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  • 1.
    Bunaziv, Ivan
    et al.
    SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Frostevarg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Ren, Xiaobo
    SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Akselsen, Odd M.
    SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Porosity and solidification cracking in welded 45 mm thick steel by fiber laser-MAG process2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 36, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porosity and solidification cracking in joining of thick sections are very common issues in deep penetration keyhole laser-arc hybrid welding (LAHW). In the present work, 45 mm thick high strength steel was joined by a double-sided technique. With combined use of fast welding speeds and larger air gap between plates, higher amount of porosity was found because of the dynamic behavior of the keyhole walls. Solidification cracking formed at the centerline in the bottom of the weld due to high-depth-to-width geometrical ratio. Numerical simulations have been performed and showed very high cooling rate and stresses occurred in the root of the deep welds, which corresponds with higher cracking tendency.

  • 2.
    Edberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, 461 86 Trolhättan.
    Use of Indicators for Hot and Warm Cracking in Welded Structures2016In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 7, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weight reduction of mechanical components is becoming increasingly important as a way to provide more environment friendly production and operation of different equipment. This is true in almost any manufacturing industry, but is especially important to the aerospace industry. Casting has often been replaced by hot and cold metal working operations and welding, usually including an additional heat treatment. This gives components better material properties and provides components with less weight and cost but with increased strength and efficiency. This may even be true for rotating Ni- based superalloy components, and is enabled by welding methods. However, weld cracking of precipitation hardening Ni-based superalloys is a serious problem, both in manufacturing and overhaul since it endangers component life if cracks are allowed to propagate.

    Cracks can appear in a weld and in it's surroundings. The triggering mechanisms depend on its location and when it is nucleated. Generally saying, weld cracking in precipitation hardening Ni-based superalloys consists of two different types of cracking, hot cracking and warm cracking which may be further divided into heat affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking, solidification cracking and strain age cracking, respectively.

    Finite element simulations of welding and heat treatment processes started in the seventies for small laboratory set-up cases and have today matured, and are now used on large-scale structures like aerospace components. But FE-based crack criteria that can predict the risk of cracking due to welding or heat treatments are rare. In a recent study both hot cracking and warm cracking have been investigated in Ni-based superalloys, and two FE-based indicators showing the risk of hot and warm cracks have been proposed. The objective of the investigation presented in this paper is to compare results from FE-simulations with experimental results from weldability tests, like the Varestraint test and the high temperature mechanical Gleeble test.

  • 3.
    Frostevarg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Volpp, Jöerg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Thompson, Cassidy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Prasad, Himani Siva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Brückner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology, Dresden, Germany.
    Influence of the vapour channel on processing in laser powder bed fusion2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 36, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing provides many opportunities to design and manufacture parts that are difficult or not possible to produce with conventional methods. In Selective Laser Melting (SLM) in powder bed fusion (PBF), melt pool dynamics and stability is dependent on a large number of factors, e.g. laser power output, power density, travel speed, reflectivity of powder bed, rapid heating and vaporization. Since travel speeds are often very fast and the laser interaction zone is small, the physical events become difficult to predict but also to observe. This work aims to describe the formation and geometrical characteristics of the vaporization zone during processing. Using a combination of theoretical descriptions, resulting material structures and a comprehensive analysis of high-speed images of the processing zone for different heat inputs and travel speeds, explanations for the dynamic melt pool behaviour are derived. The melting and pressures from processing involved moves powder particles next to it, changing the conditions for neighbouring tracks due to lack of material. These findings can provide a basis for creating more efficient and stable SLM processing, with fewer imperfections.

  • 4.
    Gröhn, Laura
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Metsälä, Samuli
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Nyholm, Magnus
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Saikko, Lauri
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Väänänen, Eero
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Manufacturing System Upgrade with Wireless and Distributed Automation2017In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 11, p. 1012-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of developing a distributed factory automation system model upgrade with decentralized control deployed on a network of six programmable automation controllers communicating wirelessly. The goal is to develop a distributed system which is flexible enough, and easier to reconfigure with on-the-fly online software updates in a smart factory automation environment. Our approach benefits mainly production industries which require a robust and modular software design requiring less effort for their production line. The developed solution aims at flexibility, re-configurability, ease of maintenance and reduced downtime costs.

