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  • 1.
    Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa
    et al.
    University of Manchester.
    Thompson, G.
    University of Manchester.
    Elfström, Bengt-Olof
    The design of functional (total care) products2004In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 515-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Total care products (functional products) are integrated systems comprising hardware and support services. The functional product supplier provides all the support systems that are required to keep the hardware operable. The support systems are often referred to as 'services'. The success of total care products depends upon both hardware and services. Well established methods exist for the design of hardware. In comparison, design processes and methods for services are not so well developed. This paper is concerned with the definition and design of functional products, in particular design of services in the context of total care products. Literature from the service sector is reviewed extensively to identify the principal components of service design. The information required for the execution of each component of the process, and outputs of each component, are considered with respect to the design of total care products. Of particular interest is the customer-supplier relationship throughout the design process. The design of a total care product may involve the creation of a new service system or there may be an existing system that may be adapted or developed. Similarly, hardware may be mature or be a completely new product. There are therefore number of permutations of novelty and maturity in the hardware and service components of a new total care product. The design processes and methods employed must take into account the required degree of novelty in each component. Typically a customer will be given a guarantee of a certain level of availability of the total care product. This brings into sharp focus the reliability and maintainability of the total system. Further research directions in total care product design are identified especially related to functional reliability

  • 2.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    A design structural matrix approach displaying structural and assembly requirements in construction: a timber case study2007In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental demand of construction design is human safety from structural failure. As a consequence, buildings generally tend to be structurally optimized with cost as the main target parameter. However, a cost-suboptimized structural design often leads to poor constructability decisions with subsequent waste. This paper presents initial research in the development of a design structural matrix (DSM) method able to identify constructability obstacles between structural design and assembly and thus eliminate waste. Empirical data based on a case study of long-span timber structures is used in the development and analysis of the method. The DSM was found to be a holistic tool for systematic consideration of structural design and constructability requirements by providing a standardized system view, a detailed element view, and physical and functional interactions among elements and modules. The DSM was also shown to aid in detailed design and production management through the use of simple matrix tools.

  • 3.
    Cash, Philip J.
    et al.
    Department of Management Engineering, DTU Technical University of Denmark.
    Storga, Mario
    University of Zagreb.
    Multifaceted assessment of ideation: using networks to link ideation and design activity2015In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 26, no 10-12, p. 391-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideation is core to the innovation process, and has been the subject of study across a range of fields, from psychology to engineering. However, despite substantial progress in outcome-based descriptions of idea generation, research has often resulted in more questions than answers. For example, open questions remain with respect to the differences in behaviour related to ideation between novices and experts, the change in rates of ideation over time in different design teams, and the changing role of ideation from conceptual to detailed design. In each of these cases, robust explanation has proved elusive due to difficulties in characterising the ideation process itself. This paper discusses a major new approach for elucidating ideation and its related design processes through direct observation. A novel network visualisation approach is demonstrated in practice for the first time. This uses network analysis to link ideas dynamically to both the engineering context and the wider design process. This linking analysis gives a substantial new insight into what drives ideation and how previously inscrutable results can potentially be explained by linking ideation into other design processes.

  • 4.
    Dagman, Andreas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderberg, Rikard
    Institutionen för produkt- och produktionsutveckling, produktutveckling.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Institutionen för produkt- och produktionsutveckling, produktutveckling.
    Split-line design for given geometry and location schemes2007In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 373-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial relations between parts in an assembly can be critical for the functional and aesthetic quality of a product. In the case of the automobile, these relations can be between doors, fenders, hood, panels, and so on. Variation in these relations, caused by part and assembly variation, influences the output variation, which is what the customer sees and judges. This paper presents a computer-aided tolerancing tool that supports and improves split-line design with respect to geometrical variation. A split-line is the relation between two mating parts over a distance. The design and placement of a split-line in an automobile body are influenced by several aspects such as design language, geometrical dimensioning, crash safety, and so on. In this paper only the geometrical dimensioning aspects have been considered. The research has been carried out using simulations and analyses in a computer-aided tolerancing software. The tool presented describes a way to calculate and visualize the geometrically most robust area and split-line between two parts. The findings from the research show that it is difficult to calculate and visualize the result in flush and gap directions in the same way. The tool gives insight into how the configuration of the locating schemes influences the geometrical robustness of the design.

