition (6 wt%) on the crystallization behaviour of a glass with potential for crystallization to Y3Al5O12-based glass-ceramics has been investigated. Differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the crystallization process. Vickers hardness was used to monitor changes in the crystallized volume fraction at different heat treatment temperatures. The results indicate that the addition of ZrO2 to the investigated glass composition promotes the formation of the y- Y2Si2O7 and inhibits the crystallization of the Y3Al5O12 phase

  • 28.
    Vomacka, P.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Babushkin, O.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Crystallization of Y3Al5O12 from an Oxynitride Glass Monitored by High-Temperature X-Ray Diffractometry1996Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1263-1269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that the glassy phase in a β-SiAlON material, with addition of Y2O3, can be crystallized to yttrium aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12-YAG) by a post-sintering heat treatment. The crystallization of the YAG phase from an oxynitride glass with composition 46·1 wt% Y2O3, 26·3 wt% Al2O3, 21·6 wt% SiO2 and wt% Si3N4 was studied by means of high-temperature X-ray diffractometry. The kinetics of the crystallization were monitored in terms of the (420)) YAG peak area versus isothermal soaking time at 1150 °C during different heat treatments. The crystallization of the YAG phase was found to proceed as a surface crystallization. The results are relevant to developing improved crystallization treatments for glasses with potential for crystallization to YAG-based glass-ceramics and for heat treatments of YAG/β-SiAlON materials

  • 29.
    Vomacka, P.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Babushkin, O.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Yttria-alumina-silica glasses with addition of zirconia1995Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 15, nr 9, s. 921-928Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrO2-free glasses and glasses containing ZrO2 in the system Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 have been investigated. Properties of compositions fired in nitrogen at 1600, 1650 and 1700 °C have been assessed. The solubility limit of ZrO2 in yttrium aluminosilicate liquids with a high content of Y2O3 at 1700 °C was determined to be 6 wt%. The hardness and density of the ZrO2-containing glasses were slightly increased compared to the ZrO2-free glass; y- Y2Si2O7 (at temperatures < 1300 °C) and β- Y2Si2O7 (at temperatures >1300 °C) monoclinic phases are the main products formed during the crystallization. An unidentified intermediate phase rich in Y, Al and Si was observed to undergo a transformation at temperatures ≥1200 °C resulting in the formation of the β-Y2Si2O7 phase.

  • 30. Vomacka, P.
    et al.
    Babushkin, O.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Warren, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Zirconia as a nucleating agent in a yttria-alumina-silica glass1995Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 15, nr 11, s. 1111-1117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystallization behaviour of a ZrO2-containing glass and a ZrO2-free glass in the Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system prepared at 1700°C were compared in order to study the influence of ZrO2 on the nucleation and growth processes. Techniques used included SEM, DTA and XRD analysis. The microstructural development of the ZrO2-containing material during crystallization was more complex than that of the ZrO2-free material. In the crystallization treatments no phase separation prior to crystallization could be observed and no precursor crystalline phase was observed to form in the ZrO2-containing glass. Thus the added zirconia could be considered to act as a growth modifier rather than a catalyst nucleating agent.

  • 31.
    Vomacka, P.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ramesh, R.
    University of Limerick.
    Hampshire, S.
    University of Limerick.
    Influence of Zirconia Addition on the Crystallization Kinetics of a Y-Si-Al-O-N Glass1996Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1253-1262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystallization behaviour of YSiAlON glasses with and without ZrO2 additives, prepared by melting at 1700 °C, were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, scanning microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The optimum nucleation temperatures were determined to be Tg + 65°C and Tg + 50 °C for the ZrO2-free and the ZrO2-containing glass, respectively. The crystallization of the glasses was found to be dominated by the surface mechanism of nucleation and growth. The added zirconia acted as a growth modifier rather than a nucleating agent.

