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  • 1.
    Hashim, Bassim Mohammed
    et al.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Sultan, Maitham Abdullah
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Attyia, Mazin Najem
    Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al Maliki, Ali A.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Change Detection and Impact of Climate Changes to Iraqi Southern Marshes Using Landsat 2 MSS, Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI Data and GIS Applications2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 2016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marshes represent a unique ecosystem covering a large area of southern Iraq. In a major environmental disaster, the marshes of Iraq were drained, especially during the 1990s. Since then, droughts and the decrease in water imports from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from Turkey and Iran have prevented them from regaining their former extent. The aim of this research is to extract the values of the normalized dierence vegetation index (NDVI) for the period 1977–2017 from Landsat 2 MSS (multispectral scanner), Landsat 8 OLI (operational land imager) and Sentinel 2 MSI (multi-spectral imaging mission) satellite images and use supervised classification to quantify land and water cover change. The results from the two satellites (Landsat 2 and Landsat 8) are compared with Sentinel 2 to determine the best tool for detecting changes in land and water cover. We also assess the potential impacts of climate change through the study of the annual average maximum temperature and recipitation in dierent areas in the marshes for the period 1981–2016. The NDVI analysis and image classification showed the degradation of vegetation and water bodies in the marshes, as vast areas of natural vegetation and agricultural lands disappeared and were replaced with barren areas. The marshes were influenced by climatic change, including rising emperature and the diminishing amount of precipitation during 1981–2016.

  • 2.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Hermansson, Anders
    Adage AB, C/O BnearIT.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    BnearIT AB.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    A multi-usable cloud service platform: a case study on improved development pace and efficiency2018In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The case study, spanning three contexts, concerns a multi-usable cloud service platform for big data collection and analytics and how the development pace and efficiency of it has been improved 50-75% by using the Arrowhead framework and changing development processes/practices. Further, additional results captured during the case study are related to technology, competencies and skills, organization, management, infrastructure, and service and support. A conclusion is that when offering a complex offer such as an Industrial Product-Service System, comprising sensors, hardware, communications, software, cloud service platform, etc., it is necessary that the technology, business model, business set up and organization all go hand in hand during the development and later operation, as all “components” are required for a successful result.

  • 3.
    Martinetti, Alberto
    et al.
    Design, Production and Management Department, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Costa Marques, Henrique
    Logistics Engineering Laboratory, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    van Dongen, Leo
    Design, Production and Management Department, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Reflections on the Limited Pervasiveness of Augmented Reality in Industrial Sectors2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 16, article id 3382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to investigate the reasons why Augmented Reality (AR) has not fully broken the industrial market yet, or found a wider application in industries. The main research question the paper tries to answer is: what are the factors (and to what extent) that are limiting AR? Firstly, a reflection on the state of art of AR applications in industries is proposed, to discover the sectors more commonly chosen for deploying the technology so far. Later, based on a survey conducted after that, three AR applications have been tested on manufacturing, automotive, and railway sectors, and the paper pinpoints key aspects that are conditioning its embedding in the daily working life. In order to compare whether the perception of employees from railway, automotive, and manufacturing sectors differs significantly, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used. Later, suggestions are formulated in order to improve these aspects in the industry world. Finally, the paper indicates the main conclusions, highlighting possible future researches to start.

  • 4.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Molecular science of lubricant additives2017In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review aims at introducing an engineering field of lubrication to researchers who are not familiar with tribology, thereby emphasizing the importance of lubricant chemistry in applied science. It provides initial guidance regarding additive chemistry in lubrication systems for researchers with different backgrounds. The readers will be introduced to molecular sciences underlying lubrication engineering. Currently, lubricant chemistry, especially "additive technology", looks like a very complicated field. It seems that scientific information is not always shared by researchers. The cause of this is that lubrication engineering is based on empirical methods and focuses on market requirements. In this regard, engineering knowhow is held by individuals and is not being disclosed to scientific communities. Under these circumstances, a bird's-eye view of lubricant chemistry in scientific words is necessary. The novelty of this review is to concisely explain the whole picture of additive technology in chemical terms. The roles and functions of additives as the leading actors in lubrication systems are highlighted within the scope of molecular science. First, I give an overview of the fundamental lubrication model and the role of lubricants in machine operations. The existing additives are categorized by the role and work mechanism in lubrication system. Examples of additives are shown with representative molecular structure. The second half of this review explains the scientific background of the lubrication engineering. It includes interactions of different components in lubrication systems. Finally, this review predicts the technical trends in lubricant chemistry and requirements in molecular science. This review does not aim to be a comprehensive chart or present manufacturing knowhow in lubrication engineering. References were carefully selected and cited to extract "the most common opinion" in lubricant chemistry and therefore many engineering articles were omitted for conciseness