  • 5.
    Kaplan, Alexander F.H
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Robertson, Stephanie M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Frostevarg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Volpp, Joerg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Ramasamy, Anandkumar
    Lincoln Electric Europe, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Kalfsbeek, Bert
    Lincoln Electric Europe, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Microstructure morphology characterization of welding consumables studied by pulse-shaped laser heating2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 36, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During welding, wire consumables can essentially contribute to the resulting microstructures and mechanical properties. In order to maintain high toughness even for high strength steel, certain microstructures are desirable, particularly acicular ferrite. An efficient, controllable test method was developed during which the wire is molten and experiences a thermal cycle by a shaped laser pulse, or a sequence of pulses, which shall resemble continuous laser-arc hybrid welding or narrow gap multi-layer laser welding. Different thermal cycles and wire chemistries have led to manifold microstructures. The morphology of the microstructures can become complex. Therefore, more detailed characterization of essential morphology aspects was carried out, to distinguish different results. The thermal cycles from quenching have led to shorter, thicker laths with more random orientation. The latter can be favourable for high toughness. Short reheating cycles by about 200 K/s caused finer, longer and more parallel laths, as for bainite, in varying size of blocks. Other aspects considered were grain boundary ferrite and non-metallic inclusions. Systematic variation of the thermal cycle by the testing method along with systematic description of microstructure morphology in more detail is a promising method to identify and optimize favoured routes for wire chemistry and welding techniques.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Warrol, Cecilia
    Teknikföretagen, Stockholm.
    Rönnbäck, Anna Öhrwall
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    An Assessment Model for Production Innovation: The Program Production20302018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 134-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper suggests an assessment tool for production innovation, a way of assessing innovation aspects in production development projects. The tool captures innovation as “new and value-added change of a production related activity”. The tool was tested through a questionnaire survey sent to 30 research and innovation (R&I) projects funded by the Swedish Strategic Innovation Program Produktion2030, involving research institutions and industrial organizations. Results point at a varied distribution programme impact through resulting change activities. Identified areas for innovation were materials, decision support, tools, methods, and solutions estimated as new to industry and to the global business community.

  • 7.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Integrated Design of Material, Manufacturing, Product and Performance2016In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 7, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever-increasing emphasis on sustainable growth affects mechanical engineering tremendously. The components and products must be efficient, durable and light. Potential cost and weight savings without compromising performance can be realized by extending the design space of engineering design to include manufacturing process as well as material chemistry. This requires more advanced computational support than what is common in today's Computer Aided Design. The paper proposes a modelling approach for evaluation the integrated effects of material and manufacturing on component performance. Material and process models are the key ingredients and are exemplified in the paper.

  • 8.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Lundbäck, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Fisk, Martin
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Draxler, Joar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Modelling additive manufacturing of superalloys2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 35, p. 252-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exist several variants of Additive Manufacturing (AM) applicable for metals and alloys. The two main groups are Directed Energy Deposition (DED) and Powder Bed Fusion (PBF). AM has advantages and disadvantages when compared to more traditional manufacturing methods. The best candidate products are those with complex shape and small series and particularly individualized product. Repair welding is often individualized as defects may occur at various instances in a component. This method was used before it became categorized as AM and in most cases, it is a DED process. PBF processes are more useful for smaller items and can give a finer surface. Both DED and PBF products require subsequent surface finishing for high performance components and sometimes there is also a need for post heat treatment. Modelling of AM as well as eventual post-processes can be of use in order to improve product quality, reducing costs and material waste. The paper describes the use of the finite element method to simulate these processes with focus on superalloys.

  • 9.
    Lundbäck, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Finite Element Simulation to Support Sustainable Production by Additive Manufacturing2016In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 7, p. 127-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has been identified as a disruptive manufacturing process having the potential to provide a number of sustainability advantages. Functional products with high added value and a high degree of customization can be produced. AM is particularly suited for industries in which mass customization, light weighting of parts and shortening of the supply chain are valuable. Its applications can typically be found in fields such as the medical, dental, and aerospace industries. One of the advantages with AM is that little or no scrap is generated during the process. The additive nature of the process is less wasteful than traditional subtractive methods of production. The capability to optimize the geometry to create lightweight components can reduce the material use in manufacturing. One of the challenges is for designers to start using the power of AM. To support the designers and manufacturing, there is a need for computational models to predicting the final shape, deformations and residual stresses. This paper summarizes the advantages of AM in a sustainability perspective. Some examples of application of simulation models for AM are also given.

