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  • 1.
    Berge, Staffan
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Business models in industrialized building of multi-storey houses2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 208-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business model construct has been widely used during the last decade, partly because of its potential to provide a holistic view of how companies do business. A test of how prefabrication could form the basis of a construction firm’s business model can lead to an understanding of the potential for the competitiveness and profitability of industrialized building. The aim is to adapt a general business model construct and use it to empirically identify the most frequently used and the most viable business model. The theoretical perspective is employed to examine how a company does business and which activities and resources are mobilized through the distinction between strategic and operational effectiveness. The multiple case studies include five major Swedish companies that produce prefabricated timber building systems and the analysis is grounded in pattern-finding. The business model construct includes: market position, offering, and operational platform. The result indicates five business model elements: prefabrication mode, role in the building process, end-user segments, system augmentation and complementary resources. Applying this construct to the five case companies revealed that one out of seven models was found to be viable in terms of both ‘market share’ and decision-makers’ opinions. One important conclusion is to take the prefabrication mode as the starting point for business model design and then adapt the other elements to a good fit

  • 2. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Benefits and disadvantages of ERP in industrialised timber frame housing in Sweden2005In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 831-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised timber frame housing is successful in the Swedish market for one-family housing. In the manufacturing industry, methods and software systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) are widespread, demonstrating significant benefits. A survey of the majority of industrialised timber frame housing companies in Sweden demonstrates low ERP use with a low degree of strategic importance, but with operational and managerial benefits. The ERP approach has potential for industrialised housing and its use is favoured by an increased maturity in IT.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Partnering: what is it, when should it be used, and how should it be implemented?2010In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 905-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in construction partnering has increased during the last decade. Much research have, however, found that cooperation and its benefits are not easily obtained, partly due to a lack of understanding of the partnering concept and when and how to implement it. The aim is therefore to increase this understanding by investigating three research questions: 1) What is partnering? 2) When should partnering be used and to what extent? 3) How should partnering be implemented? A thorough literature review and four case studies are utilized to develop a definition of partnering and discuss when and how partnering should be implemented through cooperative procurement procedures. Partnering is defined as a cooperative governance form that is based on core and optional cooperative procurement procedures to such an extent that cooperation-based coopetition is facilitated. Mandatory core procedures are: soft parameters in bid evaluation, compensation form based on open books, and usage of the core collaborative tools start-up workshop, joint objectives, follow-up workshops, teambuilding, and conflict resolution techniques. Complementary optional procedures are: early involvement of contractors in concurrent engineering, limited bid invitation, joint selection and involvement of subcontractors in broad partnering teams, collaborative contractual clauses, incentives based on group performance, usage of complementary collaborative tools (e.g. partnering questionnaire, facilitator, joint risk management, joint project office, and joint IT-tools), and increased focus on contractors' self-control.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Olander, Stefan
    Department of Construction Management, Lund University.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Widén, Kristian
    Department of Construction Management, Lund University.
    Managing short-term efficiency and long-term development through industrialized construction2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong need for a productive and innovative infrastructure sector because of its monetary value and importance for the development of a sustainable society. An increased level of industrialization is often proposed as a way to improve efficiency and productivity in construction projects. In prior literature on industrialized construction, there are however neither many studies addressing more long-term aspects of innovation and sustainability nor studies within the infrastructure context. Organizational theory suggests that firms need to be ambidextrous and focus on both long-term exploration of new knowledge and technologies and short-term exploitation of current knowledge and technologies, in order to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, an investigation of how both short-term exploitative performance objectives and long-term explorative development can be addressed when implementing industrialized construction in infrastructure projects was conducted. A case study consisting of four infrastructure projects shows that the main drivers for increased industrialization are of an exploitative nature, focusing on cost savings and increased productivity through more efficient processes. The main barriers to increased industrialization are however related to both explorative and exploitative activities. Hence, by managing the identified barriers and explicitly addressing both exploitation and exploration, industrialized construction can improve both short-term efficiency and long-term innovation and sustainability.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Modelling procurement effects on cooperation2007In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 893-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative arrangements, such as partnering, have received increased interest in recent years. Several studies show however that cooperative relationships are not easily achieved in construction. Implementation of cooperative relationships requires changes in several elements of the traditional procurement procedures. The purpose of this paper is therefore to propose and test a sequential model regarding clients' cooperative procurement procedures. We especially ask: what elements in clients' procurement procedures facilitate the establishment of cooperation and trust in their relationships with contractors? The model was tested through structural equation modelling. The empirical data required for the test were collected through a survey responded to by 87 Swedish professional construction clients. The empirical results show that cooperative procurement procedures are triggered by clients' wish to involve contractors early in specification, which has a simultaneous effect on procedures regarding bid invitation and compensation. Furthermore, these simultaneous effects breed a certain kind of partner selection based on task-related attributes, which also has a direct positive effect on trust and above all on cooperation in client-contractor relationships. Besides these implications from the model, the improvement of measurements for future modelling is discussed.

  • 6.
    Hedgren, Erika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    The impact of clients’ decision-making on their adoption of industrialized building2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 126-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that client organizations’ decision-making about new-build creates individual-level and organizational-level barriers to the adoption of Swedish industrialized building (IB). However, it has been proposed that clients may overcome barriers on both levels by allowing multiple meanings and conflicting interpretations to surface and interact with their decision-making. The aim is to test this proposition. Based on the theoretical fields of decision-making and organizational information processing, a framework for analysis has been developed. In the framework, three decision-making approaches are operationalized: rational, judgments and managing multiple meanings. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with key decision-makers from four Swedish professional clients differing on when and if they adopted IB: one early-adopter, two late-adopters and one non-adopter. The empirical findings support the proposition and show a relationship between how clients manage multiple meanings in their decision-making and their adoption of IB. The research adds to the understanding of how clients may overcome barriers to the adoption of IB on both individual and organizational levels. Moreover, it increases understanding about how clients might better cope with radical changes and innovations.

  • 7. Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Applicability of lean principles and practices in industrialized housing production2008In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1091-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of lean principles and practices to industrialized housing in Sweden are examined, taking the production culture into consideration. The factory production of industrialized housing shows apparent similarities to manufacturing, but areas related to fully integrated lean production practices, such as error proofing and standardized work floor and equipment maintenance, are scarce. Hence, applicability of lean principles and practices to industrialized housing production is clearly influenced by a production culture that has similarities to a traditional construction culture. Setting up industrialized housing production thus requires careful implementation of lean principles if workers from traditional building are moved into factories, and managers still adhere to the prevailing site-based production mentality. However, the influence of the traditional construction project culture is not solely a constraint; flexible teams that take their own responsibility are also important in a lean culture. Hence, retaining parts of the existing construction mentality, context and way of working is also central when discussing lean applicability in industrialized housing.

  • 8. Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Berge, Staffan
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    The development of a portfolio of business models: a longitudinal case study of a building material company2015In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 33, no 5-6, p. 334-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic aspects of intended company change can be related to the development and management of a portfolio of business models with regard to competence deployment and to performance. A portfolio of business models is seen as a reflection of the realized strategy of a company, and the dynamics aspects of company change are connected to internal and external critical strategic incidents. The business model elements considered in this research are market position, offering, and operational platform enabling a differentiation between strategic and operational effectiveness. The evolution of a Swedish supplier of building components and systems during a 15-year period is examined. The process data consists of temporal phases where a shift of phase is defined as a change of a specific portfolio of business models. The concept of a portfolio of business models helped to discover new and conflicting standardized or customized business models that were not always intended by the company. The findings indicate that unawareness of intended actions led to unintended allocation of resources or integration mechanisms that negatively affected company performance. On the other hand gains can be achieved if a strategy is deliberately managed as a portfolio of business models which then also can be a tool for managing change in a company