  • 32.
    Vomacka, P.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wilkinson, D.S.
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.
    Influence of ZrO2 Addition on Melting Kinetics of a YSiAlO Glass-Ceramic1996Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1245-1251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A ZrO2-free YSiAlO glass of composition 27Y: 42Si:31Al in equivalent % and one with the addition of wt% ZrO2 were prepared in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1700 °C. These glasses were treated in a nitrogen atmosphere at a controlled rate, during which the glass partially crystallizes to form a glass-ceramic. Under continued heating melting occurs. This behaviour was monitored by differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The original dendritic appearance of the crystallized microstructures changed to a blocky one in the early stages of the melting process. The ZrO2 addition was found to increase the kinetics of the phase transformations occurring during the melting.

  • 33.
    Westman, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Forsberg, Stefan
    Avdelningen för oorganisk kemi, Umeå universitet.
    Larker, Hans T.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Chemical reactions in the system Si3N4-SiO2-B2O31998Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 633-640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical interactions in the system of silicon nitride with borosilicate glass have been studied as part of an evaluation of glass encapsulated HIP. Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict the thermodynamically stable phases under conditions reflecting different stages in a HIP-cycle. Experimental studies were made on heat treated mixtures of the silicon nitride and the silicate glass. These samples were evaluated with X-ray diffraction. At temperatures commonly used for densification, the system reacted to BN and Si2N2O in agreement with the theoretical calculations. At typical temperatures for pressure application no chemical reactions could be detected but the theoretical calculations showed that BN and, for larger amount of silicon nitride, also silicon oxynitride were stable. Minor amounts of the phases may have formed or non-equilibrium conditions could be explanations for the absence of the expected phases

  • 34. Westman, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Larker, Hans T.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Interaction of encapsulation glass and silicon nitride ceramic during HIPing1999Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 19, nr 16, s. 2739-2746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction between ceramic compacts and the encapsulation glass during the HIP process has been studied in a model system of silicon nitride and borosilicate glass. Attention has been focused on what happens when the pressure is first applied in the HIP-cycle, i.e. between about 1200 and 1500°C. At this stage the pore system of the ceramic green body is still rather unaffected by sintering. The model system was characterised to evaluate a possible viscous flow of glass into the green body. Two glass compositions, one with high and one with low viscosity, were used, measurements being made of their viscosity and their contact angle on the nitride. Applying Darcy's law it was predicted that the encapsulation glass with the lowest viscosity should penetrate about 1200 microns into the still open pore structure at 1450°C, but this was not observed experimentally. In the calculations no chemical reactions were assumed to take place. However, increases in hardness of heat-treated mixture of glass and silicon nitride powder indicates that nitrogen dissolves in the glass. It is known that nitrogen increases the viscosity of the glass and this would result in a more limited glass intrusion. After HIP the surface region of the dense ceramic exhibited a phase composition gradient of silicon oxynitride, down to approximately 100-200 microns into the bulk

  • 35. Westman, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Swain, M.V.
    CSIRO, Division of Applied Physics, Lindfield.
    Bell, T.J.
    CSIRO, Division of Applied Physics, Lindfield.
    Bendeli, A.
    CSIRO, Division of Applied Physics, Lindfield.
    Ultra-micro indentation technique used for examination of mechanical properties close to a HIPed surface of silicon nitride1998Inngår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 18, nr 7, s. 879-890Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-micro indentation using both pointed and spherical tipped indenters has been used to characterize mechanical properties of silicon nitride densified by glass encapsulated hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Young's modulus and hardness have been studied as a function of distance to the interface between silicon nitride and the encapsulation glass. The Young's modulus values are 10 to 20% lower in the close vicinity of the silicon nitride surface compared to bulk values. At distances of 75 to 150 microns from the glass-silicon nitride interface, bulk values are measured. The differences in hardness values between the region close to the surface and the bulk is less pronounced. A possible explanation for these gradients is formation of new phases at the surface of the silicon nitride. Routines for the calibration of both the pointed and spherical tipped indenters are presented

1 - 35 of 35
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf