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  • 1.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Vidal, Brenda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Discharge of indicator bacteria from on-site wastewater treatment systems2017In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 91, p. 365-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale on-site wastewater treatment facilities present the risk of microbial pollution of groundwaterused for drinking water and surface water used for recreational purposes. This study assessedthe discharge of indicator bacteria, total coliform, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci and Clostridiumperfringens, by flow-proportional sampling from 12 full-scale on-site treatment systems featuringbiological treatment units (mainly sand filters) and alkaline filter beds for phosphorus treatment(P-filters). Correlations of effluent bacterial concentrations with pH, total and dissolved organic carbon,filter age and hydraulic load were evaluated. The bacterial concentrations in the effluents ofthe sand filters were considerable. The concentrations for excellent bathing water quality set in theEU bathing water directive, 200 and 500 colony forming units (cfu)/100 mL for intestinal enterococciand E. coli, respectively, were exceeded in three (intestinal enterococci) and one (E. coli) of the eightinvestigated sand filters. In one of the sand filters, effluent E. coli concentrations were high althoughno obvious malfunction of the filter was observed. In the effluent from the other investigated biologicaltreatment units (a trickling fibre filter, two units with attached growth treatment and one aeratedactivated sludge technique), bacterial concentrations were very high (75,000 cfu/100 mL of Clostridiumperfringens and 85,000 cfu per 100 mL of total coliform), possibly because of a shorter retention time ofthe wastewater in these facilities, missing aeration and little time between start-up and measurements.Three and four of the nine investigated P-filters exceeded excellent bathing water quality in coastalwaters as stipulated by the EU bathing water directive in respect of E. coli and intestinal enterococci,respectively.

  • 2.
    Makzoom, Sima
    et al.
    Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
    Jonoobi, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Rafieyan, Fatemeh
    Food Science Department, Agriculture College, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Pourzamani, Hamidreza
    Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
    Evaluating the efficiency of cellulose nanofibers in DEHP removal from water2017In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 77, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The removal of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from aqueous solutions by cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), derived from softwood, was studied. The optimum conditions of four factors at four levels including the DEHP concentration (1–10 mg/L), adsorbent dose (0.5–3 g/L), contact time (30–180 min), and pH (3–9) in a batch system was investigated by the design of experiment software. The Isotherm Fitting Tool software was used to fit isotherm parameters to experimental data. The maximum removal efficiency, (74.1%), was obtained at a DEHP concentration of 10 mg/L, an adsorbent dose of 0.5 g/L, a contact time of 30 min, and a pH of 7. The amount of DEHP adsorbed per unit weight of adsorbent (qe) in the optimum conditions was 14.8 mg/g. The system was well corresponded by the generalized Langmuir–Freundlich model. The results showed that extracted CNF from softwood has a good potential for treatment of polluted aqueous solutions by DEHP.

  • 3.
    Panasiuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The feasibility of using flap gates as constriction flow meters for estimating sanitary sewer overflows (SSO)2019In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 155, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased awareness of the negative effects of sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events on human health and aquatic life led to the development of various control measures, of which implementation is impeded by the lack of information on SSO occurrences, flows and volumes. The collection of such information requires data acquisition systems, which can be costly and are fully utilized just during limited time periods of the year. In search for inexpensive approaches to SSO monitoring, the feasibility of using existing flap gate installations, serving for prevention of back-up flows into sewers, as constriction flow meters was investigated, with promising results. An experimental pilotscale setup was designed to allow steady water flow through a flap gate built into a partition wall between two chambers. The stabilized water heads in the chambers and the flow rate through the flap gate were measured, for both dry and submerged flap gate conditions, and five flap gate sizes (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm), with relatively heavy covers (6–102 kg). The measured data were used to develop flow rating curves, by non-linear regression, in the form Q = f (ΔH), where Q is the discharge through the flap gate and ΔH is the pressure differential upstream and downstream of the gate. The regression curves fitted the experimental data with high precision (R2 >0.99). The use of flow rating curves for estimation of the SSO volume was discussed. This study demonstrated that the water head measurements upstream and downstream of the flap gate can provide a reliable, accurate and inexpensive method for quantification of the SSO discharges and volumes.

  • 4.
    Yousefi, Bagher
    et al.
    Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Boroomand-Nasab, Saeed
    Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Moazed, H
    Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    A brief review on application of solar desalination in irrigation to have a sustainable agriculture2017In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review paper deals with seawater or saline water solar desalination systems for agriculture and irrigation. Since the future seems to face an increasing scarcity of irrigation water and fossil fuels, many countries encourage renewable energy driven desalination and irrigation to achieve a more sustainable agriculture. Today, however, only a fraction of existing desalination systems is solar driven. Such desalination irrigation systems deserve more attention and support. Here, we describe and discuss systems for condensation irrigation, distillation irrigation and greenhouses combined with solar stills.

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