  • 9.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Engström, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Platform use in systems building2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 70-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of reusing processes and technical solutions leads to the formation of product platforms in house building. Product platforms originate from industries employing a make-to-order production strategy, e.g. the automotive industry. To test how the product platform concept is useful in engineer-to-order production strategies, a case study at two Swedish house-builders was made. Key factors that affect platform use in systems buildings were sought. The smaller company operates a supplier-led platform focusing on commonalities in process knowledge. There is less definition of the product itself to allow for distinctiveness in the product offer. The larger company has a decentralized business and operates a client-driven platform with fragmented standardization. Focus is put on creating commonality through defining the product and handling distinctiveness through an iterative design procedure. Product families were not in use at the case study companies. The companies transform standardized platform solutions into project uniqueness by using support methods. Four platform support methods emerged from the case studies: design planning, collaborative design, design optimization, and requirements iteration. The balance between commonality and distinctiveness in the platform is important to attend to in each house-building project. The engineer-to-order production strategy hinders the implementation of a fully parameterized platform. The product platform concept is therefore expanded with support methods to handle distinctiveness, i.e. project uniqueness. The product platform assets: components, processes, relationships and knowledge, are present also in platforms used in systems building

  • 10.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Construction Purchasing and Supply Chain Management2012In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1105-1107Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Production strategies for pre-engineering in house-building: Exploring product development platforms2013In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 941-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction is a trade where the dominating production strategy is engineer-to-order. House-builders can pre-engineer their design to different degrees, resulting in variations of the engineer-to-order strategy: design-to-order, adapt-to-order, and engineer-to-stock. This variation causes different settings for the use ofplatforms in house-building. The aim of this research is to diversify the engineer-to-order production strategy and its consequences for platform organization by studying its use in house-building. The multiple case study on four engineering/contractor firms reports the core capabilities for engineer-to-order firms: procurement and tendering, market knowledge, engineering, multi-skilled manufacturing, and coordination of sales and manufacturing. Design-to-order, adapt-to-order and engineer-to stock were shown to be production strategies in use in house-building. In design-to-order platforms parts of the platform are undefined while engineer-to-stock platforms are fully predefined. Coordination between market and manufacturing is a crucial capability when engaging in platform organization. When an engineering firm and a contractor collaborate to fulfil client needs, the coordination capability between market and manufacturing was shown to be low. The case study shows that specialized contractors who integrate the supply chain towards a specific market segment benefit fully from the platform concept, while contractors with a wider scope could focus on standardization of processes rather than products.

  • 12.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Meiling, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Defects in off-site construction: timber module prefabrication2009In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 667-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is based on craftsmanship. Quality control and assurance procedures applied in manufacturing cannot usually be readily applied in construction, where there are higher degrees of uniqueness in each project. One category of companies, industrialized housebuilders, is attempting to bridge some of the gaps between construction and manufacturing. These companies prefabricate building modules for later assembly at the building site. Since they are wholly responsible for large parts of the building process, these companies have greater opportunities to control and improve quality in a more consistent way than ordinary construction companies. Thus, it could be hypothesized that the frequency and severity of defects should be lower in industrialized housing than in ordinary construction. The aim of the study presented here is to examine this hypothesis by measuring and characterizing defects in industrialized housing. The design and manufacturing processes at two Swedish timber module prefabrication firms has been analysed through interviews, site visits and document reviews. Quality audits from three phases of the building process were compiled, analysed and categorized to provide statistical measures of defects in industrialized housing. The results show that the case study companies are better in terms of product quality than conventional housing.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration Luleå.
    Industrialized construction in the Swedish infrastructure sector: core elements and barriers2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 83-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving productivity and innovation is a central challenge in all industries, but particularly in construction where improvements have been slow. To meet this challenge, a recent investigation into the actions of Swedish government clients has recognized needs to improve planning during project procurement phases, increase numbers of turnkey contracts and raise industrialization of the sector. In response, the Swedish Transportation Administration has launched a research and innovation programme to foster an industrial approach and identify ways to increase the standardization of products and processes. However, increasing industrialization has been difficult to achieve in the project-based construction industry except in the process-based housing sector. Further, there has been little research on the concept of industrialized infrastructure construction and barriers to its implementation. Opinions and attitudes of clients, consultants and contractors in the infrastructure sector were investigated in relation to the core elements of industrialized construction, and the barriers hindering its development. Opportunities and obstacles related to both product and process standardization for continuous improvements and the relationships between clients and contractors are revealed. Hence, the implementation of industrialized construction requires tightly focused governance at the outset of projects and profound changes to established attitudes, norms and regulations

