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  • 1.
    Bish, D.L.
    et al.
    Indiana University, Department of Geological Sciences, Bloomington.
    Blake, D.F.
    NASA Ames.
    Vaniman, D.T.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Chipera, S.J.
    CHK Energy.
    Morris, R.V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Ming, D.W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Treiman, A.H.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Sarrazin, P.
    In-Xitu, Campbell, California.
    Morrison, S.M.
    Department of Geology, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Downs, R.T.
    Department of Geology, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Achilles, C.N.
    ESCG/UTC Aerospace Systems, Houston.
    Yen, A.S.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Bristow, T.F.
    NASA Ames.
    Crisp, J.A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Morookian, J.M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Farmer, J.D.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe.
    Rampe, E.B.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Stolper, E.M.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Spanovich, N.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    X-ray diffraction results from Mars Science Laboratory: Mineralogy of Rocknest at Gale Crater2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 341, no 6153, article id 1238932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, with minor K-feldspar, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and ilmenite. The minor phases are present at, or near, detection limits. The soil also contains 27 ± 14 weight percent x-ray amorphous material, likely containing multiple Fe3+- and volatile-bearing phases, including possibly a substance resembling hisingerite. The crystalline component is similar to the normative mineralogy of certain basaltic rocks from Gusev crater on Mars and of martian basaltic meteorites. The amorphous component is similar to that found on Earth in places such as soils on the Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii.

  • 2.
    Farley, K.A.
    et al.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Malespin, C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Mahaffy, P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Vasconcelos, P.M.
    School of Earth Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Milliken, R.E.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence.
    Malin, M.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Edgett, K.S.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Pavlov, A.A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Hurowitz, J.A.
    Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University.
    Grant, J.A.
    Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
    Miller, H.B.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Arvidson, R.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis.
    Beegle, L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Calef, F.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Conrad, P.G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Dietrich, W.E.
    Earth and Planetary Science Department, University of California, Berkeley.
    Eigenbrode, J.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Gellert, R.
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Gupta, S.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London.
    Hamilton, V.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Hassler, D.M.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Lewis, K.W.
    Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, New Jersey.
    McLennan, S.M.
    Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University.
    Ming, D.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.
    University of Kiel.
    In situ radiometric and exposure age dating of the martian surface2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169, article id 1247166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 ± 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 ± 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.

  • 3.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    et al.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Sumner, D.Y.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Davis.
    Kah, L.C.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Stack, K.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Gupta, S.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London.
    Edgar, L.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Rubin, D.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Santa Cruz.
    Lewis, K.
    Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, New Jersey.
    Schieber, J.
    Indiana University, Department of Geological Sciences, Bloomington.
    Mangold, N.
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique de Nantes, LPGN/CNRS and Université de Nantes.
    Milliken, R.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence.
    Conrad, P.G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    DesMarais, D.
    Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Farmer, J.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe.
    Siebach, K.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    III, F. Calef
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Hurowitz, J.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    McLennan, S.M.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    Ming, D.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Vaniman, D.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Crisp, J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Vasavada, A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Edgett, K.S.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Malin, M.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Blake, D.
    Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Yingst, A
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    A habitable fluvio-lacustrine environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169, article id 1242777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Curiosity rover discovered fine-grained sedimentary rocks, which are inferred to represent an ancient lake and preserve evidence of an environment that would have been suited to support a martian biosphere founded on chemolithoautotrophy. This aqueous environment was characterized by neutral pH, low salinity, and variable redox states of both iron and sulfur species. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus were measured directly as key biogenic elements; by inference, phosphorus is assumed to have been available. The environment probably had a minimum duration of hundreds to tens of thousands of years. These results highlight the biological viability of fluvial-lacustrine environments in the post-Noachian history of Mars.

