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  • 1.
    Bakshi, S. Das
    et al.
    Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge.
    Leiro, Alejandro
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.
    Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge.
    Dry rolling/sliding wear of nanostructured pearlite2015In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 31, no 14, p. 1735-1744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dry rolling-sliding wear behaviour of pearlite that has an interlamellar spacing of just 85 nm has been characterised. Its wear resistance is found to be comparable to that of much harder bainitic steels. Microstructural observations indicate that there is substantial plastic deformation of both ferrite and cementite components of pearlite in the vicinity of the wear surface. Plasticity is not expected from Hertzian analysis that assumes a smooth contact surface. Instead, it is likely to be a consequence of exaggerated stresses due to surface roughness. The material remains ductile to shear strains in the order of 4. Diffraction data indicate that the coherent domain size is reduced to about half the interlamellar spacing and that some of the cementite may dissolve and contribute to the expansion of the lattice parameter of ferrite

  • 2.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Borasi, Luciano
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mücklich, Frank
    University of Saarland .
    Process Control Maps to Design an Ultra-High Strength-Ductile Steel2019In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos
    et al.
    National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Department of Physical Metallurgy, Madrid, Spain.
    Sourmail, Thomas
    Ascometal-CREAS (Research Centre) Metallurgy, Hagondange cedex, France.
    Caballero, Francisca García
    Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Smanio, Véronique
    Ascometal-CREAS (Research Centre) Metallurgy, Hagondange cedex, France.
    Kuntz, Matthias
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Materials and Process Engineering, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Ziegler, C.
    ALD Vacuum Technology GmbH, Hanau, Germany.
    Leiro, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Elvira, Roberto
    Gerdau IzD, S. A. Barrio Ugarte, Basauri, Spain.
    Teeri, T.
    Metso Minerals Oy, Tampere, Finland.
    Nanostructured steel industrialisation: Plausible reality2014In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 1071-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not the first time that a consortium of steel makers, end users and scientists end up with unique approaches and developments in the physical metallurgy of steels. The present paper reveals the scientific and technological developments of a consortium sharing a common intrigue and interest for a unique microstructure, nanostructured bainite. Also known as low temperature bainite, its unique properties rely solely on the scale of the miscrostructure obtained by heat treatment at low temperature (150-350°C). Careful design based on phase transformation theory, some well known metallurgy facts and the necessary industrial experience were the ingredients for a further step towards the industrialisation of these microstructures.

  • 4.
    Ion, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Computer modelling of weld-implant testing1985In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 405-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical model is developed for determining the optimum notch position in an implant test used for predicting the susceptibility to hydrogen cracking during welding. Using a microcomputer for processing the equations for weld-bead geometry and heat flow during welding, a microstructural cross-section, with the notch positioned at the center of the grain-growth zone, and an implant testing diagram, showing the notch position and microstructure as a function of welding parameters, can be generated. A single bead-on-plate weld is used to determine the unknown kinetic and geometrical constants in the equations. It is shown that notch position is very sensitive to the type of welding process employed and that implant diagrams thus can be used to position the notch with greater reliability and hence reduce the scatter in the fracture loads measured in this test

  • 5. Ion, John
    et al.
    Moisio, T.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Paju, M.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Johansson, J.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Laser transformation hardening of low alloy hypoeutectoid steel1992In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 799-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principles of laser transformation hardening were investigated using a low alloy special steel having a microstructure of pearlite and proeutectoid ferrite. Temperature fields and phase transformations were modelled. Particular attention was paid to increases of the Ac1 and Ac3 transformation temperatures owing to the rapid thermal cycles produced by laser heating. Dissolution of proeutectoid ferrite is shown to control the formation of a homogeneous hardened case. Experimental data are in good agreement with the predictions of the model. A diagram was constructed which describes the case geometry and microstructure in terms of the process variables and is an aid to optimising practical processing parameters. The models are flexible and may be used for laser transformation hardening of other ferrous alloys having inhomogeneous microstructures.