  • 14.
    Levander, Erika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Construction clients' ability to manage uncertainty and equivocality2011In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 753-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While risk and uncertainty management have received much attention within construction management research, management of information interpretation remains unexplored. Situations that are generally overlooked are those where increased amounts and flow of information are not the solution to the human problem of managing multiple meanings of information and conflicting interpretations, i.e. ‘equivocality’. The aim is to identify and differentiate between construction clients’ uncertainty and equivocality about industrialized construction in Sweden, and, in the light of those findings, to evaluate clients’ current information processing practice on investment decisions in new-build in order to assess and discuss clients’ ability to manage uncertainty and equivocality. Based on information processing theory, analysis of aggregated data from three previous studies shows that there is a need to manage both uncertainty and equivocality. At the same time, clients’ ability to do this is found to be limited. Consequently, when industrialized construction moves clients beyond their current frame of reference, clients’ information processing practice does not support decision making. It is also proposed that differentiating between uncertainty and equivocality will enable a more profound understanding of the sequential order for information processing, i.e. that one must define questions (reduce equivocality) before one can find answers to the questions (reduce uncertainty).

  • 15. Lu, Weizhuo
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A lean-agile model of homebuilders' production systems2011In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lean-agile model of homebuilders' production systems is proposed in this research. Value stream mapping is utilized to clarify the proposed lean-agile model, in which pull and Kanban are used to ensure smooth production upstream of the de-coupling point, while fluctuating market demands in terms of variety of homes and variability of volumes are managed by the agile process downstream of the de-coupling point. The decoupling point is used to provide components to downstream agile process and shield upstream smooth production from market fluctuations. A simulation model is developed to evaluate and validate the effectiveness of the proposed lean-agile model. Simulation experiments show that the lean-agile model prevents the accumulation of high inventory levels and thus provides better customization opportunities for clients compared to even-flow-construction. It also provides a more stable process with shorter cycle times compared to sales-driven production. The proposed lean-agile model offers new possibilities for homebuilders to manage the balance between meeting fluctuating market demands and stabilizing the production system.Keywords: Agile, housing construction, lean, simulation.

  • 16.
    Lundkvist, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Meiling, John
    John Meiling AB.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A proactive plan-do-check-act approach to defect management based on a Swedish construction project2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1051-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to continuously improve quality and avoid reoccurrence of defects, defect management (DM) in construction needs to take a more proactive approach. The classification of construction information is important for the efficient exchange and integration of data between the many roles and phases of construction and facility management, but it also provides a framework for standardization, which in turn is paramount for improvement. In order to better understand how defects can be managed proactively we conducted a case study on inspection practices at a large construction project in Sweden, using observation and analysis of inspection reports. We identified opportunities and obstacles in the classification of defect data. The project’s defect descriptions were often ambiguous and the records lacked important contextual information. We believe that this was because current practice is not designed with proactivity in mind, and there are only regulatory requirements on the data, making classification difficult. In addition, by viewing the project’s practices through the lenses of continuous improvement and plan-do-check-act theory to identify missing or inadequate steps, we propose a framework for a proactive version of the current defect management process that could potentially help to prioritize improvement work and reduce the incidence of defects