  • 10.
    Robertson, Stephanie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Microstructural Effects of Controlled Dilution of High Strength Steel Wire into S960QL2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 36, p. 146-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlled dilution experiments were conducted in a novel manner that allowed for precise dilution of base material into the wire consumables, enabling for a prompt analysis of microstructural trends as dilution is altered. Different heat cycles and cooling rates of the wire material, without base metal additions, were shown to cause different microstructures, varying from parallel plates to random or interlocking[SR1]  orientation, with varying size of packets. The proposed method enables more controlled conditions with a known dilution value from mass percentages. Chopped filler wire is weighed and added to the base metal crucible, base metal chips are also weighed and added to the filler wire in specific mass percentages. A pulsed laser irradiates the metal, melting the mixture into a sample nugget. Lack of fusion is a benefit in this method as contamination from the base plate is negligible. The cooling rate is influenced by the pulse shape, and can be used to reheat the nugget, demonstrating the microstructural evolution in a complex thermal cycle. This method is demonstrated for S960QL steel with under-matched wire consumable, generally used for laser-arc hybrid processes to obtain high toughness, where a representative thermal cycle is needed. The thermal cycle is measured via a remote process, Dualscope, to evaluate the spacial temperature of the surface. The microstructures found using the snapshot method are similar to those found in the narrow gap multi-layer weld, different only in the size of the grains and packets.

  • 11.
    Sanda, Mohammed-Aminu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Application of Systemic Structural Theory of Activity in Unearthing Employee Innovation in Mine Work2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5147-5154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the possible formation of wildfire activities in an actor's subconsciousness and which goes unnoticed in the conduct of drilling/bolting activity in deep mines is we understand. It also sought to understand how the dynamics of this subconscious wildfire activity influences the mediation process between miners, as subjects of activity, and the objective for the drilling/bolting activity. The systemic structural activity theoretical approach is used to understand the different ways of knowing the world of mine work, in terms of the generation of new knowledge, and also in ways of helping stakeholders understand how to incorporate results or lessons learned from the systemic tasks entailed in drilling/bolting activity. Using qualitative data from interviews and video observations of bolting/drilling operations in a deep mine, parametric and morphological analyses were conducted to unearth miners’ innovation in the world of work. The paper concludes that the functional efficiency and effectiveness of drilling/bolting activities in deep mines could be enhanced by understanding the interrelationship between miners’ internal and external activities. That is, understanding miners’ practical-external activity and the corresponding external tools they might need to enhance their mental activities towards developing successful performance enhancing strategies for negotiating problematic task scenarios in rock drilling/bolting activity.

  • 12.
    Sanda, Mohammed-Aminu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Modeling Structural Activity System of R&D Firms in a Developing Economy to Enhance new Practices Implementation2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 660-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the middle and late 1960's, large numbers of Research and Development (R&D) firms were established in many developing countries to provide effective services to small and medium scale enterprises. But over the years, the ability of these R&D-oriented firms to provide such effective assistances was constrained due to management challenges. In this regard efforts were made by most of these firms to implement new management practices derived from successful business principles and practices of firms in the EU and elsewhere, in order to help strengthened their capability to provide effective client services. Yet, there was the realisation that the efforts of most of these R&D firms to implement and internalise the new management practices were constrained and as such not successful. The purpose of this study therefore, was to identify and understand the factors that constrained the R&Ds’ practices implementation and internalization efforts. Using a systemic structural activity theoretical framework and a qualitative approach, the implementation effort of an R&D firm in Trinidad was explored. The results showed that during the firm's practice implementation, the quality of its internal environment was diffused as a result of employees and management seeing things in different perspectives. This resulted in the emergence of a fuzzy understanding of the firm's corporate culture by employees, with individual interpretations and understandings of the firm's organizational values and norms. It is concluded that the R&D's effort to implement and internalize new management practices was not only constrained by factors relating to its external environment, but also by the prevalence of activity contradictions within its structural and activity system

