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  • 1.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Sensor-based entrepreneurship: A framework for developing new products and services2017Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 819-830Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Internet of Things (IoT) begins to dominate the technology landscape, there will be new products and services that will become technically and financially feasible. Internet technologies and advancements in social interaction tools have led to an increase in the use of the crowd as a provider of business solutions. Yet, we have seen a mere fraction of the possibilities of crowdsourcing technologies. This is because most of the development, discussion, and research around crowdsourcing has focused on active-input crowdsourcing. However, the real transformative pressure will come from passive sources of data generated primarily by developing and growing sensor technologies. This next generation of crowdsourcing will be a game changer for entrepreneurial opportunities. As crowdsourcing systems proliferate, more input will be acquired from sensors, artificial intelligence, bots, and other devices. As a result of this explosion, the variety of product and service opportunities will swell as entrepreneurs become more aware of technologies merging—such as the combination of crowdsourcing, sensors, and big data into a new type of entrepreneurship: sensor-based entrepreneurship. The purpose of this research is to contribute by (1) clarifying the next generation of crowdsourcing and (2) developing and presenting a framework to help sensor-based entrepreneurs plan, develop, and map their new products and services.

  • 2.
    Brown, Terrence
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Boon, Edward
    School of Business and Technology, Webster University Geneva, Bellevue.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Seeking funding in order to sell: Crowdfunding as a marketing tool2017Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 189-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Websites such as Indiegogo and Kickstarter have attracted much attention for their ability to enable organizations and individuals to raise funds from ordinary people who contribute for a number of reasons. This phenomenon is called crowdfunding. Crowdfunding permits organizations and individuals to obtain investments they otherwise might not receive from more traditional sources such as banks, angel investors, and stock markets. A number of now well-known startups had their origins in crowdfunding. More recently, established organizations have begun to use crowdfunding websites not only as a source of finance, but also as marketing platforms. In this way, they have been able to ensure a ready market for their new offerings, with full sales pipelines, and to use the platforms as vehicles to boost brand image and gain support for brand-related causes. This adaptation of crowdfunding for marketing purposes is not without its problems, however, and organizations would be well advised to consider not only the opportunities these platforms provide, but also their limitations and risks.

  • 3.
    Dabirian, Amir
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Kietzmann, Jan
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Diba, Hoda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A great place to work!?: Understanding crowdsourced employer branding2017Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 197-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits provided by employment and identified with a specific employing company are referred to as employer branding. We argue that when employees use IT to share and access work-related experiences openly across organizations, their expectations and assessments of workplaces change. We collected 38,000 reviews of the highest and lowest ranked employers on Glassdoor, an online crowdsourced employer branding platform. Using IBM Watson to analyze the data, we identify seven employer branding value propositions that current, former, and potential employees care about when they collectively evaluate employers. These propositions include (1) social elements of work, (2) interesting and challenging work tasks, (3) the extent to which skills can be applied in meaningful ways, (4) opportunities for professional development, (5) economic issues tied to compensation, (6) the role of management, and (7) work/life balance. We clarify that these value propositions do not all matter to the same extent and demonstrate how their relative valences and weights differ across organizations, especially if institutions are considered particularly good or bad places to work. Based on these findings, we show how employers can use crowdsourced employer branding intelligence to become great places to work that attract highly qualified employees.

  • 4.
    DesAutels, Philip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    UGIS: Understanding the nature of user-generated information systems2011Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 185-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People from around the world are bringing together a variety of information technologies-devices, services, applications, networks, and information-to create personal information systems. This emerging phenomenon is enabled by a convergence of inexpensive, powerful, and ubiquitous devices and applications connected through global networks, motivated by an open ideology and enacted by 'prosuming' users. This article examines the phenomenon of the user-generated information system (UGIS) to better understand its origins and thereby describe its nature. A formal definition of UGIS is developed, and its components described. A model of the ideological and technical forces that contribute to the changing role of the user as information system creator, and to the emergence of this capability and issues, is introduced. Implications for managers are discussed