  • 17.
    Meiling, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A study of a plan-do-check-act method used in less industrialized activities: two cases from industrialized housebuilding2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 109-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In construction projects, a large number of deviations are usually found during inspections and adjusted in a reactive manner. For projects to become proactive, root causes need to be identified and eliminated as a part of a process of continuous improvement (CI). Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) methods are part of CI and have been used with success within the manufacturing industry for decades. Research studies of PDCA in construction are less common, which could be explained by the past dominance of the project-based nature of construction compared to the process-based nature of manufacture. Industrialized construction, however, has changed this picture somewhat, and it is of interest to find out how well it works for less industrialized activities in construction. A PDCA method was tested in two cases selected from one medium-sized Swedish industrialized housebuilder, which uses a building system based on offsite manufactured modules. Empirical results are based on systematic data gathered through interviews and participant observations. Results from the two cases show that the PDCA method worked even when processes were divided into industrialized parts within a factory and non-industrial parts at the construction site although this might lead to temporary corrective actions rather than permanent process actions

  • 18.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    How procurement options influence risk management in construction projects2011In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1149-1158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before proceeding with a project, a client has to choose an appropriate procurement option that facilitates an effective project organization in general and a thorough risk management process in particular. By identifying three procurement variables that have a major influence on risk management: project delivery method, form of payment, and use of collaboration or partnering arrangements, the effect of each variable is studied. An exploratory study and a series of interviews with clients, contractors and consultants involved in 11 Swedish construction projects, were performed in order to examine how risk management was carried out in each project. Irrespective of the procurement option, many projects suffered from variations in cost affecting one or more actors. Risk management was not carried out systematically throughout project phases. However, in the projects with early involvement of the actors, their participation throughout the project, and opportunities for open dialogue and collaboration, a more thorough risk management process was found. While project delivery methods define formal risk allocation, the use of incentives and collaboration or partnering arrangements help to establish a collaborative approach to risk management.

  • 19.
    Schade, Jutta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Schreyer, Marcus
    Max Bögl Group, Neumarkt.
    Decision-making in a model-based design process2011In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 371-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions early in the design process have a big impact on the life cycle performance of a building. The outcome of a construction project can be improved if different design options can rapidly be analysed to assist the client and design team in making informed decisions in the design process. A model-based design approach can facilitate the decision-making process if the design alternatives' performances can be evaluated and compared. A decision-making framework using a performance-based design process in the early design phase is proposed. It is developed to support decision-makers to take informed decisions regarding the life cycle performance of a building. A scenario is developed in order to demonstrate the proposed framework of evaluating the different design alternatives' energy performance. The framework is applicable to decision-making in a structured design process, where design alternatives consisting of both objective and subjective evaluation criteria can be evaluated.

  • 20.
    Simu, Kajsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Middle managers’ perceptions of operations strategies at construction contractors2019In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 351-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operations strategies focus on how a firm delivers value, while business strategies focus on what to deliver and where. Lean is an operations strategy prioritizing flow efficiency. In construction, empirical underpinning of operations strategies has been limited. The aim is to capture how perceptions of operations strategy in construction practice aligns with existing theories of operations strategy organized in decision categories. Nine in-depth interviews with contractor middle managers were transcribed and analyzed to capture their perceptions of operations strategies. Results show: (1) decision categories in construction differ from manufacturing, and (2) differences between resource and flow efficient operations strategies exist. A resource efficient strategy focuses cost and delivery as competitive criteria, while customer value is targeted in a flow efficient strategy. Proposed structural decision categories are standardization, organization and production planning, supply chain, and infrastructural decision categories are human resources, continuous improvement, long-term perspective, process vs. project, and performance measurements. Infrastructural categories are more difficult to replicate and render competitive advantage if successfully aligned with business strategy. An operations strategy strictly focused on project delivery, such as lean construction, is not automatically aligned with the business strategy, but can achieve satisfactory project performance.