  • 4.
    Hassler, Donald M.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Zeitlin, Cary
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Ehresmann, Bent
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Rafkin, Scot
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Brinza, David E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Weigle, Gerald
    Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Böttcher, Stephan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Böhm, Eckart
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Burmeister, Soenke
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Guo, Jingnan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Köhler, Jan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Martin, Cesar
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Reitz, Guenther
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne.
    Cucinotta, Francis A.
    University of Nevada Las Vegas.
    Kim, Myung-Hee
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas.
    Grinspoon, David
    Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, Colorado.
    Bullock, Mark A.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Posner, Arik
    NASA Headquarters, Washington.
    Gõmez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Vasavada, Ashwin
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Grotzinger, John P.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Mars’ surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity Rover2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  • 5.
    Leshin, L.A.
    et al.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science and School of Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Webster, C.R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Cabane, M.
    LATMOS, UPMC Université Paris 06, Université Versailles St-Quentin, UMR CNRS 8970.
    Coll, P.
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Univ. Paris Diderot and CNRS.
    Conrad, P.G.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Jr., P.D. Archer
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Atreya, S.K.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Brunner, A.E.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Buch, A.
    Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés et les Matériaux, Ecole Centrale Paris.
    Eigenbrode, J.L.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Flesch, G.J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Franz, H.B.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Freissinet, C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Glavin, D.P.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    McAdam, A.C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Miller, K.E.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    Ming, D.W.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Morris, R.V.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Navarro-González, R.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria.
    Niles, P.B.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Owen, T.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
    Pepin, R.O.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
    Squyres, S.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Steele, A.
    Carnegie Institution, Geophysical Laboratory, Washington.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Volatile, Isotope, and Organic Analysis of Martian Fines with the Mars Curiosity Rover2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 341, no 6153, article id 1238937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit were heated to ~835°C under helium flow and evolved gases analyzed by Curiosity’s Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite. H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2 were the major gases released. Water abundance (1.5 to 3 weight percent) and release temperature suggest that H2O is bound within an amorphous component of the sample. Decomposition of fine-grained Fe or Mg carbonate is the likely source of much of the evolved CO2. Evolved O2 is coincident with the release of Cl, suggesting that oxygen is produced from thermal decomposition of an oxychloride compound. Elevated δD values are consistent with recent atmospheric exchange. Carbon isotopes indicate multiple carbon sources in the fines. Several simple organic compounds were detected, but they are not definitively martian in origin.

  • 6.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    et al.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Webster, C.R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Stern, J.C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Brunner, A.E.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Atreya, S.K.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Conrad, P.G.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Domagal-Goldman, S.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Eigenbrode, J.L.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Flesch, Gregory J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Christensen, Lance E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Franz, H.B.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Freissinet, C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Glavin, D.P.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Grotzinger, John P.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Jones, J.H.
    NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Houston.
    Leshin, L.A.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science and School of Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, School of Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy.
    Malespin, Charles A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    McAdam, A.C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Ming, D.W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Niles, P.B.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Owen, Tobias
    University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
    Pavlov, A.A.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Steele, Andrew
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC..
    Trainer, M.G.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    The imprint of atmospheric evolution in the D/H of Hesperian clay minerals on Mars2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6220, p. 412-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio in strongly bound water or hydroxyl groups in ancient martian clays retains the imprint of the water of formation of these minerals. Curiosity’s Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment measured thermally evolved water and hydrogen gas released between 550° and 950°C from samples of Hesperian-era Gale crater smectite to determine this isotope ratio. The D/H value is 3.0 (±0.2) times the ratio in standard mean ocean water. The D/H ratio in this ~3-billion-year-old mudstone, which is half that of the present martian atmosphere but substantially higher than that expected in very early Mars, indicates an extended history of hydrogen escape and desiccation of the planet.

  • 7.
    McLennan, S.M.
    et al.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    Anderson, R.B.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Science Center, Flagstaff.
    III, J.F. Bell
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Bridges, J.C.
    Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester.
    III, F. Calef
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    J.L., Campbell
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Clark, B.C.
    Space Science Institute.
    Clegg, S.
    Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Conrad, P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Cousin, A.
    Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Marais, D.J. Des
    Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Dromart, G.
    Laboratoire de Geologié de Lyon, Université de Lyon.
    Dyar, M.D.
    Department of Astronomy, Mt. Holyoke College, South Hadley.
    Edgar, L.A.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Ehlmann, B.L.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Fabre, C.
    UMR 7359 CNRS-Georesources, Campus des Aiguillettes, Faculté des Sciences, Vandoeuvre Les Nancy.
    Forni, O.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Gasnault, O.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Gellert, R.
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Gordon, S.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Grant, J.A.
    Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Gupta, S.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London.
    Herkenhoff, K.E.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff.
    Hurowitz, J.A.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    Yingst, R.A.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Elemental Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169, article id 1244734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine–rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.