  • 13.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu.
    Kumar, Rupesh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Evaluation of Human Error Probability of Disc Brake Unit Assembly and Wheel Set Maintenance of Railway Bogie2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 3041-3048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway sector is key to the continuous expansion of industrialized nations, but the sector's working conditions and human performance requirements are qualitatively different from other industries. Human error in railway maintenance is a subject which warrants serious attention so as to achieve and sustain a competitive advantage. This paper investigates the probability of human error during the maintenance process of disc brake assembly unit and wheel set of railway bogie under various error producing conditions in railway maintenance workshop in Luleå, Sweden. The objective is to evaluate human error probability so as to take measures to reduce the likelihood of errors occurring within a system and, thus, to improve the overall levels of safety. For this paper, a case study that explores the causes of maintenance error during disassembly, inspection, maintenance, assembly and installation was derived from brain storming sessions among subject matter experts (SMEs), i.e technicians, supervisors and academic experts. In our case study, the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) was implemented to evaluate the probability of human error occurring throughout the completion of maintenance task. HEART is based upon the principle that every time a task is performed on the maintenance of a disc brake assembly unit and wheel set, there is a likelihood of failure and the probability of this is affected by one or more error producing condition, for instance, shortage of time, over-riding information, inexperience etc. This paper presents the need for interventions in the human factor elements of maintenance tasks performed on railway bogie. A number of factors directly or indirectly result in a decline in human performance, leading to errors in maintenance tasks. The probability of a technician committing an error during maintenance of the disc brake assembly unit and wheel set is found to be 0.20 and 0.039 respectively. It has been observed that error producing conditions such as time pressure, ability to detect and perceive problems, the existence of over-riding information, the need to make absolute decisions, and a mismatch between the operator and the designer's model are major contributors to human error.

  • 14.
    Sundqvist, Jesper
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Samarjy, Ramiz Saeed Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. University of Mosul, College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mosul, Iraq.
    High-speed imaging of droplet behaviour during the CYCLAM drop-deposition technique2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 36, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The material in laser additive manufacturing is traditionally supplied in the form of powder or sometimes wire. A technique called CYCLAM was recently presented which is a fast and direct recycling technique which lowers the number of steps that need to be taken in typical recycling, allowing for a more circular economy. The CYCLAM technique proposes that waste metal is directly recycled through laser cutting or laser ablation of one sheet and the molten droplet is directly deposited onto a new product and can be used for additive manufacturing or cladding. The technique also can also use materials that otherwise are not available as powder or wires. Because of the novelty of the technique, it is still scarcely studied, and many aspects still needs to be understood. This paper focusses on high-speed imaging of the technique to understand the droplet behaviour. The material removal of the feeding sheet was done with Remote Fusion Cutting. Different power levels lead to different drop geometry and flight pattern of the drops where the drops at higher power are pushed further forward. The influence of the laser power on the shape of the deposited track can be seen from cross sections of the cladded track where higher power means that more power is transmitted through the feeding sheet and onto the substrate which creates a smoother surface

  • 15.
    Volpp, Joerg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Powder particle movement during Powder Bed Fusion2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 36, p. 26-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powder Bed Fusion is a widely used technique to produce complex parts with different materials. In principle, a pre-placed powder layer is locally melted by a laser beam and thereby fused to the previous tracks and layers. This technique offers high flexibility at fast processing speeds. High-speed laser scanning enables, on the one hand, the fast processing but induces heat, forces and pressure in and around the processing zone on the other hand. The behavior of the single particles on the powder bed around the processing zone is hard to observe and therefore not sufficiently investigated. High-speed-imaging was used in this work to track the movement of the powder particles of the powder bed during Powder Bed Fusion in order to observe and explain their behaviour. It could be observed that powder particles move towards the melt pool affecting a large area around the melt pool, which changes the powder distribution of the powder bed. This indicates that a strong gas flow is constantly present during processing, which is thought to be due to the metal vapour induced by laser evaporation but can be also induced when no vapour is present due to the temperature and pressure increase around the processing zone.

  • 16.
    Volpp, Jörg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Prasad, Himani Siva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Behavior of heated powder particles on solid surfaces2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 365-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powder particles applied through a powder nozzle as used e.g. in laser additive manufacturing or cladding processes are heated during their flight through the laser beam. The heating process and the interaction of the particle with the solid substrate were modeled in this work. In addition, the particle interaction with the solid substrate was observed using high speed imaging. At a high temperature and a high speed of the particles, the heat conduction into the base material is not fast enough to solidify the particles due to the short interaction time with the substrate.

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