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  • 1.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    A Comparative Evaluation of Cement and By-Product Petrit T in Soil Stabilization2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 23, article id 5238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a comparison between the effectiveness of adding low binder amounts of industrial by-product Petrit T as well as cement to modify and improve fine-grained soil. Binder amount was added by soil dry weight; cement at 1%, 2%, 4% and 7% and Petrit T at 2%, 4% and 7%. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as an indicator of soil strength. In addition, the consistency limits, laser particle size analysis, and pH tests were also conducted on the treated soil. The samples were cured at 20 °C for different periods from 7 to 90 days before testing. Results indicate that cement is more effective at improving the physical and engineering properties of the treated soil. Soil plasticity index decreases after treatment and with time. Liquidity index and the water content to plastic limit ratio are introduced as new indices to define the improvement in the workability of treated soil. Soil particle size distribution is changed by reducing the clay size fraction and increasing the silt size fraction after treatment. The findings confirm that adding small binder contents improve soil properties, which subsequently reduce the environmental threats and costs that are associated with using a high amount of binder.

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  • 2.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Engineering Dept., University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Effect of Disintegration Times of the Homogeneity of Soil prior to Treatment2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 22, article id 4791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the effect of various disintegration times on the homogeneity of pre-treated natural soil before mixing with cementitious binders. Various disintegration times were applied, ranging from 10 s to 120 s. Four different soils were used with different characteristics from high, medium and low plasticity properties. Visual and sieving assessment were used to evaluate the best disintegration times to allow for a uniform distribution of water content and small-sized particles that would produce a uniform distribution of the binder around the soil particles. Results showed that a proper mixing time to homogenize and disintegrate the soil prior to treatment depended on several factors: soil type, water content and plasticity properties. For high plasticity soil, the disintegration time should be kept as short as possible. Increasing the disintegration time ha negative effects on the uniformity of distribution of the binder around soil particles. The homogenizing and disintegration time were less important for low plasticity soils with low water content than for medium to high plasticity soils. The findings could assist various construction projects that deal with soil improvement through preparation of soil before adding a cementitious binder to ensure uniformity of distribution of the binder around soil particles and obtain uniform soil–binder mixtures

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  • 3.
    Al-Janabi, Ahmed Mohammed Sami
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.
    Ghazali, Abdul Halim
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.
    Yusuf, Badronnisa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.
    Sammen, Saad Sh.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Optimizing Height and Spacing of Check Dam Systems for Better Grassed Channel Infiltration Capacity2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The check dams in grassed stormwater channels enhance infiltration capacity by temporarily blocking water flow. However, the design properties of check dams, such as their height and spacing, have a significant influence on the flow regime in grassed stormwater channels and thus channel infiltration capacity. In this study, a mass-balance method was applied to a grassed channel model to investigate the effects of height and spacing of check dams on channel infiltration capacity. Moreover, an empirical infiltration model was derived by improving the modified Kostiakov model for reliable estimation of infiltration capacity of a grassed stormwater channel due to check dams from four hydraulic parameters of channels, namely, the water level, channel base width, channel side slope, and flow velocity. The result revealed that channel infiltration was increased from 12% to 20% with the increase of check dam height from 10 to 20 cm. However, the infiltration was found to decrease from 20% to 19% when a 20 cm height check dam spacing was increased from 10 to 30 m. These results indicate the effectiveness of increasing height of check dams for maximizing the infiltration capacity of grassed stormwater channels and reduction of runoff volume.

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  • 4.
    Amini, Ata
    et al.
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Kolahchi, Abdolnabi Abdeh
    Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, SCWMRI, AREEO, Tehran, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Moghadam, Mehdi Karami
    Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammad, Thamer
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Application of TRMM Precipitation Data to Evaluate Drought and Its Effects on Water Resources Instability2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 24, article id 5377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research was carried out to study drought and its effects upon water resources using remote sensing data. To this end, the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) satellite precipitation, the synoptic stations, and fountain discharge data were employed. For monitoring of drought in the study area, in Kermanshah province, Iran, the monthly precipitation data of the synoptic stations along with TRMM satellite precipitation datasets were collected and processed in the geographic information system (GIS) environment. Statistical indicators were applied to evaluate the accuracy of TRMM precipitation against the meteorological stations’ data. Standardized precipitation index, SPI, and normalized fountain discharge were used in the monitoring of drought conditions, and fountains discharge, respectively. The fountains were selected so that in addition to enjoying the most discharge rates, they spread along the study area. The evaluation of precipitation data showed that the TRMM precipitation data were of high accuracy. Studies in temporal scale are indicative of the strike of drought in this region to the effect that for most months of the year, frequency and duration in dry periods are much more than in wet periods. As for seasonal scales, apart from winter, the frequency and duration of drought in spring and autumn have been longer than in wet years. Moreover, the duration of these periods was different. A comparison between the results of changes in fountain discharges and drought index in the region has verified that the drought has caused a remarkable decline in the fountain discharges.