  • 5.
    Fellini, Ryan
    et al.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    Papalambros, Panos Y,
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Quantitative platform selection in optimal design of product families, with application to automotive engine design2006In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 429-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product variants with similar architecture but different functional requirements may have common parts. We define a product family to be a set of such products, and refer to the set of common parts as the product platform. Product platforms enable rapid adjustment to changing market needs while keeping development costs and time-cycles low. In many cases, however, the individual product requirements are conflicting when designing a product family. The designer must balance the tradeoff between maximizing commonality and minimizing individual product performance deviations. The design challenge is to select the product platform that will generate family designs with minimum deviation from individual optima. We propose a methodology that combines two previous approaches developed for making commonality decisions. In the first approach optimal values and sensitivity information from the individually optimized variants are used to indicate components that are probable candidates for sharing. In the second approach a relaxed combinatorial problem is formulated to maximize sharing among variants subject to bounds on performance reduction for the individually optimized values. In the combined methodology the first approach is used to identify an initial set of shared components and define the candidate platform to be considered by the second approach. The computational load is reduced significantly and the platform-selection problem is solved in a more robust manner. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on the design of an automotive engine family.

  • 6.
    Hoffenson, Steven
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, University of Michigan.
    Dagman, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Söderberg, Rikard
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Institutionen för produkt- och produktionsutveckling, produktutveckling.
    Tolerance optimisation considering economic and environmental sustainability2014In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 25, no 10-12, p. 367-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is becoming increasingly important in the development of new product and production solutions, and the eco-design movement stresses the importance of environmental considerations in all design phases and activities. One such design activity in the embodiment design phase of product development is the specification of dimensional tolerances, where designers seek to ensure high functionality at low costs. A traditional approach to this decision-making process is to minimise economic losses to the manufacturer and the consumer through a process known as tolerance optimisation. This paper presents a new approach for tolerance optimisation that considers sustainability not only in the context of economic costs but also environmental impacts, which are shown to be significantly affected by manufacturing and product quality. This new framework is formulated as a bi-objective optimisation problem to minimise economic and environmental costs, and important modelling considerations for these two types of costs are outlined and discussed. The proposed approach is explored using two example cases of design assemblies, which demonstrate the trade-offs between economic and environmental design objectives as a result of tolerances and other quality-related design decisions.

  • 7.
    Isaksson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Keski-Seppälä, Sven
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Eppinger, Steven D.
    MIT, Sloan School of Management.
    Evaluation of design process alternatives using signal flow graphs2000In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 211-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of new design activities into an established product development process may involve more work in the initial stages of development, yet this extra effort may reduce the need for more expensive and time-consuming redesign activities later in the project. Wehave studied a case where more intensive use of computational simulations in the early design phase means that fewer hardware tests are needed because the designs can be analytically evaluated in advance of physical testing. Total development lead time and cost can thus be significantly reduced. This paper addresses how to evaluate alternative design strategies and methods with respect to their impact on the development process time. This is achieved by analysing the design process using signal flow graphs. The technique has been applied to jet engine component development projects at Volvo Aero Corporation in Sweden. We have found that evaluating alternative processes using signal flow graphs not only is helpful to assess the effect of introduction of new or improved design activities on the development process, but also is a means to facilitate the discussion of process improvement alternatives and trade-offs for an organization.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Rönnbäck, Anna Öhrwall
    Linköping University.
    Development of product-service systems: challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing firm2009In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 329-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) raise interesting opportunities for the manufacturing firm as the function is provided to meet customer needs rather than the physical hardware itself. PSS offerings based on the manufacturer's knowledge about the product and the technology can increase its status as problem-solver and solution-provider, reduce life cycle cost and produce high revenue. However, PSS including, e.g. hardware, services, software and electronics are efficient and competitive only if developed for the specific purpose with features such as easy to maintain, upgradeable, with built-in sensors for collecting in-use and service data, and easy to use. This changes the requirements on the manufacturing firm's development process. Looking back historically, the last century gives an interesting changing landscape of the rationale for the product-development methods used in manufacturing firms. This article, based on the previous research in the product- and service-development fields, and on empirical results from studies at several manufacturing firms, looks into how the engineering work is affected by PSS and how it can be enhanced for PSS, especially in terms of required competencies and other capabilities. It results in recommendations for a new, functional product-development process.

