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  • 1.
    Amara, Sofiane
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Corrigendum to “Using Fouggara for Heating and Cooling Buildings in Sahara” (Energy Procedia 6 (2011), 55–64)2011In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 6, 825- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Amara, Sofiane
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Benyoucef, B.
    Université de Tlemcen, BP 119 Tlemcen.
    Using fouggara for heating and cooling buildings in Sahara2011In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 6, 55-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to utilise naturally stored heat or cold from the ground, seasonal temperature variations are required. The reason is that the ground temperature is then warmer than the air temperature during winter and colder during summer. The heating and cooling demand in North Africa varies considerably with the greatest cooling demand in the East and the greatest heating demand in the West. In parts of Algeria the mean temperature difference between the coldest and warmest month is greater than 20 °C, which is favourable. In current work it was shown that the ancient Fouggara system, even today would be interesting for heating and cooling of buildings in the Sahara desert.

  • 3.
    Amara, Sofiane
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Benyoucef, B.
    Université de Tlemcen, BP 119 Tlemcen.
    Benmoussat, A.
    Université de Tlemcen, BP 119 Tlemcen.
    Concentration heating system with optical fiber supply2011In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 6, 805-814 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an experimental realization and field testing of a recently proposed solar fiber optic mini dish light concentrator connected to a hot water accumulator. The prototype dish is 150 cm in diameter. In repeated test the collected and concentrated sunlight was transported in a one millimeter diameter optical fiber to a selective surface in the storage tank. This surface absorbs the radiation which remains trapped inside as it heat exchanges with tank fluid which temperature can reach 70 °C.

  • 4.
    Chen, Jingjing
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing.
    Ma, Chunyan
    State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Lu, Xiaohua
    Key Laboratory of Material and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Wang, Changsong
    State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Mechanism Study of Waste Heat Recovery from Slurry by Surface Scraped Heat Exchanger2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, 1109-1115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste-heat recovery from discharged slurries can improve the net raw biogas production in bio-methane process in order to meet the demand of a new generation of anaerobic digestion. In order to achieve a high efficient waste-heat recovery, in this work, a mathematical model of waste-heat recovery process with surface scraped heat exchanger (SSHE) was proposed with the consideration of the shear rate and temperature-dependent rheological behaviour. The convective heat transfer performance of SSHE was calculated numerically where slurry was considered. The contribution of waste heat recovery from the slurry to biogas production by SSHE and general shell-and-tube heat exchanger (STHE) were firstly calculated quantitatively, and the increase of net raw biogas production could be over 13.5% by SSHE with need of heat exchange area less than a quarter of STHE's, which showed a great potential to increase the net raw biogas production in bio-methane process with low equipment investments and more compactible structure.

  • 5.
    Elhami, Ehsan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Erlström, Mikael
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Physical Properties of Core Samples from the Swedish Part of the Southern Baltic Sea: Implications for CO2 Storage2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 97, 356-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from a series of physical measurements conducted on core samples from the Swedish part of the southern Baltic Sea. The samples consist of 16 Cambrian sandstone samples (potential reservoir rock) and 9 Ordovician limestone samples (potential caprock). The two rock types reveal contrasting properties; axial P-wave velocity and density for the sandstone samples are 3.14±0.95km/s and 2.26±0.12 gr/cm3, respectively while for the limestone samples they are 6.09±0.22km/s and 2.58±0.08 gr/cm3, respectively. The scatter of the evaluated properties indicates aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty in the properties which can be better addressed by further tests on more samples.