  • 5.
    Nieto-Peroy, Cristóbal
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Emami, Reza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Aerospace Mechatronics Group, University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    CubeSat Mission: From Design to Operation2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 15, article id 3110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current success rate of CubeSat missions, particularly for first-time developers, may discourage non-profit organizations to start new projects. CubeSat development teams may not be able to dedicate the resources that are necessary to maintain Quality Assurance as it is performed for the reliable conventional satellite projects. This paper discusses the structured life-cycle of a CubeSat project, using as a reference the authors’ recent experience of developing and operating a 2U CubeSat, called qbee50-LTU-OC, as part of the QB50 mission. This paper also provides a critique of some of the current poor practices and methodologies while carrying out CubeSat projects.

  • 6.
    Nyberg, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Formation of Boundary Film from Ionic Liquids Enhanced by Additives2017In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have several properties that make them interesting candidates as base fluids for extreme conditions. However, a lack of compatibility with tribo-improving additives combined with an often overly aggressive nature is limiting their use as base fluids. To overcome these drawbacks, hydrocarbon-imitating RTIL base fluids have recently been developed. In this study, the effects of several common additives in the novel RTIL (P-SiSO) were examined by laboratory tribotesting. A reciprocating steel-steel ball-on-flat setup in an air atmosphere was used, where the lubricant performance was evaluated over a range of loads and temperatures. Surface analyses after testing were carried out using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Neat P-SiSO displayed high performance in the tribotests. At an elevated load and temperature, a shift in lubrication mode was observed with an accompanying increase in friction and wear. Surface analysis revealed a boundary film rich in Si and O in the primary lubrication mode, while P was detected after a shift to the secondary lubrication mode. An amine additive was effective in reducing wear and friction under harsh conditions. The amine was determined to increase formation of the protective Si–O film, presumably by enhancing the anion activity.

  • 7.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gradient Correlation Functions in Digital Image Correlation2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 2127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of seven different correlation functions applied in Digital Image Correlation has been investigated using simulated and experimentally acquired laser speckle patterns. The correlation functions were constructed as combinations of the pure intensity correlation function, the gradient correlation function and the Hessian correlation function, respectively. It was found that the correlation function that was constructed as the product of all three pure correlation functions performed best for the small speckle sizes and large correlation values, respectively. The difference between the different functions disappeared as the speckle size increased and the correlation value dropped. On average, the random error of the combined correlation function was half that of the traditional intensity correlation function within the optimum region.

  • 8.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Design optimization of a district heating network expansion: a case study for the town of Kiruna2017In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urbanization of new areas beyond the existing perimeter of a town implies the expansion of several infrastructures, including the district heating network. The main variables involved in the design of the district heating network expansion are the layout of the new pipes, their diameters, and the capacity of the new heat production sites that are required to satisfy the increased demand of room heating and hot tap water. In this paper, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is applied to the minimization of the costs related to the expansion of the district heating network of the town of Kiruna, in northern Sweden. The results show that the spectrum of the optimal design compromises between investment costs for the new pipes and the new heat generation site on one side, and operating costs due to overall fuel consumption and pumping power in the network on the other. The presented methodology is a tool meant for the decision makers in the company who own the district heating network, to evaluate all the possible best design alternatives before making a decision.

  • 9.
    Wu, Bo
    et al.
    School of Physics and Electronic Science, Zunyi Normal University, Zunyi, China. School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China.
    Huang, Haishen
    School of Physics and Electronic Science, Zunyi Normal University, Zunyi, China. School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Guangdong
    Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang, China.
    Feng, Yu
    School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, China.
    Chen, Ying
    School of Mathematics and Physics, Anshun University, Anshun, China.
    Wang, Xiangjian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Structure, Magnetism, and Electronic Properties of Inverse Heusler Alloy Ti2CoAl/MgO(100) Herterojuction: the Role of Interfaces2018In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 2336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the interface structures, atom-resolved magnetism, density of states, and spin polarization of 10 possible atomic terminations in the Ti2CoAl/MgO(100) heterojunction were comprehensively investigated using first-principle calculations. In the equilibrium interface structures, the length of the alloy-Mg bond was found to be much longer than that of the alloy-O bond because of the forceful repulsion interactions between theHeusler interface atoms andMg atoms. The competition among d-electronic hybridization, d-electronic localization, and the moving effect of the interface metal atoms played an important role in the interface atomic magnetic moment. Unexpected interface states appeared in the half-metallic gap for all terminations. The "ideal" half-metallicity observed in the bulk had been destroyed. In TiAl-Mg and AlAl-O terminations, the maximal spin polarization of about 65% could be reserved. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) value was deduced to be lower than 150% in the Ti2CoAl/MgO(100) heterojunction at low temperature.

1 - 9 of 9
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