  • 8.
    Meslin, P.-Y.
    et al.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Gasnault, O.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Forni, O.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Schröder, S.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Cousin, A.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Berger, G.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Clegg, S.M.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Lasue, J.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Maurice, S.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Sautter, V.
    Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Minéralogie et Cosmochimie du Muséum, Paris.
    Mouélic, S. Le
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Fabre, C.
    GeoResources, CNRS, UMR7356, Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre lès Nancy.
    Goetz, W.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau.
    Bish, D.
    Indiana University, Bloomington.
    Mangold, N.
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Ehlmann, B.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Lanza, N.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Harri, A.-M.
    Earth Observation Research Division, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Anderson, R.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Science Center, Flagstaff.
    Rampe, E.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    McConnochie, T.H.
    University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.
    Pinet, P.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Blaney, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Leveille, R.
    Canadian Space Agency, St-Hubert.
    Yingst, A
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Soil Diversity and Hydration as Observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 341, no 6153, article id 1238670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  • 9.
    Ming, D.W.
    et al.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Jr., P.D. Archer
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Glavin, D.P.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Eigenbrode, J.L.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Franz, H.B.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Sutter, B.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Brunner, A.E.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Stern, J.C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Freissinet, C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    McAdam, A.C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Cabane, M.
    Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Université Pierre Marie Curie, Univ. Paris 06, Université Versailles St-Quentin.
    Coll, P.
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Univ. Paris Diderot and CNRS.
    J.L., Campbell
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Atreya, S.K.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Niles, P.B.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    III, J.F. Bell
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Bish, D.L.
    Indiana University, Department of Geological Sciences, Bloomington.
    Brinckerhoff, W.B.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Buch, A.
    Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés et les Matériaux, Ecole Centrale Paris.
    Conrad, P.G.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Marais, D.J. Des
    Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Ehlmann, B.L.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Fairén, A.G.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Farley, K.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Yingst, R.A
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Volatile and organic compositions of sedimentary rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169, article id 1245267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Hans
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Wieser, Gabriella Stenberg
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Behar, Etienne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Radio Science and Engineering.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Lundin, Rickard
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Barabash, Stas
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Wieser, Martin
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Carr, Chris
    Imperial College London.
    Cupido, Emanuele
    Imperial College London.
    Burch, James L.
    Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio.
    Fedorov, Andrei
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Savaud, Jean-André
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Koskinen, Hannu
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki.
    Kallio, Esa
    Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Radio Science and Engineering.
    Lebreton, Jean-Pierre
    Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace (LPC2E).
    Eriksson, Anders
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Ångström Laboratory.
    Edberg, Niklas
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Ångström Laboratory.
    Goldstein, Raymond
    Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels.
    Henri, Pierre
    Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace (LPC2E).
    Coenders, Christoph
    Technische Universität–Braunschweig, Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics.
    Mokashi, Prachet
    Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio.
    Nemeth, Zoltan
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, 1121 Konkoly Thege Street 29-33, Budapest.
    Richter, Ingo
    Technische Universität–Braunschweig, Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics.
    Rubin, Martin
    Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern.
    Birth of a comet magnetosphere: A spring of water ions2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6220, article id aaa0571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rosetta mission shall accompany comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from a heliocentric distance of >3.6 astronomical units through perihelion passage at 1.25 astronomical units, spanning low and maximum activity levels. Initially, the solar wind permeates the thin comet atmosphere formed from sublimation, until the size and plasma pressure of the ionized atmosphere define its boundaries: A magnetosphere is born. Using the Rosetta Plasma Consortium ion composition analyzer, we trace the evolution from the first detection of water ions to when the atmosphere begins repelling the solar wind (~3.3 astronomical units), and we report the spatial structure of this early interaction. The near-comet water population comprises accelerated ions (

