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  • 1.
    El-Gamal, Rehab
    et al.
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Nikolaivits, Efstratios
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Zervakis, Georgios I.
    Agricultural University of Athens, Laboratory of General and Agricultural Microbiology.
    Abdel-Maksoud, Gomaa
    Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Giza.
    Topakas, Evangelos
    National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    The use of chitosan in protecting wooden artifacts from damage by mold fungi2016In: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 24, p. 70-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Many buildings in Egypt e.g. museums, mosques and churches, do not possess controlled environments for minimizing the risks of damage of wooden artifacts due to the growth of fungi. Fungal damage usually appears as change in wood color, appearance of stains, and sometimes deformation of wooden surfaces. In this study we focused on the effect that some fungi exert on the properties of wooden artifacts and evaluated the effectiveness of different concentrations of chitosan on their protection against damage by mold fungi.

    Results

    Samples were collected from different monuments and environments, and fungi growing on them were isolated and identified. The isolated Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus and A. niger strains were used for the infestation of new pitch pine samples. The results revealed that the lightness of samples infected with any of the tested fungi decreased with increasing incubation times. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of incubated samples treated individually with the different concentrations of chitosan was lower than the crystallinity of infected samples. The crystallinity index measured by the first and the second method decreased after the first and second months but increased after the third and fourth months. This may due to the reducing of amorphous part by enzymes or acids produced by fungi in wooden samples.

    Conclusions

    The growth of fungi on the treated wood samples decreased with increasing the concentration of chitosan. Hence, it was demonstrated that chitosan prevented fungal growth, and its use could be recommended for the protection of archaeological wooden artifacts.

    Keywords

    • archaeological wood;
    • Chitosan protection;
    • crystallinity index;
    • damage of wooden artifacts;
    • filamentous fungi;
    • FTIR;
    • Fungal damage;
    • prevention of fungal growth;
    • UV spectrophotometry;
    • wood deterioration;
    • XRD
  • 2.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Gao, Qiuju
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Jansson, Stina
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals2017In: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 26, p. 69-83Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a non-sustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of the waste ending in the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote recycling of municipal solid waste and also the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed by using either biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion) or thermochemical processes (e.g. pyrolysis). The research efforts during the last years have been fruitful and many publications demonstrate the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of waste policy that was implemented in EU during the last years.

  • 3.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Giannakou, Maria
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Vörös, Dimitrij
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Effect of synthetic and natural media on lipid production from Fusarium oxysporum2017In: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 30, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Dependence on fossil resources, for the production of fuels and energy, has resulted in environmental and financial problems, which require our immediate action in order to reverse the situation. Use of renewable sources for the production of fuels and energy is an important alternative with biodiesel remains as one of the promising options. Aim of this work is to evaluate the fungus Fusarium oxysporum for its potentials to accumulate microbial lipids when grown on synthetic media and saccharified sweet sorghum stalks.

    Results

    The effect of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources and C/N ratio on the lipid production was initially examined, which resulted in a lipid concentration of 4.4 g/L, with lipid content of 42.6% w/w. Sweet sorghum stalks were able to support growth and lipid production of the fungus, both as carbon source and as nitrogen source. It was also shown that saccharification of the dried stalks is an important step to increase lipid production. Removal of the remaining stalk solids enabled the lipid production during cultivation in increased initial solids of up to 16 w/w. This resulted in a lipid production of 3.81 g/L.

    Conclusions

    It was demonstrated that F. oxysporum can be used as an efficient oleaginous microorganism, with sweet sorghum serving as an excellent raw material for the cultivation of the fungus. The lipids obtained during this work were also found to have a fatty acid profile with good potentials to be used for biodiesel production.

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