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  • 1.
    Benetti, Daniele
    et al.
    INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, Varennes, Québec, Canada.
    Jokar, Efat
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Science and Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
    Yu, Che-Hsun
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Science and Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
    Fathi, Amir
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Science and Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
    Zhao, Haiguang
    INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, Varennes, Québec, Canada.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Wei-Guang Diau, Eric
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Science and Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
    Rosei, Federico
    INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, Varennes, Québec, Canada. Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Science, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.
    Hole-extraction and photostability enhancement in highly efficient inverted perovskite solar cells through carbon dot-based hybrid material2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 62, p. 781-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the effect of the integration of carbon dots (Cdots) in high-performance inverted planar-heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We used Cdots to modify the hole-transport layer in planar PSC devices. By introducing Cdots on graphene oxide (GO) as hole-transporting layer, the efficiency of the PSC improved significantly from 14.7% in the case of bare GO to 16.2% of the best device with optimized Cdots content. When applying Cdots with an engineered absorption in the UV range as downshifting layer, the device performance was further improved, attaining a maximum PCE of 16.8% (+14%); the stability of the device was also enhanced of more than 20%. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were employed to analyze the electronic band alignment at the interface between GO/Cdots and the perovskite film. Holes were extracted and transferred to the conductive substrate more efficiently in the presence of Cdots, thus delaying charge recombination. Photoluminescence (PL), transient PL decays and transient photovoltage (TPV) decays investigated the charge-transfer kinetics and proved the retardation of charge recombination. This work reveals an effective enhancement of the performance of planar PSCs by using Cdots/GO as hole transport material.

  • 2.
    Ghamgosar, Pedram
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Rigoni, Federica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    You, Shujie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Dobryden, Iliya
    Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technolog.
    Gilzad Kohan, Mojtaba
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pellegrino, Anna Lucia
    Dipartimento Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Catania, INSTM UdR-Catania.
    Concina, Isabella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Almqvist, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Malandrino, Graziella
    Dipartimento Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Catania, INSTM UdR-Catania.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    ZnO-Cu2O core-shell nanowires as stable and fast response photodetectors2018In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 51, p. 308-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we present all-oxide p-n junction core-shell nanowires (NWs) as fast and stable self-powered photodetectors. Hydrothermally grown n-type ZnO NWs were conformal covered by different thicknesses (up to 420 nm) of p-type copper oxide layers through metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The ZnO NWs exhibit a single crystalline Wurtzite structure, preferentially grown along the [002] direction, and energy gap Eg=3.24 eV. Depending on the deposition temperature, the copper oxide shell exhibits either a crystalline cubic structure of pure Cu2O phase (MOCVD at 250 °C) or a cubic structure of Cu2O with the presence of CuO phase impurities (MOCVD at 300 °C), with energy gap of 2.48 eV. The electrical measurements indicate the formation of a p-n junction after the deposition of the copper oxide layer. The core-shell photodetectors present a photoresponsivity at 0 V bias voltage up to 7.7 µA/W and time response ≤0.09 s, the fastest ever reported for oxide photodetectors in the visible range, and among the fastest including photodetectors with response limited to the UV region. The bare ZnO NWs have slow photoresponsivity, without recovery after the end of photo-stimulation. The fast time response for the core-shell structures is due to the presence of the p-n junctions, which enables fast exciton separation and charge extraction. Additionally, the suitable electronic structure of the ZnO-Cu2O heterojunction enables self-powering of the device at 0 V bias voltage. These results represent a significant advancement in the development of low-cost, high efficiency and self-powered photodetectors, highlighting the need of fine tuning the morphology, composition and electronic properties of p-n junctions to maximize device performances.

  • 3.
    Liu, Guiju
    et al.
    Qingdao University, Qingdao, PR China.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Wang, Yiqian
    Qingdao University, Qingdao, PR China.
    Zhao, Haiguang
    Qingdao University, Qingdao, PR China.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    High efficiency sandwich structure luminescent solar concentrators based on colloidal quantum dots2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 60, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have received significant attention because of their low cost, large-area and high efficiency sunlight energy harvesting. Colloidal core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates as absorbers/emitters in LSCs. However, due to the limitation of QDs properties and device architectures, LSCs fabricated using QDs still face the challenges of low optical efficiency and limited long-term stability for the large-area LSCs. In this work, we synthesized CdSe/CdS QDs, and found that higher CdS shell growth temperature results in improved uniformity in structure and morphology and more suitable optical properties. Based on the CdSe/CdS QDs, a large-area (∼100 cm 2 ) sandwich structure luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) was fabricated. By laminating the QDs layer between two sheets of optical clear glass, the reabsorption losses of the device can be reduced due to the decrease of photon escape. The as-fabricated sandwich structure device exhibits an external optical efficiency of ∼ 2.95% under natural sunlight illumination, which represents a 78% enhancement in efficiency over the single layer film LSCs based on CdSe/CdS QDs. More importantly, the sandwich structure can protect the QDs interlayer from the impact of the ambient environment (e.g. oxygen, moisture and alkalinity) and enhance the long-term stability of LSCs. Our work shows that the use of suitably tuned core-shell QDs and the sandwich structure in LSC architecture can dramatically enhance the external optical efficiency of LSC devices based on CdSe/CdS QDs.