  • 6.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhu, Chen
    Department of Geological Science, Indiana University, Bloomington.
    A SAFT Equation of State for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system and applications for CO2 - H2S transportation and geological storage2013In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 37, 3780-3791 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When H2S is co-injected with CO2, we need to know thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for the CO2-H2S- H2O-NaCl system in order to evaluate the sequestration capacity, optimal transportation and injection conditions, potential for pipeline corrosion, and increased risk of storage and leakage. Here, we summarize the results of the phase equilibrium and densities for CO2-sequestration related systems from a thermodynamic model that is based on statistical associating fluid theory equation of state. The proposed thermodynamic model can be used to represent equilibrium compositions in both phases (H2O-rich/aqueous phases and gas-rich/nonaqueous phases) and the density at equilibrium or in the one phase region. The effect of H2S on the properties of CO2 streams and on the CO2 solubility and the corresponding aqueous solution density can be predicted to provide a knowledge base for both transportation and geological storage. In addition, as other ions such as Ca, Mg, K and SO4 have been taken into account in the model, the properties for brine instead of aqueous NaCl solutions can also be predicted. The equation of state can be incorporated into reservoir simulators to model the separation of phases in multi-phase flow and fluid reactions with reservoir rocks

  • 7.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala universitet.
    Hangx, Suzanne
    Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bruckman, Viktor
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Commission for Interdisciplinary Ecological Studies.
    Energy, Resources & the Environment: Current Status2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 59, 440-444 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EGU gathers geoscientists from Europe and the rest of the world, covering all disciplines of geosciences. Geoscientific interdisciplinarity is needed to tackle future challenges. A major challenge regards the provision of adequate and reliable supplies of affordable energy and resources obtained in environmentally sustainable ways, which are essential for economic prosperity, environmental quality and political stability around the world. One goal of the ERE division is to be a leading discussion forum for these subjects. The contributions in this issue present some of the challenges that were presented in the ERE division at the EGU General Assembly in 2014.

  • 8.
    Kûhn, Michael
    et al.
    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Bruckman, Viktor
    Austrian Academy of Sciences.
    Kempka, Thomas
    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences.
    Martens, Sonja
    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences.
    Interdisciplinary Approaches in Resource and Energy Research to Tackle the Challenges of the Future2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 97, 1-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Division Energy, Resources & the Environment (ERE) of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) provides an international platform for scientists from a wide range of fields with the common denominator that their research topics have high societal relevance. The ERE community develops approaches for the solution of global economic prosperity, environmental quality and political stability based on interdisciplinary research on adequate and reliable supplies of affordable energy and other resources in environmentally sustainable ways. This special issue presents contributions of the ERE division at the EGU General Assembly in 2016.

  • 9.
    Kühn, Michael
    et al.
    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bruckman, Viktor
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Commission for Interdisciplinary Ecological Studies, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Section for Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Hangx, Suzanne
    Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala universitet.
    Sustainable Supply of Resources and Energy is a Challenge2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 76, 1-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Geosciences Union brings together geoscientists from all over Europe and the rest of the world, covering all disciplines of the earth sciences. This geoscientific inter- and multi-disciplinarity is needed to tackle the challenges of the future. A major challenge for humankind is to provide adequate and reliable supplies of affordable energy and other resources. These should be obtained in environmentally sustainable ways, which is essential for economic prosperity, environmental quality and political stability around the world. This issue gives a general overview of contributions during the General Assembly 2015 in the division for Energy, Resources & the Environment.

  • 10.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    CHP or Biofuel Production in Europe?2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 20, 40-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitution potential, at constant energy prices. The CHP plants and the biofuel production plants are competing for the same feedstock (forest biomass), which is available in limited quantities. The results show that CHP plants are preferred over biofuel production plants at high carbon costs (over 50 EUR/tCO2) and low biofuel support (below 10 EUR/GJ), whereas more biofuel production plants would be set up at high biofuel support (over 15 EUR/GJ), irrespective of the carbon cost. Regarding the CO2 emission substitution potential, the highest potential can be reached at a high carbon cost and low biofuel support. It is concluded that there is a potential conflict of interest between policies promoting increased use of biofuels, and policies aiming at decreased CO2 emissions.