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  • 5.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Qena, Egypt. Centre for Security, Communications and Network Research, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.
    Hassaballah, M.
    Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computers and Information, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.
    Bag-of-Visual-Words for Cattle Identification from Muzzle Print Images2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 22, article id 4914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cattle, buffalo and cow identification plays an influential role in cattle traceability from birth to slaughter, understanding disease trajectories and large-scale cattle ownership management. Muzzle print images are considered discriminating cattle biometric identifiers for biometric-based cattle identification and traceability. This paper presents an exploration of the performance of the bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) approach in cattle identification using local invariant features extracted from a database of muzzle print images. Two local invariant feature detectors—namely, speeded-up robust features (SURF) and maximally stable extremal regions (MSER)—are used as feature extraction engines in the BoVW model. The performance evaluation criteria include several factors, namely, the identification accuracy, processing time and the number of features. The experimental work measures the performance of the BoVW model under a variable number of input muzzle print images in the training, validation, and testing phases. The identification accuracy values when utilizing the SURF feature detector and descriptor were 75%, 83%, 91%, and 93% for when 30%, 45%, 60%, and 75% of the database was used in the training phase, respectively. However, using MSER as a points-of-interest detector combined with the SURF descriptor achieved accuracies of 52%, 60%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, when applying the same training sizes. The research findings have proven the feasibility of deploying the BoVW paradigm in cattle identification using local invariant features extracted from muzzle print images. 

  • 6.
    Belay, Birhanu
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany. Faculty of Computing, Bahir Dar Institute of Technology, Ethiopia.
    Habtegebrial, Tewodros
    Department of Computer Science, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Meshesha, Million
    School of Information Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Belay, Gebeyehu
    Faculty of Computing, Bahir Dar Institute of Technology, Ethiopia.
    Stricker, Didier
    Department of Computer Science, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany. German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, DFKI, Germany.
    Amharic OCR: An End-to-End Learning2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce an end-to-end Amharic text-line image recognition approach based on recurrent neural networks. Amharic is an indigenous Ethiopic script which follows a unique syllabic writing system adopted from an ancient Geez script. This script uses 34 consonant characters with the seven vowel variants of each (called basic characters) and other labialized characters derived by adding diacritical marks and/or removing parts of the basic characters. These associated diacritics on basic characters are relatively smaller in size, visually similar, and challenging to distinguish from the derived characters. Motivated by the recent success of end-to-end learning in pattern recognition, we propose a model which integrates a feature extractor, sequence learner, and transcriber in a unified module and then trained in an end-to-end fashion. The experimental results, on a printed and synthetic benchmark Amharic Optical Character Recognition (OCR) database called ADOCR, demonstrated that the proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art methods by 6.98% and 1.05%, respectively.