  • 5.
    Farshid, Mana
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Paschen, Jeannette
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Theresa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Keitzmann, Jan H.
    Gustavson School of Business, University of Victoria.
    Go boldly!: Explore augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR) for business2018Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 657-663Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not surprising that managers find it hard to distinguish similar-sounding, IT-based concepts such as augmented reality and virtual reality. To many, all of these constructs mean nearly the same and, as a result, the terms are often used interchangeably. This confusion holds back those eager to explore the different opportunities these new technologies present. This Executive Digest presents six different types of reality and virtual reality—(1) reality, (2) augmented reality, (3) virtual reality, (4) mixed reality, (5) augmented virtuality, and (6) virtuality—as part of our actual reality/virtual reality continuum. We then illustrate their differences using a common example and outline business applications for each type

  • 6.
    Flostrand, Andrew
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Finding the future: Crowdsourcing versus the Delphi technique2017Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 229-236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When managers are unable to use quantifiable time series data to make forecasts or decide on uncertainties, they can either rely on their own intuition and judgment or resort to the insights of others. The Delphi technique is a well-known forecasting technique that relies on the pooled perspectives of experts to predict uncertain quantities or the outcomes of events. This relies on polling the opinions of experts, aggregating these opinions, feeding them back to the responding experts along with their own estimates, and having them repeat their judgment calls until some level of consensus is reached. More recently, however, the opinions of many others who are not experts have been sought on a range of topics in a loose assembly of similar techniques bundled under the title of crowdsourcing. This article compares Delphi and crowdsourcing as prediction and estimation tools for managers. It notes their differences and similarities, and provides a simple tool for executives to use in deciding whether or not to use these tools, and if so, which tool or combination of them will work best in a given situation.

  • 7.
    Hall, Daniel
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Marketing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Beedie School of Business Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Wallström, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The secrets of secret societies: The case of wine2015Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 651-658Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Secret societies have intrigued humanity since earliest times. In this article we explore secret societies in the context of wine and how these institutions might be insightful in formulating marketing strategies. We contrast the characteristics of secret societies with those of existing secret wine societies such as The Wine Society and La Confrérie. Yet while some of these functions and characteristics transfer well, many ‘secret’ wine societies aren’t actually that secret. Some of the characteristics of secret societies are also found in consumer brand communities. Armed with this knowledge, wine marketers can exploit the characteristics of secret societies to target market segments with precision and to gain the benefits of focused distribution opportunities.

  • 8.
    Morkunas, Vida Julija
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Paschen, Jeannette
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boon, Edward
    School of Business & Technology, Webster University Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    How blockchain technologies impact your business model2019Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 295-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the attention surrounding blockchain today is focused on financial services, with very little discussion about nonfinancial services firms and how blockchain technology may affect organizations, their business models, and how they create and deliver value. In addition, some confusion remains between the blockchain (with definite article) and blockchain (no article), distributed ledger technologies, and their applications. Our article offers a primer on blockchain technology aimed at general managers and executives. The key contributions of this article lie in providing an explanation of blockchain, including how a blockchain transaction works and a clarification of terms, and outlining different types of blockchain technologies. We also discuss how different types of blockchain impact business models. Building on the well-established business model framework by Osterwalder and Pigneur, we outline the effect that blockchain technologies can have on each element of the business model, along with illustrations from firms developing blockchain technology.

  • 9.
    Paschen, Ulrich
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Pitt, Christine
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kietzmann, Jan
    University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Artificial intelligence: Building blocks and an innovation typology2019Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The range of topics and the opinions expressed on artificial intelligence (AI) are so broad that clarity is needed on the the field’s central tenets, the opportunities AI presents, and the challenges it poses. To that end, we provide an overview of the six building blocks of artificial intelligence: structured data, unstructured data, preprocesses, main processes, a knowledge base, and value-added information outputs. We then develop a typology to serve as an analytic tool for managers grappling with AI’s influence on their industries. The typology considers the effects of AI-enabled innovations on two dimensions: the innovations’ boundaries and their effects on organizational competencies. The typology’s first dimension distinguishes between product-facing innovations, which influence a firm’s offerings, and process-facing innovations, which influence a firm’s operations. The typology’s second dimension describes innovations as either competence-enhancing or competence-destroying; the former enhances current knowledge and skills, whereas the latter renders existing skills and knowledge obsolete. This framework lets managers evaluate their markets, the opportunities within them, and the threats arising from them, providing valuable background and structure to important strategic decisions.

