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  • 1. Ion, John
    et al.
    Salminen, A.S.
    LaserPlus Oy, Riihimäki.
    Sun, Z.
    Gintic Institute of Manafacturing Technology.
    Process diagrams for laser beam welding of carbon manganese steels1996In: Welding Journal, ISSN 0043-2296, Vol. 75, no 7, p. 225-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagrams are presented which illustrate the ranges of process variables that can be used to produce acceptable laser welds in carbon manganese steels. The most practical type uses axes of beam power and welding speed. An empirical operating window is displayed, which describes the limits of full joint penetration welding for a particular steel and plate thickness. Theoretical contours of heat-affected zone (HAZ) hardness, established using analytical models, are also displayed on the diagram. Appropriate combinations of laser beam power and welding speed can thus be selected. A more comprehensive diagram uses axes of carbon equivalent and absorbed laser beam energy, on which theoretical HAZ hardness contours are displayed. The effects of changes in steel composition and welding variables on HAZ hardness can thus be assessed. Model results agree well with experimental data, as well as more sophisticated predictive methods. The diagrams provide guidance on the selection of steel composition and beam parameters during the initial stages in the development of procedures for laser welding of carbon manganese steels.

  • 2. Jonsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Simulation of tack welding procedures in butt joint welding of plates1985In: Welding Journal, ISSN 0043-2296, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 296-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of tack welding procedure on change in root opening was investigated. This change during the first part of welding depends on the order in which the tack welds are made. It is also affected by the starting position of the welding arc. These effects were studied in seven theoretical analyses - three cases where the tack welding procedures differed and four cases where the temperature fields at the beginning of the butt joint welding differed. The material investigated was a fine-grain steel with a yield stress of 360 MPa (52,200 psi) at room temperature. The filler material was ESAB 1. 2/12. 51 (AWS ER70S-6).

  • 3.
    Näsström, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Frostevarg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Arc formation in narrow gap hot wire laser welding2018In: Welding Journal, ISSN 0043-2296, Vol. 97, no 6, p. 171S-178SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many heavy industrial applications, e.g. shipbuilding and offshore, rely on thick-section, high-quality welds. Unfortunately, traditional arc-based techniques are often found wanting due to a limited penetration depth and excessive heat-affected zone. The former is typically solved by having a wide groove filled by multiple weld passes, which is both costly and time consuming. Other processes such as autonomous laser or electron beams can join thick materials, but have disadvantages such as increased hardness and solidification cracks inside the welds. A promising in-between technique to join thick sheets is narrow gap multi layer laser welding (NGMLW), using less filler material while also offering more control of weld properties. This technique is often used with laser scanning optics and cold wire, or a defocused laser and electrically heated wire. This paper investigates the limitations of the latter during NGMLW, mainly using high-speed imaging to directly observe and explain process behavior. Increased deposition rates are wanted, but heating also consequently needs to be increased for proper bead fusion. Arc occurrences are found to be the cause of instabilities. They are observed occasionally even at low voltages, but more frequently at higher outputs, and then are also more disruptive to the process.

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