  • 7.
    Enrichi, Francesco
    et al.
    CNR-ISP Istituto di Scienze Polari, c/o campus scientifico Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venezia, Italy. Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venezia, Italy.
    Cattaruzza, Elti
    Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venezia, Italy.
    Finotto, Tiziano
    Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venezia, Italy.
    Riello, Pietro
    Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venezia, Italy.
    Righini, Giancarlo C.
    Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 1, 00184 Roma, Italy. CNR-IFAC Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy.
    Trave, Enrico
    Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venezia, Italy.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venezia, Italy.
    Ag-Sensitized NIR-Emitting Yb3+-Doped Glass-Ceramics2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 2184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical photoluminescent (PL) emission of Yb3+ ions in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region at about 950–1100 nm has many potential applications, from photovoltaics to lasers and visual devices. However, due to their simple energy-level structure, Yb3+ ions cannot directly absorb UV or visible light, putting serious limits on their use as light emitters. In this paper we describe a broadband and efficient strategy for sensitizing Yb3+ ions by Ag codoping, resulting in a strong 980 nm PL emission under UV and violet-blue light excitation. Yb-doped silica–zirconia–soda glass–ceramic films were synthesized by sol-gel and dip-coating, followed by annealing at 1000 °C. Ag was then introduced by ion-exchange in a molten salt bath for 1 h at 350 °C. Different post-exchange annealing temperatures for 1 h in air at 380 °C and 430 °C were compared to investigate the possibility of migration/aggregation of the metal ions. Studies of composition showed about 1–2 wt% Ag in the exchanged samples, not modified by annealing. Structural analysis reported the stabilization of cubic zirconia by Yb-doping. Optical measurements showed that, in particular for the highest annealing temperature of 430 °C, the potential improvement of the material’s quality, which would increase the PL emission, is less relevant than Ag-aggregation, which decreases the sensitizers number, resulting in a net reduction of the PL intensity. However, all the Ag-exchanged samples showed a broadband Yb3+ sensitization by energy transfer from Ag aggregates, clearly attested by a broad photoluminescence excitation spectra after Ag-exchange, paving the way for applications in various fields, such as solar cells and NIR-emitting devices.

  • 8.
    Hashim, Bassim Mohammed
    et al.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Sultan, Maitham Abdullah
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Attyia, Mazin Najem
    Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al Maliki, Ali A.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Change Detection and Impact of Climate Changes to Iraqi Southern Marshes Using Landsat 2 MSS, Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI Data and GIS Applications2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 2016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marshes represent a unique ecosystem covering a large area of southern Iraq. In a major environmental disaster, the marshes of Iraq were drained, especially during the 1990s. Since then, droughts and the decrease in water imports from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from Turkey and Iran have prevented them from regaining their former extent. The aim of this research is to extract the values of the normalized dierence vegetation index (NDVI) for the period 1977–2017 from Landsat 2 MSS (multispectral scanner), Landsat 8 OLI (operational land imager) and Sentinel 2 MSI (multi-spectral imaging mission) satellite images and use supervised classification to quantify land and water cover change. The results from the two satellites (Landsat 2 and Landsat 8) are compared with Sentinel 2 to determine the best tool for detecting changes in land and water cover. We also assess the potential impacts of climate change through the study of the annual average maximum temperature and recipitation in dierent areas in the marshes for the period 1981–2016. The NDVI analysis and image classification showed the degradation of vegetation and water bodies in the marshes, as vast areas of natural vegetation and agricultural lands disappeared and were replaced with barren areas. The marshes were influenced by climatic change, including rising emperature and the diminishing amount of precipitation during 1981–2016.

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  • 9.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Hermansson, Anders
    Adage AB, C/O BnearIT.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    BnearIT AB.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    A multi-usable cloud service platform: a case study on improved development pace and efficiency2018In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The case study, spanning three contexts, concerns a multi-usable cloud service platform for big data collection and analytics and how the development pace and efficiency of it has been improved 50-75% by using the Arrowhead framework and changing development processes/practices. Further, additional results captured during the case study are related to technology, competencies and skills, organization, management, infrastructure, and service and support. A conclusion is that when offering a complex offer such as an Industrial Product-Service System, comprising sensors, hardware, communications, software, cloud service platform, etc., it is necessary that the technology, business model, business set up and organization all go hand in hand during the development and later operation, as all “components” are required for a successful result.

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  • 10.
    Lotfian, Samira
    et al.
    Boliden Mineral AB, Boliden, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Jokilaakso, Ari
    School of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Sustainable Management of the Plastic-Rich Fraction of WEEE by Utilization as a Reducing Agent in Metallurgical Processes2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 20, article id 4224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern society, there is a fast growth in the production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE); however, rapid growth results in the frequent discarding of this equipment. During the treatment of discarded materials, a stream is generated that contains a high fraction of plastic materials, but also metals and oxides. This stream, which is called shredder residue material (SRM), is heterogeneous, which limits its recycling options. Utilizing this material in metallurgical processes allows the plastic fraction to be used as a reductant and energy source and the metallic fraction to be recycled and returned to the production of EEE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plastic-containing materials, especially SRM, as alternative reductants in metallurgical processes. The first step was to compare the thermal conversion characteristics of plastic-containing materials to the currently used reducing agent, i.e., coal. Three main candidates, polyurethane (PUR), polyethylene (PE), and SRM, were studied using a drop tube furnace and an optical single-particle burner. PE had the highest volatile content and the fastest conversion time, whereas PUR had the longest conversion time. Thereafter, plastic materials were tested at the industrial scale through injection to the zinc fuming process at the Boliden Rönnskär smelter. During the industrial trial, the amount of coal that was injected was reduced and substituted with plastic material. The results indicate the possibility of reducing the coal injection rate in favor of partial substitution with plastic materials.