  • 6.
    Navara, E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Li, C.-H.
    Center for Solid State Science, Arizona State University.
    Smith, D.J.
    Center for Solid State Science, Arizona State University.
    Investigation of microstructural changes occurring during warm working of manganese partitioned dual phase steel1990In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from studies using transmission and high resolution electron microscopy of as-received and warm worked manganese partitioned dual phase steel. A growing manganese enriched austenite grain shares two different boundaries with ferrite: (a) a stationary coherent boundary, replacing a stretch of the original ferrite/ferrite boundary, and (b) a migrating non-coherent boundary. This finding gives support to a previously described mechanism of the nucleation and growth of the manganese enriched austenite. The structure of the warm worked steel consists of recovered ferrite strengthened by substructure, and fine martensitic lathes separated by low angle boundaries which resulted from the transformation of deformed non-recrystallised austenite grains

  • 7.
    Navara, Eric
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bengtsson, B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Austenite formation in manganese-partitioning dual-phase steel1986In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1196-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manganese-containing ferritic-pearlitic steels have been studied after intercritical annealing for various times at temperatures of 700 and 725 degree C, during which austenite formation occurred at ferrite grain boundaries. Light and electron optical microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microanalysis and microdiffraction were employed for the study, in which both microstructural development and manganese redistribution were examined in detail. It was observed that the formation of austenite is associated initially with a migration of ferrite grain boundaries. It is proposed that this boundary migration is induced by manganese diffusion along the boundaries, and that this in turn provides the mechanism for rapidly transporting manganese to the growing austenite. On this basis, we find that austenite formation in these steels is associated with manganese-rich migrated ferrite boundaries, and is not dependent on the presence of cementite particles for nucleation

  • 8.
    Pederson, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Babushkin, Oleg
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Skystedt, F
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Materials Technology.
    Warren, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Use of high temperature X-ray diffractometry to study phase transitions and thermal expansion properties in Ti-6Al-4V2003In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1533-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase transitions in Ti-6Al-4V were studied by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction using at resistance heated furnace in high vacuum and Cu Kα radiation. The α and β phases could, be opened conveniently using the (10.0), (00.2) and (10.1) peaks of the a structure and the (110) peak of the β. The phase composition of the specimen at selected times and temperatures was determined from spectra recorded in the range 32-45° (θ), the scan time being ≈ 8 min. The technique was successfully used to monitor the kinetics of the α-β transition during heating and the β-α transition during cooling, including the transformation kinetics during isothermal holds. Measurements of the interplanar distance change with temperature for the crystallographic planes of α and β phases enabled derivation of the overall thermal expansion for the alloy using a rule of mixtures

  • 9. Ringer, S.P.
    et al.
    Kuziak, R.P.
    Easterling, K.E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Liquid film simulation of Zener grain boundary pinning by second phase particles1991In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometry of the interaction of second phase particles with migrating grain boundaries has been studied using a liquid film simulation. The geometries observed show that the perimeter of intersection between boundary and particle can be complex, often not lying in a single plane through the particle. The curvature of the boundary when in contact with the particle is also complex, sometimes displaying double curvature and often of opposite sign. These observations have been used to modify previous calculations quantifying the grain boundary pinning effect. Measurements from the photographs of these interactions have been applied to a force equilibrium approach for calculating the pinning force and these results are found to be in good agreement with values obtained using an energy analysis based on grain boundary shape change

  • 10.
    Solimanjad, N.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Die wall friction and influence of some process parameters on friction in iron powder compaction2003In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 1777-1782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coefficient of friction is a system response parameter, which is affected by a number of parameters such as normal load and sliding distance. Experimental results describing the influence of these parameters are presented in this study. These parameters have a crucial role in the modelling of the compaction process and also provide an in depth understanding of the mechanism of friction in powder compaction. The powder surface characteristics change continuously during the pressing, making friction measurement quite difficult. An attempt has been made to identify and separate the powder behaviour during compaction. The experimental results show that the plastic deformation of the surface in contact with the die wall occurs at an early stage of the compacting. At densities above 5 g cm3 the plastic deformation is completed and the variation of the coefficient of friction is minimal. It has been observed that most changes of the powder surface occur at low densities. The nature of the friction has also been discussed.

