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  • 1.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.
    Processing, microstructure, properties and wear behavior of in situ synthesized TiB 2 and TiC thick films on steel substrates2007In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 201, no 24, p. 9603-9609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiB2 and TiC reinforced Fe matrix thick films (2 mm thickness) were produced through the synthesis reaction from Ti, C and FeB powders with varying porosity on the steel substrates. Powder technology was used as a processing method. The films and the substrates were sintered in a single step. TiB2, TiC and Fe were detected in the films by X-ray diffraction analysis. The fact that no other reaction product was detected revealed the thermal stability of TiB2 and TiC. The formation of secondary reaction products was inhibited during the reactive sintering. The films showed maximum strength of 163–466 MPa when sintered separately at 1350 °C. The strength of the films varied with their porosity. The films showed considerable bonding strength with the steel substrates. The delamination of the films from the steel substrates was observed at stress values from 454–781 MPa. The microstructure, fracture and delaminated surface morphologies were studied. The wear resistance against hardened high speed steel was studied in reciprocating sliding tests. The wear mechanisms were discussed by means of microscopical observation on the worn surfaces

  • 2.
    Arman, S.Y.
    et al.
    Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology.
    Omidvar, H.
    Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology.
    Tabaian, S.H.
    Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology.
    Sajjadnejad, M.
    Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology.
    Fouladvand, Shahpar
    Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology.
    Afshar, Sh.
    Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology.
    Evaluation of nanostructured S-doped TiO2 thin films and their photoelectrochemical application as photoanode for corrosion protection of 304 stainless steel2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 251, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undoped and S-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared on titanium substrate through a sol–gel method. The photoelectrochemical behavior of S-doped TiO2 thin film (as photoanode) was studied. The effect of Sulfur doping on structural, optical and morphological properties of TiO2 was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), FT-IR, UV–ViS and FE-SEM. Superiority of the S-doped TiO2 film was shown through taking advantage of linear sweep voltametry measurement, open-circuit potential of 304 stainless steel as well as potetiodynamic polarization technique. Results showed that S-doped TiO2 thin film is an efficient photoanode with long term stability (several hours).

  • 3.
    Da Silva, Adrien
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Frostevarg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander F.H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Thermal monitoring for directed energy deposition of stainless steel, bronze, and cobalt-based alloy2022In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 451, article id 129078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser cladding and Directed Energy Deposition are two related processes that allow the deposition of specific surface coatings and the production of additively manufactured parts. In both processes, the selection of optimised parameters results in the deposition of high-density material with low dilution. However, the thermal and geometrical conditions constantly change during the process and the parameters need to be continually adapted in order to avoid defects or poor properties. In this context, the development of closed-loop monitoring systems is crucial in order to widen the field of possible applications towards more complexity, with a more stable process and higher materials properties. In this research, the possibility of thermal monitoring with middle-wave and long-wave infra-red cameras is investigated for Directed Energy Deposition of 316L, Stellite 21 and CuSn10. The melt pool length and the cooling rate are extracted from thermal imaging while the laser power was varied, and these results are compared to the materials properties of the deposited tracks. The main results show that an increase of melt pool length results in a decrease of porosity and an increase of dilution, which induces a change of hardness. The melt pool length can be regulated by adjusting the laser power in order to keep both the porosity and the dilution within acceptable values.

  • 4.
    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel
    et al.
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Atchudan, Raji
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Namachivayam, Karthik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Chandrasekaran, Pitchai
    Department of Chemistry, The Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram, 624 302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Perumal, Suguna
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Arunachalam, Prabhakarn
    Electrochemical Sciences Research Chair (ESRC), Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Raja, Pandian Bothi
    School of Science and Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia.
    Gopalakrishnan Sethuraman, Mathur
    Department of Chemistry, The Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram, 624 302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Lee, Yong Rok
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Electrochemically exfoliated graphene sheets as electrode material for aqueous symmetric supercapacitors2021In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 416, article id 127150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we have demonstrated a prompt anodic electrochemical exfoliation of graphite into graphene sheets (GS) in aqueous media. For the synthesis of GS, a constant potential of +10 V has been applied between two identical graphite sheets in 0.1 M aqueous ammonium sulfate. The exfoliated GS were characterized via standard analytical tools such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrum (FE-SEM with EDS). Further, the electrochemical performance of GS coated Ni foam (GS/Ni foam) was assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in 2 M KOH. The quasi-rectangular shaped voltammograms and charge-discharge curves in a three-electrode system evidenced the double-layer capacitance of GS and GS/Ni foam which exhibited maximum specific capacitance of 84.8 and 40. 8 F/g at 2 mV/s, and 0.1 A/g of current density, respectively. Moreover, the symmetric two-electrode performance of GS/Ni foam was also examined, which showed good energy density (3.03 Wh/kg) and power density (562.5 W/kg). This study proves that the anodically exfoliated GS can act as a good symmetric supercapacitor in KOH.