  • 11.
    Martinetti, Alberto
    et al.
    Design, Production and Management Department, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Costa Marques, Henrique
    Logistics Engineering Laboratory, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    van Dongen, Leo
    Design, Production and Management Department, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Reflections on the Limited Pervasiveness of Augmented Reality in Industrial Sectors2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 16, article id 3382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to investigate the reasons why Augmented Reality (AR) has not fully broken the industrial market yet, or found a wider application in industries. The main research question the paper tries to answer is: what are the factors (and to what extent) that are limiting AR? Firstly, a reflection on the state of art of AR applications in industries is proposed, to discover the sectors more commonly chosen for deploying the technology so far. Later, based on a survey conducted after that, three AR applications have been tested on manufacturing, automotive, and railway sectors, and the paper pinpoints key aspects that are conditioning its embedding in the daily working life. In order to compare whether the perception of employees from railway, automotive, and manufacturing sectors differs significantly, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used. Later, suggestions are formulated in order to improve these aspects in the industry world. Finally, the paper indicates the main conclusions, highlighting possible future researches to start.

  • 12.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Molecular science of lubricant additives2017In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review aims at introducing an engineering field of lubrication to researchers who are not familiar with tribology, thereby emphasizing the importance of lubricant chemistry in applied science. It provides initial guidance regarding additive chemistry in lubrication systems for researchers with different backgrounds. The readers will be introduced to molecular sciences underlying lubrication engineering. Currently, lubricant chemistry, especially "additive technology", looks like a very complicated field. It seems that scientific information is not always shared by researchers. The cause of this is that lubrication engineering is based on empirical methods and focuses on market requirements. In this regard, engineering knowhow is held by individuals and is not being disclosed to scientific communities. Under these circumstances, a bird's-eye view of lubricant chemistry in scientific words is necessary. The novelty of this review is to concisely explain the whole picture of additive technology in chemical terms. The roles and functions of additives as the leading actors in lubrication systems are highlighted within the scope of molecular science. First, I give an overview of the fundamental lubrication model and the role of lubricants in machine operations. The existing additives are categorized by the role and work mechanism in lubrication system. Examples of additives are shown with representative molecular structure. The second half of this review explains the scientific background of the lubrication engineering. It includes interactions of different components in lubrication systems. Finally, this review predicts the technical trends in lubricant chemistry and requirements in molecular science. This review does not aim to be a comprehensive chart or present manufacturing knowhow in lubrication engineering. References were carefully selected and cited to extract "the most common opinion" in lubricant chemistry and therefore many engineering articles were omitted for conciseness

  • 13.
    Nguyen, Phong Tung
    et al.
    Vietnam Academy for Water Resources, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Ha, Duong Hai
    Institute for Water and Environment, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Avand, Mohammadtaghi
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-111, Iran.
    Jaafari, Abolfazl
    Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O. Box 64414-356, Tehran, Iran.
    Nguyen, Huu Duy
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Phong, Tran Van
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Sharma, Rohit
    Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Ghaziabad 201204, India.
    Kumar, Raghvendra
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GIET University, Gunupur 765022, India.
    Le, Hiep Van
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382002, India.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Soft Computing Ensemble Models Based on Logistic Regression for Groundwater Potential Mapping2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 2469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater potential maps are one of the most important tools for the management of groundwater storage resources. In this study, we proposed four ensemble soft computing models based on logistic regression (LR) combined with the dagging (DLR), bagging (BLR), random subspace (RSSLR), and cascade generalization (CGLR) ensemble techniques for groundwater potential mapping in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A suite of well yield data and twelve geo-environmental factors (aspect, elevation, slope, curvature, Sediment Transport Index, Topographic Wetness Index, flow direction, rainfall, river density, soil, land use, and geology) were used for generating the training and validation datasets required for the building and validation of the models. Based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and several other validation methods (negative predictive value, positive predictive value, root mean square error, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa), it was revealed that all four ensemble learning techniques were successful in enhancing the validation performance of the base LR model. The ensemble DLR model (AUC = 0.77) was the most successful model in identifying the groundwater potential zones in the study area, followed by the RSSLR (AUC = 0.744), BLR (AUC = 0.735), CGLR (AUC = 0.715), and single LR model (AUC = 0.71), respectively. The models developed in this study and the resulting potential maps can assist decision-makers in the development of effective adaptive groundwater management plans.