  • 9.
    López-Mesa, Belinda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.
    Mulet, Elena
    Universitat Jaume I, Castellon.
    Vidal, Rosario
    Universitat Jaume I, Castellon.
    Thompson, Graham
    University of Manchester.
    Effects of additional stimuli on idea-finding in design teams2011In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 31-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the effects of idea-finding design methods experimentally can provide some light into their degree of usability. An experiment was carried out to study the effects that different stimuli proposed in idea-finding methods have on the design process and outcomes of four design teams, and to compare these effects with those produced by the problem-solving characteristic of the team members. Protocol analysis and outcome-based analysis were carried out. The results of the analysis show that stimuli can have a greater effect on the design activity than the influence of the designers' problem-solving styles in the conditions of the experiment. Stimulus with SCAMPER questions favours refinement of solutions, by using a solution as a frame and the questions as sub-frames. Stimulus with images (related in shape and function with the designed object, and displayed in intervals of time) leads teams to be in a continuous flux of generation of partial solutions.

  • 10.
    López-Mesa, Belinda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Thompson, G.
    University of Manchester.
    On the significance of cognitive style and the selection of appropriate design methods2006In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 371-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers the role of the person, process (including methods), product and design climate (press) to achieve effective, appropriate design solutions. It is insufficient to recruit ‘good' people; other attributes including their problem-solving style are also important to achieve competitive design solutions. It is important that engineering design methods are selected correctly by designers in industry, otherwise inappropriate or invalid results may be obtained. This paper reports the experiences of engineers in industry who use design methods and the problems they encountered. The concept of problem-solving style is then explored as a principle on which to base method selection in order to match the solution generation characteristics of the methods with the desired solution requirement characteristics. Finally, a brief comment is made on the elements that make for a creative design environment.

  • 11.
    Sandberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundin, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Näsström, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Berglund, Daniel
    Gestamp Hardtech AB, Luleå.
    Supporting engineering decisions through contextual, model-oriented communication and knowledge-based engineering in simulation driven product development: an automotive case study2013In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 45-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern manufacturers rely increasingly on overlapping activities and frequent, bilateral exchange of preliminary information, adding to the complexity of information exchange and general reuse. The approach presented in this paper relies on a reuse process, embedded in the design environment already used, to avoid disrupting the design process and to increase the foundation upon which decisions are made. The proposed approach relies on Knowledge Based Extensions to commercial CAE systems and 3D CAE models to enable and ensure Simulation Driven Design capabilities and contextual communication within the early stages of product development. The approach has been shown to increase the simulation-driven capabilities in a business-to-business scenario, and in extension, increase the foundation upon which decisions are made and the likelihood of reaching a feasible and optimal final design. In conclusion, a simulation-driven design approach to product development has to be more than enabled to truly make a difference in the development process. Investigation and evaluations show that supporting tools and relevant information must be made readily available, intuitive, integrated into the environment where they are needed and, ultimately, be perceived as a natural part of daily development in order for them to be accepted and used.

  • 12.
    Škec, Stanko
    et al.
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Cash, Philip
    Department of Management Engineering, Technology Innovation Management, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineeirng and Naval Architecture.
    A dynamic approach to real-time performance measurement in design projects2017In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 255-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in engineering design management point to the need for more dynamic, fine-grain measurement approaches able to deal with multi-dimensional, cross-level process performance in product design. Thus, this paper proposes a new approach to the measurement and management of individual and teamwork performance in engineering design projects. This integrates multiple, previously disparate, aspects of design management and performance measurement theory in a single framework. Further, a fully realised performance measurement approach is developed, which complements existing management strategies. This framework is synthesised from an extensive review and illustrated via an in-depth case study. As such, this work contributes to performance measurement theory in engineering design and has significant implications for both engineering design research and industry.

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