  • 10.
    Pehlivan, Ekin
    et al.
    California State University Channel Islands, Camarillo.
    Berthon, Pierre R.
    McCallum School of Business, Bentley College, Waltham, MA, Bentley University, Waltham.
    Hughes, Mine Üçok
    Woodbury University, Burbank.
    Berthon, Jean-Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Keeping up with The Joneses: Stealth, secrets, and duplicity in marketing relationships2015Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 591-598Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stealth, or undercover, marketing involves the disguising of marketing communications that marketers undertake to purposefully influence their audiences without the audiences being aware of these activities. Inasmuch as stealth marketing involves secrecy (the withholding of information) and miscommunication (the communication of partial or misleading information), it is at least on some level duplicitous. Duplicity is the double act of secrecy and misrepresentation. In this article we explore duplicity in marketing communications. Specifically, we deconstruct the movie The Joneses to explore the various ways in which both marketers and consumers employ duplicity in their communications—to each other and themselves. We conclude by exploring the ethical and functional issues duplicity raises, and suggest that irony is one way in which duplicity can be ethically and productively employed.

  • 11.
    Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Parent, M.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Berthon, Pierre
    Bentley University, Waltham.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. Aha! Research, Hong Kong.
    Event sponsorship and ambush marketing: lessons from the Beijing olympics2010Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 281-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponsorship of large sporting and cultural events has become a major marketing communication tool, particularly when firms obtain exclusive rights and garner the hype associated with this honor. Concomitantly, ambush marketing-defined as attempts by competitors to exploit the event-has also increased in prominence. This article outlines what is known as the Li Ning affair, whereby major Olympic sponsor Adidas was ambushed by lesser-known Chinese sportswear company Li Ning, whose namesake founder was the most decorated Chinese Olympian and who lit the Olympic flame at the 2008 Beijing Olympiad. Data collected immediately following the closing of the Beijing Games isolates what we call the Li Ning effect-or, being incorrectly identified as an official sponsor-and the positive effects this has on measures of brand attitude and recommendation likelihood. As presented herein, seven lessons about ambush marketing can be derived from the Li Ning affair, which sponsors and those considering sponsorship opportunity might wish to learn.

  • 12.
    Prpic, John
    et al.
    Beedie School of Business Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Shukla, Prashant P.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University and Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
    Kietzmann, Jan H.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, 500 Granville Street, Vancouver.
    McCarthy, Ian Paul
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, 500 Granville Street, Vancouver.
    How to work a crowd: Developing crowd capital through crowdsourcing2015Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 77-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the term 'crowd' was used almost exclusively in the context of people who self-organized around a common purpose, emotion, or experience. Today, however, firms often refer to crowds in discussions of how collections of individuals can be engaged for organizational purposes. Crowdsourcing-defined here as the use of information technologies to outsource business responsibilities to crowds-can now significantly influence a firm's ability to leverage previously unattainable resources to build competitive advantage. Nonetheless, many managers are hesitant to consider crowdsourcing because they do not understand how its various types can add value to the firm. In response, we explain what crowdsourcing is, the advantages it offers, and how firms can pursue crowdsourcing. We begin by formulating a crowdsourcing typology and show how its four categories-crowd voting, micro-task, idea, and solution crowdsourcing-can help firms develop 'crowd capital,' an organizational-level resource harnessed from the crowd. We then present a three-step process model for generating crowd capital. Step one includes important considerations that shape how a crowd is to be constructed. Step two outlines the capabilities firms need to develop to acquire and assimilate resources (e.g., knowledge, labor, funds) from the crowd. Step three outlines key decision areas that executives need to address to effectively engage crowds

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