  • 4.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Bibi, Sara Boscolo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Natali, Micro
    Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
    Bergamini, Giacomo
    Chemistry Department “Giacomo Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Morandi, Vittorio
    CNR-IMM Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Ceroni, Paola
    Chemistry Department “Giacomo Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Hematite nanostructures: An old material for a new story. Simultaneous photoelectrochemical oxidation of benzylamine and hydrogen production through Ti doping2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 61, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overall water splitting represents one of the most promising approaches toward solar energy conversion and storage, which is, however, severely challenged by the four-electron/four-proton nature of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). One option to overcome this issue is to replace OER with a more useful reaction, for simultaneous production of both hydrogen and chemicals of interest. For the purpose, in this paper a cheap, hydrothermally prepared Ti-doped nanostructured hematite photoanode was employed for the first time as highly stable, heterogeneous catalyst for the low bias, efficient and highly selective photoinduced oxidation of benzylamine to N-benzylidenebenzylamine, and for the simultaneous production of hydrogen in a double solvent/environment cell. A preliminary estimate indicates the possibility to obtain a ∼150 μmol h−1 H2 production, with the contemporary production of stoichiometric benzylidene N-benzylamine in a 5 × 5 cm2 area electrode. This study contributes to overcome the 40-year lasting issues limiting the use of hematite in industrial photoelectrochemical sunlight conversion and storage, due to poor performance of hematite and lack of economic value of oxygen production, providing solid evidence for the simultaneous use of hematite in hydrogen production and alternative oxidation reactions of industrial importance.

  • 5.
    Shao, Jiajia
    et al.
    CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.College of Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Willatzen, Morten
    CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.College of Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Wang, Zhong Lin
    CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.College of Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States.
    3D mathematical model of contact-separation and single-electrode mode triboelectric nanogenerators2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 60, p. 630-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a set of finite-sized charged planes (FSCP), a simple time-dependent three-dimensional spatial model for the electric potential and electric field in an inhomogeneous medium composed of dielectric materials and metal contacts is proposed and used to assert triboelectric nanogenerator operation. Solving the problem of FSCP makes the three-dimensional spatial model relevant for practical TENG applications and allow for accurate and reliable results. Connecting the metal contacts to an electric resistance, Kirchhoff's law is used to derive a first-order time-dependent differential equation for the mobile charges on the metal contacts and the displacement current. Specially, the displacement current (Maxwell's displacement current) in a TENG equals to the conduction current in the external circuit is obtained. We then consider two important types of triboelectric nanogenerators: the contact-separation (CS) mode and the single-electrode (SEC) mode. A forced movement of the dielectric materials and/or the metal contacts leads to currents flowing in the system and a time-varying electrical potential, and therefore the generation of electrical power. Then, new and more accurate capacitance equations for CS and SEC modes of TENGs are extracted. Several examples of energy harvesting scenarios are finally analyzed.

  • 6.
    Zhao, Haiguang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory & College of Physics, Qingdao University.
    Liu, Guiju
    State Key Laboratory & College of Physics, Qingdao University.
    Vidal, François
    Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Québec University.
    Wang, Yiqian
    State Key Laboratory & College of Physics, Qingdao University.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Colloidal thick-shell pyramidal quantum dots for efficient hydrogen production2018In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 53, p. 116-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted a great attention for their potential applications in optoelectronic devices, such as water splitting, luminescent solar concentrators, and solar cells, because of their size/shape/composition-dependent optoelectronic properties. However, the fast electron-hole (e-h) recombination and slow charge separation of QDs limit their applications as light absorbers in high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Here, we synthesized thick-shell CdSe/CdSexS1-x/CdS QDs with pyramidal shape, which exhibit a quantum yield of ~ 15%, with a long radiative lifetime up to ~ 100 ns due to the spatial separation of the e/h wavefunction and significantly broadened light absorption toward the 500–700 nm range, compared to CdSe/CdS unalloyed QDs. As a proof-of-concept, the pyramidal QDs are applied as light absorbers in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system, leading to a saturated photocurrent density of ~ 12 mA/cm2 (with a H2 generation rate of 90 mL cm−2 day−1), which is a record for thick-shell QD-based photoelectrodes in PEC hydrogen generation. Core/thick-shell QDs hold great potential for breakthrough developments in the field of QD-based optoelectronic devices.

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