  • 21.
    Sterner, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Green procurement of buildings: a study of Swedish clients' considerations2002In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a survey show that both public and private building clients in Sweden, to varying extents, include environmental requirements in their procurement documents. The requirements identified have been classified into six categories primarily related to building and demolition waste, building material, contractors' environmental work, ecological aspects, construction work and other. One conclusion is that requirements regarding the separation of waste and a contractor's environmental policy are considered important, since they are stipulated in the majority of projects. Another finding is that requirements related to operation and especially to energy use are not considered sufficiently. Structured interviews were conducted with three of the clients who at that time of the survey had developed the most complete procurement documents with regard to environmental requirements. The aim of the interviews was to investigate how the stipulation of requirements, the evaluation of environmental aspects and the verification of environmental requirements were carried out. The conclusion drawn is that Swedish clients find the stipulation of requirements relatively uncomplicated, but find the evaluation of environmental impact, mainly related to selection of materials, problematic due to inadequate evaluation models.

  • 22.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Reinforcing cycles involving inter- and intraorganizational paradoxical tensions when managing large construction projects2018In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 125-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, scholars have shown a growing interest in combining control and flexibility when organizing and managing large construction projects, in contrast with the traditional focus on control. Prior research recognizes that there is a paradoxical tension between control and flexibility, meaning that, while both approaches make sense individually, they appear impossible to combine. Large construction projects are interorganizational, which means that tensions between interorganizational control/flexibility coexist with tensions between intraorganizational direction/empowerment, but the interplay and possible reinforcing cycles involving the two tensions have rarely been investigated in prior research. A multiple case study of four large construction projects with three rounds of interviews show how intraorganizational direction/empowerment can influence interorganizational control/flexibility and vice versa, and demonstrate both vicious and virtuous reinforcing cycles that involve the two types of tensions. Therefore, contributing to the project management and construction management literature, it is argued that employing a systemic approach when studying interorganizational projects is essential. A systemic paradox perspective can reveal interdependencies between tensions at different organizational interfaces, improve the understanding of how individuals in all managerial positions interplay, and explain how reinforcing cycles emerge and develop; this is important to recognize when organizing, staffing and managing large construction projects.

  • 23.
    Viking, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Exploring industrialised housebuilders' interpretations of local requirement setting using institutional logics2015In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 33, no 5-6, p. 484-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized housebuilding contractors use standardized processes and building systems to improve time and cost efficiency. Recent governmental investigations argue that Swedish local planning authorities’ requirement setting practices stifle the potential for increased industrialization. Yet, no previous research has accounted for the industrialized housebuilders’ perspective. We aim to explore industrialized housebuilders’ interpretationsof local requirement setting, using institutional logics to increase the understanding of how structure and human agency influence the emergence of local requirements. Interviews were conducted with representatives of fiveindustrialized housebuilders who together span the Swedish multi-family housing market. Findings indicate that industrialized housebuilders do not perceive intentional local requirement setting as problematic, yet struggle tocope with interpretive local requirement setting. Findings also necessitate distinguishing local requirement setting in the exercise of public authority from local requirement setting in public procurement. The agency structure dualism contributes an understanding of interpretive local requirement setting in the exercise of public authority as an expression of agency and of local requirement setting in public procurement as one of structure. Furthermore, using an institutional logics approach is found to provide an accentuation of human agency and the individual level of analysis that is often absent from construction management research.

  • 24. Wikberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ekholm, Anders
    Department of Construction Sciences, Design Methodology Division, Lund University.
    Design configuration with architectural objects: linking customer requirements with system capabilities in industrialized house-building platforms2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 196-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two main routes for customers of industrialized house building to follow: either rigid platforms offering preconfigured products, often called ‘type houses’, or more flexible platforms open to customization. The problem in customization is to link customer requirements with system opportunities. In axiomatic design processes, this problem is understood as the transformation of customer requirements in the architectural view into design parameters that are supported by the system. A new method is proposed that allows requirements and constraints of an industrialized building platform to be handled fully in the architectural view through configuration with so-called architectural objects. It is based upon established theories and complies with the rationale of separating platform development from product customization. An experimental study, using standard building information modelling software, shows that a hierarchical structure of architectural objects can support both the development, as well as the configuration process, of the platform. Modularization in the architectural view is believed to be an important first step to capturing user requirements in the development of platforms for a specific market segment. It is also anticipated that if these requirements can be conceptualized as architectural objects the capabilities in different configurator solutions can be made more transparent to the customer.

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