  • 11.
    Sourmail, Thomas
    et al.
    Ascometal-CREAS (Research Centre) Metallurgy, BP 70045, Hagondange cedex 57301.
    Caballero, Francisca García
    Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Madrid.
    García-Mateo, Carlos
    Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Madrid.
    Smanio, Véronique
    Ascometal-CREAS (Research Centre) Metallurgy, BP 70045, Hagondange cedex 57301.
    Ziegler, C.
    ALD Vacuum Technology GmbH, Wilhelm Rohn Str. 35, Hanau.
    Kuntz, Matthias
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Materials and Process Engineering, PO Box 300240, Stuttgart.
    Elvira, Roberto
    Gerdau IzD, S. A. Barrio Ugarte, Basauri.
    Leiro, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Teeri, T.
    Metso Minerals Oy, PO Box 237, Tampere.
    Evaluation of potential of high Si high C steel nanostructured bainite for wear and fatigue applications2013In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1166-1173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is concerned with the potential of high carbon, high silicon steel grades isothermally transformed to bainite at low temperature (

  • 12.
    Strid, J.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Porter, D.A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Microstructure and plasticity of An Al-Al/6Fe directionally solidified eutectic alloy1985In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 161-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure and plasticity of a directionally solidified Al-Al//6Fe eutectic alloy was investigated using quantitative STEM-EDX microanalysis, in situ tensile testing in STEM/SEM, and light/electron optical studies of microstructure before and following drawing and extrusion to wire. It is found that in spite of the brittle nature of the aligned Al//6Fe rods, the alloy as a whole is relatively ductile and can even be drawn or extruded to wire. In the deformed condition the Al//6Fe rods are broken up and the fragmens distributed uniformly throughout the aluminum matrix. The tensile strength and ductility of these drawn wires are good, 400 MN m** minus **2 and 83% area reduction, respectively. Microanalysis studies show that the iron content of the aluminum matrix following solidification is 0. 04 at. %, corresponding to an undercooling of approx. 3 K below the eutectic temperature. The iron content of the matrix can be reduced further by precipitation treatments.

  • 13.
    Vishnu, P. Ravi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Li, W.B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Heat flow model for pulsed welding1991In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 649-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical model of the heat flow during pulsed welding is constructed by first developing a solution for the temperature distribution due to an instantaneous, stationary, Gaussian heat source. This solution is first extended to treat the case of a moving heat source for a single pulse and then extended to treat the case of pulsed welding by summing the temperature changes due to a series of pulses. Test gas tungsten arc welds in mild steel are used to confirm the validity of the model.

  • 14.
    Wei, L.Y.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Dunlop, G.L.
    CRC for Alloy and Solidification Technology (CAST), Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Queensland.
    Westengen, H.
    Norsk Hydro a.s., Research Centre Porsgrunn.
    Development of microstructure in cast Mg-Al-rare earth alloys1996In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 741-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructures and age hardening behaviors of a series of Mg-Al-rare earth (RE) alloys that had been either pressure die cast or permanent mold cast were investigated by SEM and analytical TEM. Two types of phases, Al sub 4 MM and Al sub 12 Mg sub 17 , were found in the as cast alloys and no pseudoternary Mg-Al-RE phases were present. The Al sub 4 MM phase was thermally stable during solution treatment at temperatures as high as 500 deg C, whereas Al sub 12 Mg sub 17 partially dissolved in the alpha -Mg matrix during solution treatment at 420 deg C. No rare earth containing precipitates formed during heat treatment of the investigated alloys but two types of Al sub 12 Mg sub 17 precipitation took place. Colonies of discontinuous precipitation containing alternate lamellae of alpha -Mg and Al sub 12 Mg sub 17 formed preferentially in regions of alpha -Mg with high Al content. Spheroidization and coarsening of the discontinuous precipitates occured after aging at 200 deg C. Continuous precipitation of Al sub 12 Mg sub 17 also occurred and these precipitates had a rodlike morphology and grew in preferred crystallographic directions

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