  • 11.
    Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Babler, Matthaus U.
    Department Chemical Engineering and Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Donaj, Pawel
    Cortus Energy.
    Amovic, Marko
    Cortus Energy.
    Ljunggren, Rolf
    Cortus Energy.
    Engvall, Klas
    Department Chemical Engineering and Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Pyrolysis of Wood in a Rotary Kiln Pyrolyzer: Modeling and Pilot Plant Trials2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, 908-913 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification is a key technology for the utilization of biomass as an energy carrier. The WoodRoll process developed by Cortus Energy is a multistage gasification process where drying, pyrolysis and gasification are conducted in separate units. A central role is thereby given to the pyrolysis step which provides the gas to heat the entire process. In the WoodRoll process pyrolysis is run in an indirectly heated rotary kiln. In this work we study pyrolysis in a rotary kiln by means of numerical simulations and by evaluating pilot plant data obtained from a 500 kW pilot. The simulations indicate the importance of the heat transfer to the solid bed and the exothermic pyrolysis reactions that occur in the late stage of the pyrolysis process. The latter can cause an overshoot of the solid bed temperature. Evaluation of the pilot plant data shows the robustness of the process, expressed in good reproducible and stable operation.

  • 12.
    Tanaka, Yasuto
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Tamura, Yutaka
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama.
    Yoshikawa, Kunio
    Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Performance of a Hybrid Power Generation System Using Biomass Gasification and Concentrated Solar Thermal Processes2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, 2149-2153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid power generation system using biomass gasification and concentrated solar thermal processes (CSTP) was proposed. We analysed the system performance of a combined cycle with a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier (BFG) using CO2-H2O-O2 mixture and CSTP using molten salt. BFG was simulated by a semi-kinetic model, applying a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model for the bed behaviour and a plug flow reactor (PFR) model for the freeboard reactions. Operating conditions of the plant and heat exchanger network were optimized separately. The current paper shows the effects of gasifying agents and heat input from CSTP on system efficiency among examined parameters. Pure steam at the molar ratio of steam to carbon in biomass around 0.5 was optimum gasifying agent in this system. By increasing heat input from CSTP, marginal efficiency of biomass-to-electricity was enhanced by 6.2-6.5% (from 39.9 ∼41.2% to 46.1∼47.5%).

  • 13.
    Uibu, Mai
    et al.
    Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology.
    Kuusik, Rein
    Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kirsimäe, Kalle
    Department of Geology, University of Tartu.
    The CO2-binding by Ca-Mg-silicates in direct aqueous carbonation of oil shale ash and steel slag2011In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 4, 925-932 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was focused on carbonation of waste materials having low water-solubility in which Ca and Mg are generally bound as silicates. Here, pulverized firing oil shale ash (PFA from Narva Power Plants, Estonia), electric arc furnace slag (EAFS, types 1 and 2 from Uddeholm Tooling, Sweden) and ladle slag (LS from Uddeholm Tooling, Sweden) were studied as sorbents for binding CO2 from flue gases in direct aqueous mineral carbonation process. The experiments were carried out at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Results showed that Ca-Mg-silicate phases bound up to 9 g of CO2 per 100 g of initial ash, which formed 30% of the total CO2 bound in direct aqueous carbonation of PFA. The CO2 uptakes for steel slags (EAFS1, EAFS2 and LS) were 8.7g CO2/100 g EAFS1, 1.9 g CO2/100 gEAFS2 and 4.6 g/100g LS. Quantitative XRD analysis indicated that Ca2SiO4 and Ca3Mg(SiO4)2 were the main CO2 binding low solubility components of oil shale ash as well as steel slags. The main carbonation product was calcite (CaCO3), indicating that Mg-compounds were not reactive towards CO2 at these mild conditions. Based on multifaceted studies on carbonation of oil shale ash, a new method for eliminating CO2 from flue gases by Ca-containing waste material was proposed. The process includes contacting the aqueous suspensions of Ca-containing waste material with CO2 containing flue gas in two steps: in the first step the suspension is bubbled with flue gas keeping the pH levels in the range of 10-12 and in the second step keeping the pH levels in the range of 7-8. The water-soluble components such as free lime are carbonated in the first step and the components of low solubility, in which Ca is generally contained in the form of silicates, are carbonated in the second step.