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  • 14.
    Nieto-Peroy, Cristóbal
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Emami, Reza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Aerospace Mechatronics Group, University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    CubeSat Mission: From Design to Operation2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 15, article id 3110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current success rate of CubeSat missions, particularly for first-time developers, may discourage non-profit organizations to start new projects. CubeSat development teams may not be able to dedicate the resources that are necessary to maintain Quality Assurance as it is performed for the reliable conventional satellite projects. This paper discusses the structured life-cycle of a CubeSat project, using as a reference the authors’ recent experience of developing and operating a 2U CubeSat, called qbee50-LTU-OC, as part of the QB50 mission. This paper also provides a critique of some of the current poor practices and methodologies while carrying out CubeSat projects.

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  • 15.
    Nyberg, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Formation of Boundary Film from Ionic Liquids Enhanced by Additives2017In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have several properties that make them interesting candidates as base fluids for extreme conditions. However, a lack of compatibility with tribo-improving additives combined with an often overly aggressive nature is limiting their use as base fluids. To overcome these drawbacks, hydrocarbon-imitating RTIL base fluids have recently been developed. In this study, the effects of several common additives in the novel RTIL (P-SiSO) were examined by laboratory tribotesting. A reciprocating steel-steel ball-on-flat setup in an air atmosphere was used, where the lubricant performance was evaluated over a range of loads and temperatures. Surface analyses after testing were carried out using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Neat P-SiSO displayed high performance in the tribotests. At an elevated load and temperature, a shift in lubrication mode was observed with an accompanying increase in friction and wear. Surface analysis revealed a boundary film rich in Si and O in the primary lubrication mode, while P was detected after a shift to the secondary lubrication mode. An amine additive was effective in reducing wear and friction under harsh conditions. The amine was determined to increase formation of the protective Si–O film, presumably by enhancing the anion activity.

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  • 16.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Haghbin, Masoud
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Aldlemy, Mohammed Suleman
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Collage of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Benghazi, Libya.
    Mussa, Mohamed H.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Warith Al-Anbiyaa, Karbala 56001, Iraq.
    Al Zand, Ahmed W.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Ali, Mumtaz
    Deakin-SWU Joint Research Centre on Big Data, School of Information Technology, Deakin University, Victoria 3125, Australia.
    Bhagat, Suraj Kumar
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Development of Advanced Computer Aid Model for Shear Strength of Concrete Slender Beam Prediction2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-strength concrete (HSC) is highly applicable to the construction of heavy structures. However, shear strength (Ss) determination of HSC is a crucial concern for structure designers and decision makers. The current research proposes the novel models based on the combination of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with several meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, including ant colony optimizer (ACO), differential evolution (DE), genetic algorithm (GA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO), to predict the Ss of HSC slender beam. The proposed models were constructed using several input combinations incorporating several related dimensional parameters such as effective depth of beam (d), shear span (a), maximum size of aggregate (ag), compressive strength of concrete (fc), and percentage of tension reinforcement (ρ). To assess the impact of the non-homogeneity of the dataset on the prediction result accuracy, two possible modeling scenarios, (i) non-processed (initial) dataset (NP) and (ii) pre-processed dataset (PP), are inspected by several performance indices. The modeling results demonstrated that ANFIS-PSO hybrid model attained the best prediction accuracy over the other models and for the pre-processed input parameters. Several uncertainty analyses were examined (i.e., model, variables, and data), and results indicated predicting the HSC shear strength was more sensitive to the model structure uncertainty than the input parameters.

