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  • 1.
    Lee, Uisung
    et al.
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Han, Jeongwoo
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Wang, Michael
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Ward, Jacob
    US Department of Energy.
    Hicks, Elliot
    Oberon Fuels.
    Goodwin, Dan
    Oberon Fuels.
    Boudreaux, Rebecca
    Oberon Fuels.
    Hanarp, Per
    Volvo Group.
    Salsing, Henrik
    Volvo Group.
    Desai, Parthav
    Volvo Group.
    Varenne, Emmanuel
    Volvo Group.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Volvo Group.
    Willems, Werner
    Ford Motor Company.
    Winkler, Sandra L.
    Ford Motor Company.
    Maas, Heiko
    Ford Motor Company.
    De Kleine, Robert
    Ford Motor Company.
    Hansen, John
    Haldor Topsoe A/S.
    Shim, Tine
    Haldor Topsoe A/S.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe2016Ingår i: SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, ISSN 1946-3952, E-ISSN 1946-3960, Vol. 9, artikel-id 2016-01-2209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The five DME pathways include 1) fossil NG with large-scale DME plants, 2) methanol from fossil NG with large-scale plants for both methanol and DME (separately), 3) LFG with small-scale DME plants, 4) manure-based biogas with small-scale DME plants, and 5) methanol from black liquor gasification with small-scale DME plants. This study analyzes DME production and use in the U.S. and Europe, and in two vehicle classes (light and heavy duty vehicles [LDVs and HDVs]). The WTW results show significant reductions in fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by DME compared to gasoline and diesel if DME is produced from LFG and manure-based biogas. When methanol from black liquor is used for DME production, there are reductions in GHG emissions, though smaller than DME produced from LFG and MANR. Meanwhile, fossil NG-based DME produced in large-scale DME plants or from NG-based methanol shows GHG emissions at the similar level as petroleum diesel does.

  • 2.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Permeability measurements of sintered and paper based friction materials for wet clutches and brakes2010Ingår i: SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, ISSN 1946-3952, E-ISSN 1946-3960, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 857-864Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wet clutches are important components used in the transmission and drive trains of many modern vehicles. The clutches transfer torque via the friction between a number of friction discs and the friction characteristics is therefore of great importance for the overall behavior of the vehicles. The friction characteristics is governed by a number of parameters such as lubricant base oil and additives, type and permeability of the friction material and temperature and surface roughness of the interacting surfaces. The permeability is considered to influence time of engagement and supply the sliding interface with lubricant and additives during engagement. In this work, a permeability measurement method suitable for wet clutch friction materials is thus used to measure the permeability of friction materials of different types; sintered bronze and paper based materials. The investigated friction materials come from different vehicle applications such as Limited Slip Differentials and Automatic Transmissions. The investigation also includes measurements made with different types of lubricants such as mineral based lubricants, mineral based VHVI lubricants and ester based lubricants. As comparison similar permeability measurements are made with water since the permeability, according to Darcy's law, should not be influenced by the percolating fluid. It is found that even though permeability is considered to be a material parameter the measured permeability for a certain material will vary depending on which fluid that is used in the measurements. Therefore, if a detailed absolute value of the permeability is of interest, i.e. for use in simulations models, the permeability should be measured with the fluid that is going to be used in the clutch or brake application in order to obtain a detailed result. However the results show that if the permeability only is compared between different materials the test fluid is of less importance as long as the same fluid is used in all investigations

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