  • 5.
    Gunnars, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Alahelisten, A.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Thermal stresses in diamond coatings and their influence on coating wear and failure1996In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 303-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal stresses in diamond coatings deposited onto cemented carbide substrates are calculated using the finite element method. The thermo-elastic stress fields for some coating-substrate geometries are presented. The results are compared with experimental data on the tribological behaviour of diamond coatings. Residual stresses can explain many of the observed patterns of coating wear and failure. A model for the abrasive wear of brittle coatings under large compressive biaxial stresses is described. These stresses prevent cracks initiated at the surface to propagate towards the interface and may promote crack paths parallel to the interface, thus causing the formation of a smooth coating surface. Once the smooth appearance is reached it will become extremely hard to initiate and propagate cracks into the coating and consequently the wear rate becomes very low. Thus, large compressive residual stresses increase the already high wear resistance of diamond coatings. When diamond coatings are deposited onto substrate edges, intense concentrations of normal and shear stresses may lead to coating failure by interfacial spalling. These stresses are lowered by increasing the ratio r/h, where r is the edge radius and h is the coating thickness.

  • 6.
    Hörling, A
    et al.
    Linköping universitet.
    Hultman, L.
    Linköping universitet.
    Odén, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sjölén, J.
    SECO Tools, Fagersta.
    Karlsson, L.
    SECO Tools, Fagersta.
    Mechanical properties and machining performance of Ti1-x AlxN-coated cutting tools2005In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 191, no 2-3, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties and machining performance of Ti1−xAlxN-coated cutting tools have been investigated. Processing by arc evaporation using cathodes with a range of compositions was performed to obtain coatings with compositions x=0, x=0.25, x=0.33, x=0.50, x=0.66 and x=0.74. As-deposited coatings with x≤0.66 had metastable cubic structures, whereas x=0.74 yielded two-phase coatings consisting of cubic and hexagonal structures. The as-deposited and isothermally annealed coatings were characterised by nanoindentation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Cutting tests revealing tool wear mechanisms were also performed. Results show that the Al content, x, promotes a (200) preferred crystallographic orientation and has a large influence on the hardness of as-deposited coatings. The high hardness (37 GPa) and texture of the as-deposited Ti1−xAlxN coatings are retained for annealing temperatures up to 950 °C, which indicates a superior stability of this system compared to TiN and Ti(C,N) coatings. We propose that competing mechanisms are responsible for the effectively constant hardness: softening by residual stress relaxation through lattice defect annihilation is balanced by hardening from formation of a coherent nanocomposite structure of c-TiN and c-AlN domains by spinodal decomposition. This example of secondary-phase transformation (age-) hardening is proposed as a new route for advanced surface engineering, and for the development of future generation hard coatings.