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  • 17.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Haghbin, Masoud
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Asadollah, Seyed Babak Haji Seyed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Tiwari, Nand Kumar
    Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Scouring Depth Assessment Downstream of Weirs Using Hybrid Intelligence Models2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the scouring depth downstream of weirs is a challenging issue due to its effect on weir stability. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) model integrated with optimization methods namely cultural algorithm, biogeography based optimization (BBO), invasive weed optimization (IWO) and teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) are proposed to predict the maximum depth of scouring based on the different input combinations. Several performance indices and graphical evaluators are employed to estimate the prediction accuracy in the training and testing phase. Results show that the ANFIS-IWO offers the highest prediction performance (RMSE = 0.148) compared to other models in the testing phase, while the ANFIS-BBO (RMSE = 0.411)ANFIS-TLBO-M3 RMSEtesting=0.411, CCtesting~0.00) provides the lowest accuracy. The findings obtained from the uncertainty analysis of prediction modeling indicate that the input variables variability R-factor=1.72has a higher impact on the predicted results than the structure of models. In general, the ANFIS-IWO can be used as a reliable and cost-effective method for predicting the scouring depth downstream of weirs.

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  • 18.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gradient Correlation Functions in Digital Image Correlation2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 2127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of seven different correlation functions applied in Digital Image Correlation has been investigated using simulated and experimentally acquired laser speckle patterns. The correlation functions were constructed as combinations of the pure intensity correlation function, the gradient correlation function and the Hessian correlation function, respectively. It was found that the correlation function that was constructed as the product of all three pure correlation functions performed best for the small speckle sizes and large correlation values, respectively. The difference between the different functions disappeared as the speckle size increased and the correlation value dropped. On average, the random error of the combined correlation function was half that of the traditional intensity correlation function within the optimum region.

  • 19.
    Strandkvist, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Pålsson, Kjell
    AB Indesko, Västerås, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Minimizing Chromium Leaching from Low-Alloy Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Slag by Adjusting the Basicity and Cooling Rate to Control Brownmillerite Formation2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 35-50, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brownmillerite is connected to chromium leaching when present in steel slags. To prevent chromium leaching, brownmillerite in slag should be prevented. Two methods for decreasing brownmillerite content in low-alloy electric arc furnace (EAF) slag were investigated: decreasing the basicity and increasing the cooling rate. The methods were tried on both laboratory scale and in full-scale production. In the laboratory scale experiments, chromium leaching decreased as the basicity decreased until brownmillerite was no longer present, slower cooling resulted in increased chromium leaching, and faster cooling decreased chromium leaching. In full-scale production, basicity modified single batches, with a basicity below 2.2, generally leached less chromium than slag batches with higher basicity, thus verifying the correlation between basicity and chromium leaching seen in laboratory scale experiments. The cooling process in the full-scale experiments was achieved either by letting the slag cool by itself in the air or by water spraying. The water-sprayed slag, which cooled faster, had less chromium leaching than the air-cooled slag. The full-scale production experiments confirmed that both decreasing basicity below 2.2 and increasing the rate of cooling could be used to decrease chromium leaching.

  • 20.
    Tran, Quoc Cuong
    et al.
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Minh, Duc Do
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Jaafari, Abolfazl
    Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O. Box 64414-356, Tehran 64414, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Minh, Duc Dao
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam. Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Graduate University of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Van, Duc Tung
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Duc Anh
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Tran, Trung Hieu
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Program, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-527, Japan.
    Nguyen, Duy Huu
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382002, India.
    Le, Hiep Van
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Novel Ensemble Landslide Predictive Models Based on the Hyperpipes Algorithm: A Case Study in the Nam Dam Commune, Vietnam2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of landslide predictive models with strong prediction power has become a major focus of many researchers. This study describes the first application of the Hyperpipes (HP) algorithm for the development of the five novel ensemble models that combine the HP algorithm and the AdaBoost (AB), Bagging (B), Dagging, Decorate, and Real AdaBoost (RAB) ensemble techniques for mapping the spatial variability of landslide susceptibility in the Nam Dan commune, Ha Giang province, Vietnam. Information on 76 historical landslides and ten geo-environmental factors (slope degree, slope aspect, elevation, topographic wetness index, curvature, weathering crust, geology, river density, fault density, and distance from roads) were used for the construction of the training and validation datasets that are the prerequisites for building and testing the proposed models. Using different performance metrics (i.e., the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), negative predictive value, positive predictive value, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, root mean square error, and Kappa), we verified the proficiency of all five ensemble learning techniques in increasing the fitness and predictive powers of the base HP model. Based on the AUC values derived from the models, the ensemble ABHP model that yielded an AUC value of 0.922 was identified as the most efficient model for mapping the landslide susceptibility in the Nam Dan commune, followed by RABHP (AUC = 0.919), BHP (AUC = 0.909), Dagging-HP (AUC = 0.897), Decorate-HP (AUC = 0.865), and the single HP model (AUC = 0.856), respectively. The novel ensemble models proposed for the Nam Dan commune and the resultant susceptibility maps can aid land-use planners in the development of efficient mitigation strategies in response to destructive landslides.