  • 11.
    Qiu, Minghui
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China, Department of Physics, Dalian Jiaotong University, P. R. China..
    Ren, Zefeng
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China.
    Che, Li
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China.
    Dai, Dongxu
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China.
    Harich, Steven A.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Xiuyan
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China.
    Yang, Xueming
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China.
    Xu, Chuanxiu
    Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University.
    Xie, Daiqian
    Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University.
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder.
    Skodje, Rex T.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder.
    Sun, Zhigang
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China, Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian, Department of Computational Science, National University of Singapore.
    Zhang, Donghui
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, People’s Republic of China, Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian, Department of Computational Science, National University of Singapore.
    Observation of Feshbach Resonances in the F + H2 → HF + H Reaction2006In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 311, no 5766, p. 1440-1443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reaction resonances, or transiently stabilized transition-state structures, have proven highly challenging to capture experimentally. Here, we used the highly sensitive H atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight method to conduct a crossed molecular beam scattering study of the F + H2 → HF + H reaction with full quantum-state resolution. Pronounced forward-scattered HF products in the v′ = 2 vibrational state were clearly observed at a collision energy of 0.52 kcal/mol; this was attributed to both the ground and the first excited Feshbach resonances trapped in the peculiar HF(v′ = 3)-H′ vibrationally adiabatic potential, with substantial enhancement by constructive interference between the two resonances.

  • 12. Soldatov, Alexander
    et al.
    Roth, Georg
    Institut fur Kristallographie der Rheinisch-Westfahlische Technische Hochschule Aachen.
    Dzyabchenko, Alexander
    Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow.
    Johnels, Dan
    Umeå university.
    Lebedkin, Sergei
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt.
    Meingast, Christoph
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt.
    Sundqvist, Bertil
    Umeå university.
    Haluska, Miro
    Institut fur Materialphysik, Universität Wien.
    Kuzmany, Hans
    Institut fur Materialphysik, Universität Wien.
    Topochemical polymerization of C70 controlled by monomer crystal packing2001In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 293, p. 680-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymeric forms of C60 are now well known, but numerous attempts to obtain C70 in a polymeric state have yielded only dimers. Polymeric C70 has now been synthesized by treatment of hexagonally packed C70 single crystals under moderate hydrostatic pressure (2 gigapascals) at elevated temperature (300¡C), which conÞrms predictions from our modeling of polymeric structures of C70. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction shows that the molecules are bridged into polymeric zigzag chains that extend along the c axis of the parent structure. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman data provide evidence for covalent chemical bonding between the C70 cages.

  • 13.
    Stolper, E.M.
    et al.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Baker, M.B.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Newcombe, M.E.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Schmidt, M.E.
    Brock University.
    Treiman, A.H.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Cousin, A.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Dyar, M.D.
    Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley.
    Fisk, M.R.
    Oregon State University, Corvallis.
    Gellert, R.
    University of Guelph, Ontario.
    King, P.L.
    Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University.
    Leshin, L.
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
    Maurice, S.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    McLennan, S.M.
    The State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    Minitti, M.E.
    Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.
    Perrett, G.
    University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Rowland, S.
    University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
    Sautter, V.
    Laboratoire de Minéralogie et Cosmochimie du Muséum, Paris.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    The petrochemistry of Jake_M: A martian mugearite2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 341, no 6153, article id 1239463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Jake_M,” the first rock analyzed by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument on the Curiosity rover, differs substantially in chemical composition from other known martian igneous rocks: It is alkaline (>15% normative nepheline) and relatively fractionated. Jake_M is compositionally similar to terrestrial mugearites, a rock type typically found at ocean islands and continental rifts. By analogy with these comparable terrestrial rocks, Jake_M could have been produced by extensive fractional crystallization of a primary alkaline or transitional magma at elevated pressure, with or without elevated water contents. The discovery of Jake_M suggests that alkaline magmas may be more abundant on Mars than on Earth and that Curiosity could encounter even more fractionated alkaline rocks (for example, phonolites and trachytes).