  • 7.
    Makarova, Irina
    et al.
    Chemical Technology and Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Technology of Electrochemical Production and Electronic Engineering Materials, Belarusian State Technological University, Minsk, Belarus. Department of Separation and Purification, School of Engineering Science, LUT University, Finland.
    Dobryden, Illia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Surface and Corrosion Science Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kharitonov, Dmitry
    Chemical Technology and Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Technology of Electrochemical Production and Electronic Engineering Materials, Belarusian State Technological University, Sverdlova str. 13a, 220006, Minsk, Belarus. Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry of Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.
    Kasach, Aliaksandr
    Chemical Technology and Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Technology of Electrochemical Production and Electronic Engineering Materials, Belarusian State Technological University, Minsk, Belarus.
    Ryl, Jacek
    Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Materials Engineering, Gdansk, Poland.
    Repo, Eveliina
    Department of Separation and Purification, School of Engineering Science, LUT University, Finland.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Nickel-nanodiamond coatings electrodeposited from tartrate electrolyte at ambient temperature2019In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 380, article id 125063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, nanocrystalline Ni and Ni-diamond coatings were obtained by electrodeposition from tartrate electrolyte at ambient temperature aiming at improving corrosion and wear properties of the material. The created surfaces were investigated with regard to microhardness, adhesion, wear- and corrosion-resistance. The various methods such as atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear polarization technique were applied to study the coating surface properties. The introduction of nanodiamond particles into the coating led to a rougher surface structure and a bigger grain size in comparison to bare nickel coating. Our study shows that the addition of 5·10−2 (g dm−3) of nanodiamonds to the plating bath is enough to obtain composite coatings with a clear increase in microhardness and wear resistance. The slightly improved corrosion resistance of the coating, decrease in corrosion current density from 0.41 to 0.14 μA cm−2 in neutral chloride-containing medium, and nobler values of the corrosion potential were also observed.

  • 8.
    Rubel, M.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Association EURATOM-NFR, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franconi, E.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Association EURATOM-NFR, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Royal Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Association EURATOM-NFR, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Emmoth, B.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Association EURATOM-NFR, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brossa, F.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Association EURATOM-NFR, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Behavior of SiC-Al coatings upon high dose irradiation with deuterium and helium ions1994In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-SiC coatings obtained by vacuum plasma spraying co-deposition are considered as a new class of plasma-facing materials (PFMs) for fusion devices. The technical requirements for PFMs are stringent, since they have to withstand severe operation conditions, including bombardment by high fluxes of particles escaping the plasma. A number of Al-SiC coatings (containing 20 or 50wt.% SiC) deposited on Cu, stainless steel or graphite substrates were irradiated under laboratory conditions with high doses of deuterium or He ions. The surface properties of the materials were characterized before and after irradiation using several analytical techniques (Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, microscopic methods and laser profilometry). Exposure to low-energy deuterium ions or deuterium plasma resulted in the implantation of 7-9 × 1016 D cm-2 in the near-surface layer. The initial steps of blister formation were also observed. Changes in the surface structure were noted following irradiation with 5He+ ions (1.7-2 MeV). Damage in the surface layer of the materials was dependent on the ion flux.

  • 9.
    Sundqvist, Jesper
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Manninen, Timo
    Outokumpu Stainless Oy.
    Heikkinen, Hannu-Pekka
    Outokumpu Stainless Oy.
    Anttila, Severi
    Materials and Production Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Laser surface hardening of 11% Cr ferritic stainless steel and its sensitisation behaviour2018In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 344, p. 673-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    11% Cr ferritic stainless steel conforming to EN 1.4003 standard was surface hardened by a continuous-wave fibre laser beam. Both single-pass and multi-pass laser hardening was investigated. Different laser parameters were compared and their influence on hardness, microstructure, geometry of the hardened zone and sensitisation was investigated, especially for overlapping passes. The experiments showed that a surface hardness which is double that of the base material hardness was obtainable via martensitic phase transformation and high cooling rate, in spite of the low carbon and nitrogen content. This behaviour could be predicted from the chemical composition using the Kaltenhauser Ferrite Factor. Hardening at higher power levels gives more coarse-grained lath martensite but does not increase the hardness. Sensitisation was not a problem in single-pass hardening. However, the production of overlapping tracks could be detrimental to corrosion resistance in 11% Cr steel due to the formation of chromium carbides and nitrides.

  • 10.
    Torres, Hector
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements. AC2T Research GmbH.
    Slawik, Sebastian
    Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
    Gachot, Carsten
    Technische Universität Wien, Department of Engineering Design and Logistics Engineering, Vienna.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Rodríguez Ripoll, Manel
    AC2T research GmbH.
    Microstructural design of self-lubricating laser claddings for use in high temperature sliding applications2018In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 337, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel-based self-lubricating claddings with the addition of Ag and MoS2 were prepared by means of laser cladding on stainless steel substrates, aiming at their implementation in metal forming applications involving demanding tribological conditions at high temperatures. The novelty of this approach is the addition of MoS2 with the aim to achieve a uniform silver distribution within the resulting cladding by means of an encapsulation mechanism. This prevents it from floating to the surface during the deposition process and thus being subsequently lost during surface preparation. The role of Ag and MoS2 concentration on the encapsulation process is discussed in terms of phase composition and resulting microstructures. The tribological behaviour of the resulting laser claddings was evaluated at up to 600 °C under unidirectional sliding. The encapsulation of Ag leads to outstanding tribological properties while keeping the concentration of used Ag low, thus increasing the economic viability of the claddings. An improvement in terms of both friction and wear was observed for the self-lubricating claddings compared to the nickel-based reference alloy, thus making them good candidates for use in high temperature applications such as hot metal forming.