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  • 21.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Design optimization of a district heating network expansion: a case study for the town of Kiruna2017In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urbanization of new areas beyond the existing perimeter of a town implies the expansion of several infrastructures, including the district heating network. The main variables involved in the design of the district heating network expansion are the layout of the new pipes, their diameters, and the capacity of the new heat production sites that are required to satisfy the increased demand of room heating and hot tap water. In this paper, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is applied to the minimization of the costs related to the expansion of the district heating network of the town of Kiruna, in northern Sweden. The results show that the spectrum of the optimal design compromises between investment costs for the new pipes and the new heat generation site on one side, and operating costs due to overall fuel consumption and pumping power in the network on the other. The presented methodology is a tool meant for the decision makers in the company who own the district heating network, to evaluate all the possible best design alternatives before making a decision.

  • 22.
    Vázquez-Martín, Sandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kuhn, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Eliasson, Salomon
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Shape Dependence of Falling Snow Crystals’ Microphysical Properties Using an Updated Shape Classification2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 1163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present ground-based in situ snow measurements in Kiruna, Sweden, using the ground-based in situ instrument Dual Ice Crystal Imager (D-ICI). D-ICI records dual high-resolution images from above and from the side of falling natural snow crystals and other hydrometeors with particle sizes ranging from 50 µm to 4 mm. The images are from multiple snowfall seasons during the winters of 2014/2015 to 2018/2019, which span from the beginning of November to the middle of May. From our images, the microphysical properties of individual particles, such as particle size, cross-sectional area, area ratio, aspect ratio, and shape, can be determined. We present an updated classification scheme, which comprises a total of 135 unique shapes, including 34 new snow crystal shapes. This is useful for other studies that are using previous shape classification schemes, in particular the widely used Magono–Lee classification. To facilitate the study of the shape dependence of the microphysical properties, we further sort these individual particle shapes into 15 different shape groups. Relationships between the microphysical properties are determined for each of these shape groups.

  • 23.
    Wu, Bo
    et al.
    School of Physics and Electronic Science, Zunyi Normal University, Zunyi, China. School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China.
    Huang, Haishen
    School of Physics and Electronic Science, Zunyi Normal University, Zunyi, China. School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Guangdong
    Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang, China.
    Feng, Yu
    School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, China.
    Chen, Ying
    School of Mathematics and Physics, Anshun University, Anshun, China.
    Wang, Xiangjian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Structure, Magnetism, and Electronic Properties of Inverse Heusler Alloy Ti2CoAl/MgO(100) Herterojuction: the Role of Interfaces2018In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 2336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the interface structures, atom-resolved magnetism, density of states, and spin polarization of 10 possible atomic terminations in the Ti2CoAl/MgO(100) heterojunction were comprehensively investigated using first-principle calculations. In the equilibrium interface structures, the length of the alloy-Mg bond was found to be much longer than that of the alloy-O bond because of the forceful repulsion interactions between theHeusler interface atoms andMg atoms. The competition among d-electronic hybridization, d-electronic localization, and the moving effect of the interface metal atoms played an important role in the interface atomic magnetic moment. Unexpected interface states appeared in the half-metallic gap for all terminations. The "ideal" half-metallicity observed in the bulk had been destroyed. In TiAl-Mg and AlAl-O terminations, the maximal spin polarization of about 65% could be reserved. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) value was deduced to be lower than 150% in the Ti2CoAl/MgO(100) heterojunction at low temperature.

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