  • 14.
    Vaniman, D.T.
    et al.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Bish, D.L.
    Indiana University, Department of Geological Sciences, Bloomington.
    Ming, D.W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Bristow, T.F.
    NASA Ames.
    Morris, R.V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Blake, D.F.
    NASA Ames.
    Chipera, S.J.
    CHK Energy.
    Morrison, S.M.
    Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Treiman, A.H.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Rampe, E.B.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Rice, M.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Achilles, C.N.
    ESCG/UTC Aerospace Systems, Houston.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    McLennan, S.M.
    Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University.
    Williams, J.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    III, J.F. Bell
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Newsom, H.E.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Downs, R.T.
    Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Maurice, S.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Sarrazin, P.
    SETI Institute, Mountain View.
    Yen, A.S.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Morookian, J.M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Farmer, J.D.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Stack, K.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Milliken, R.E.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence.
    Spanovich, N.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169, article id 1243480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms, indicating little interlayer hydration. The Cumberland smectite has basal spacing at both ~13.2 and ~10 angstroms. The larger spacing suggests a partially chloritized interlayer or interlayer magnesium or calcium facilitating H2O retention. Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby eolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite, possibly lost with formation of smectite plus magnetite. Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time.

  • 15.
    Webster, Christopher R.
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Atreya, Sushil K.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Flesch, Gregory J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Farley, Kenneth A.
    Department of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Low Upper Limit to Methane Abundance on Mars2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 342, no 6156, p. 355-357, article id 1242902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By analogy with Earth, methane in the Martian atmosphere is a potential signature of ongoing or past biological activity. During the past decade, Earth-based telescopic observations reported “plumes” of methane of tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and those from Mars orbit showed localized patches, prompting speculation of sources from subsurface bacteria or nonbiological sources. From in situ measurements made with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) on Curiosity using a distinctive spectral pattern specific to methane, we report no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 0.18 ± 0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence level), which reduces the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars and limits the recent contribution from extraplanetary and geologic sources.

  • 16.
    Webster, Christopher R.
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Atreya, Sushil K.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Flesch, Gregory J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Meslin, Pierre-Yves
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Farley, Kenneth A.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Christensen, Lance E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Pavlov, Alexander A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    McConnochie, Timothy H.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park.
    Owen, Tobias
    University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Glavin, Daniel P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Steele, Andrew
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC..
    Malespin, Charles A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Jr., P. Douglas Archer
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Inter-Universitaires des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Paris.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Division of Space Sciences and Astrobiology, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA , NASA Ames Research Center.
    Moores, John E.
    York University, Toronto.
    Schwenzer, Susanne P.
    Open University, Milton Keynes.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6220, p. 415-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports of plumes or patches of methane in the Martian atmosphere that vary over monthly timescales have defied explanation to date. From in situ measurements made over a 20-month period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on Curiosity at Gale Crater, we report detection of background levels of atmospheric methane of mean value 0.69 ± 0.25 ppbv at the 95% confidence interval (CI). This abundance is lower than model estimates of ultraviolet (UV) degradation of accreted interplanetary dust particles (IDP’s) or carbonaceous chondrite material. Additionally, in four sequential measurements spanning a 60-sol period, we observed elevated levels of methane of 7.2 ± 2.1 (95% CI) ppbv implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source.

  • 17.
    Webster, Christopher R.
    et al.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto National de Tecnica Aerospacial, Madrid.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Background levels of methane in Mars' atmosphere show strong seasonal variations2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 360, no 6393, p. 1093-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable levels of methane in the martian atmosphere have eluded explanation partly because the measurements are not repeatable in time or location. We report in situ measurements at Gale crater made over a 5-year period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity rover. The background levels of methane have a mean value 0.41 ± 0.16 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (95% confidence interval) and exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variation (0.24 to 0.65 ppbv). This variation is greater than that predicted from either ultraviolet degradation of impact-delivered organics on the surface or from the annual surface pressure cycle. The large seasonal variation in the background and occurrences of higher temporary spikes (~7 ppbv) are consistent with small localized sources of methane released from martian surface or subsurface reservoirs.

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