  • 11.
    Yalamanchili, K.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE 58183 Linköping, Sweden; Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Center for Research in Nanoengineering, CRnE-UPC Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Jiménez-Piqué, E.
    Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Center for Research in Nanoengineering, CRnE-UPC Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Pelcastre, Leonardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Bakoglidis, K.D.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE 58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Roa, J.J.
    Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Center for Research in Nanoengineering, CRnE-UPC Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Johansson Jöesaar, M.P
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE 58183 Linköping, Sweden; Seco Tools AB, SE 737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Ghafoor, N.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE 58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Odén, M.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE 58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Influence of microstructure and mechanical properties on the tribological behavior of reactive arc deposited Zr-Si-N coatings at room and high temperature2016In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 304, p. 393-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Varying the Si-content in Zr-Si-N coatings from 0.2 to 6.3 at.% causes microstructural changes from columnar to nanocomposite structure and a hardness drop from 37 to 26 GPa. The softer nanocomposite also displays lower fracture resistance. The tribological response of these coatings is investigated under different contact conditions, both at room and elevated temperatures. At room temperature tribooxidation is found to be the dominant wear mechanism, where the nanocomposite coatings display the lowest wear rate of 0.64 × 10− 5 mm3/Nm, by forming an oxide diffusion barrier layer consisting of Zr, W, and Si. A transition in the dominant wear mechanism from tribooxidation to microploughing is observed upon increasing the test temperature and contact stress. Here, all coatings exhibit significantly higher coefficient of friction of 1.4 and the hardest coatings with columnar structure display the lowest wear rate of 10.5 × 10− 5 mm3/Nm. In a microscopic wear test under the influence of contact-induced dominant elastic stress field, the coatings display wedge formation and pileup due to accumulation of the dislocation-induced plastic deformation. In these tests, the nanocomposite coatings display the lowest wear rate of 0.56 × 10− 10 mm3/Nm, by constraining the dislocation motion.

  • 12.
    Yang, J. F.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering. Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Yuan, Z. G.
    Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Wang, X. P.
    Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Fang, Q. F.
    Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Characterization of W-Ta-N hard films synthesized by direct current magnetron sputtering2013In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 231, p. 19-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    WTaN hard films with Ta/(W+Ta)=46at.% were deposited on single crystal Si (111) substrates using direct current magnetron sputtering. The effect of nitrogen partial pressure (pN2) on crystal structure, surface topography, adhesion strength, and hardness of WTaN films was investigated. With increasing pN2, the phase composition changes from pure fcc W-Ta-N phase to a mixture of fcc WTaN phase and hexagonal δ-W(Ta)N phase, and then to pure hexagonal δ-W(Ta)N phase; the average grain size decreases monotonously; the surface becomes more and more smooth; the hardness initially increases and then decreases after passing a maximum of 41GPa at pN2=0.5Pa, while the adhesion strength varies in an opposite trend to the hardness. The maximum hardness could be due to the combined effect of reduced crystallite size and the coexistence of two phases.

  • 13.
    Zhang, Hanzhu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Refractory multicomponent boron-carbide high entropy oxidation-protective coating for carbon-carbon composites2021In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 425, article id 127697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel refractory multicomponent boron-carbide coating of 300 nm thickness, HfMoTaTi-BC, was deposited on carbon-carbon composites (CCC). The coating showed a face-centred cubic (FCC) structure of lattice parameter of 0.4429 nm with an average crystallite size of 5 nm. The FCC coating transformed from single-phase solid solution into multiple ceramic carbides and boride phases at 900°C during long-term thermal stability test. The exposure of HEC coated CCC to the flame (2000°C) of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) torch for 5 minutes revealed that the film had excellent resistance to oxidation and protected the CCC material under extreme aerothermal heating.

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