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  • 1. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Treatment-oriented characterization of dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration2002In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was characterized to identify critical inorganic pollutants and to suggest a conceptual treatment method. The key methods used were thermal analysis, including thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pHstat titration, qualitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical equilibrium calculations, and statistics such as error propagation, principal component analysis (PCA), and empirical modeling based on factorial designs. Based on EU directives, the major inorganic pollutants Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn were found. In addition, the pH was too high. With dry scrubber residue stabilization in mind, the impact of carbonation and hydration was assessed and judged to be encouraging. In particular, chemical equilibrium calculations showed that carbonation has considerable potential to lower the pH and the availability of Pb, Zn, and Cr. The impact of carbonation on the mobility of Cd was found to be small. During carbonation, a metal-trapping calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) phase is also formed. Both processes together have the potential to lead to a robust, reliable, and reasonable stabilization method for dry scrubber residue. However, to control these processes, the decisive factors need to be identified and their effects need to be quantified. Ca, Cl, Na, and K might be abundant components which would be mobile even after stabilization.

  • 2.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Wang, Yu
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University.
    Leachate direct-discharge limits and incentives related to landfill aftercare costs2017In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 413-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Society needs sustainable methods for landfilling from an environmental perspective, but they have to be cost effective and affordable. Aftercare represents considerable costs within waste management system and costs can be expected to accrue over a long period of time showing the need to compare different management options. Direct-discharge limits for leachate COD and nitrogen are different in various (European) countries. When leachate COD or nitrogen has decreased at the latter part of the aftercare period, effluent limits 50 or 200 mg/l for COD and 10 or 70 mg/l for nitrogen have a considerable impact on period length. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effects of leachate discharge limits on landfill aftercare and leachate management costs in various conditions. Landfill simulator results and modelling are used to estimate leachate concentrations in three different scenarios. It is suggested that stricter discharge limits (shown before) impact on the costs of activated carbon filtration (1.4-fold) and biological treatment (1.1–1.24-fold). Stricter limits also extend the aftercare period length considerably, but with substantial water circulation the differences are clearly smaller. These results support the recent suggestion of aftercare incentives, and some details of applying these incentives in different conditions are discussed.

  • 3.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Svensson, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in bottom ash2006In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 145-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), bottom ash, generated at a stoker grate type incinerator, the critical elements were identified in terms of EU regulation. The stabilizing effect of moderate carbonation (pH 8.28 ± 0.03) on critical contaminants was studied through availability and diffusion leaching protocols. Data from the performed tests were evaluated with the goal of reusing MSWI bottom ash as secondary construction material. To investigate the mobilizing effect of CO2, suspended MSWI bottom ash was severely carbonated (pH 6.40 ± 0.07). The effect of CO2 and its interaction with other leaching factors, such as liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching time, pH, ultrasound treatment, and leaching temperature, were examined using a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Contaminants identified as critical were Cr, Cu, Mo, Sb, Cl-, and SO4 2-. Although moderate carbonation decreased the release of Cr, Cu, Mo, and Sb from compacted bottom ash, the main disadvantage remains its inability to demobilize Cl- and SO4 2-. The hypothesized mobilizing effect of severe carbonation was proven. The treatment enhanced the separation of critical components (α = 0.05) (except for Cl-), i.e., about fivefold for Sb and about twofold for Cr, Cu, and S. Nevertheless, the prospect is good that severe carbonation could constitute the deciding key parameter to facilitate the technical feasibility of a future washing process for MSWI bottom ash.

  • 4.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Impacts of temperature and liquid/solid ratio on anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste: An emission investigation of landfill simulation reactors2009In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 312-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of landfill emissions, i. e., landfill gas (LFG) and landfill leachate, is an important and resource-intensive task. A long-term demonstration pilot, consisting of landfill simulation reactors (LSRs), was used to study the impact of temperature and the applied liquid/solid ratio (L/S ratio) on landfill emissions, characteristics, and trends. This pilot has already run for more than 1000 days since the end of 2004 and will continue to run for some time. The degradation of waste at different temperatures has impacts on the overall degradation degree and on the length of post-closure care required. Higher temperatures accelerated the degradation, but also resulted in higher leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia concentrations, which prolong the aftercare period. Meanwhile, at a given stabilization degree [e. g., 70 l gas/kg waste (dry)], the total leached nitrogen under psychrophilic conditions was 3. 5 times that under mesophilic/thermophilic conditions, which resulted in a higher required effort for leachate treatment. The impact of L/S ratio or simulated annual L/S rates was also evaluated. The results show the significance of efficiently obtaining the targeted L/S ratio in order to achieve low landfill emission potential

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