  • 14.
    van Deventer, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Atta, Khalid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Service Oriented Architecture Enabling the 4rh Generation of District Heating2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, 500-509 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 4th Generation of District Heating (4GDH) is a complex agglomeration of heat providers, distributors, and consumers that must be automatically, continuously managed and coordinated. It is a complex system of systems; a definition which we align to Maier’s architecting principles for systems-of-systems as collaborative systems. Wrapped in the idea of system of systems is the reality that the 4GDH systems’ descriptions and specifications are not currently all known. Nonetheless, the transition into the 4GDH is actual. We propose the use of two frameworks to secure a smooth metamorphosis and assure systems’ operation, maintenance, and evolution. The two frameworks are the Arrowhead Framework and the OPTi Framework. The first one enables system integration through Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the second one offers the overall system optimization with respect to all stakeholders. This paper uses the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tool SysML to model a district heating complex’s structures and behaviors from the concept level down to the sensors and actuators within a district heating substation where we apply the SOA technology based on the open Arrowhead Framework. We focus on the Arrowhead Framework’s core services, i.e. Service Registry, Authorization and Orchestration to clearly describe the interactions between the different service providers and consumers. Going back up from the sensors to the systems, it is clear that SOA is the architecture that will empower the 4GDH.

  • 15.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Swerea MEFOS AB, Center for Process Integration in Steelmaking, Swerea MEFOS, Luleå.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lövgren, Jonas
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Mellin, Pelle
    Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yang, Weihon
    KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Division of Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Salman, Hassan
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveaskog.
    Hultgren, Anders
    Injection of Solid Biomass Products into the Blast Furnace and its Potential Effects on an Integrated Steel Plant2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, 2184-2187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is to investigate different types of biomass products’ injection into the blast furnace (BF) to replace pulverized coal injection (PCI). The biomass products covered in the study are charcoal, torrefied material and wood pellets on the basis of Swedish forests. The modelling work has been performed in a specialized BF model. The modelling results show that charcoal has the significant effects on the BF operation. PCI can be replaced fully by charcoal, and only limited amount of torrefied material and wood pellets can be injected into BF. For the studied BF, the annual CO2 emission reduction potential from the replaced amount of PCI when injecting charcoal, torrefied material and wood pellets are about 1140 kton, 260 kton and 230 kton, respectively. In addition, a possible energy saving can be achieved for charcoal injection. A slightly higher P content in the hot metal may occur when injecting torrefied material

  • 16.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Swerea MEFOS, Box 812, Luleå.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundqvist, Magnus
    Swerea MEFOS, Box 812, Luleå.
    Schlimbach, Jürgen
    DK Recycling und Roheisen GmbH.
    Modelling and Analysis of Oxygen Enrichment to Hot Stoves2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, 5128-5133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents some research work on applying the oxygen enrichment technique to hot stoves that was carried out in one European RFCS project. In the presented work, both theoretical and practical work was studied. A dynamic model was used to investigate the effects of oxygen enrichment on hot stoves’ performance under the condition that only blast furnace gas was used as the fuel gas. The modelling results showed that SOE will enhance the combustion process in hot stoves by increasing hot blast temperature and shortening the on-gas time, which were further verified by industrial trials performed at an iron-making plant. In addition, CFD modelling was performed by simulating different oxygen levels and lance positions at the burner to avoid the hot spot formation during the combustion.

  • 17.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Process Integration, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sundelin, Bo
    SSAB EMEA Oxelösund.
    Martin, Peter M.
    Siemens VAI Metals Technologies.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS AB, Center for Process Integration in Steelmaking, Swerea MEFOS, Luleå.
    Model Development of a Blast Furnace Stove2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, 1758-1765 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large amount of energy is required in the production of steel where the preheating of blast in the hot blast stoves for iron-making is one of the most energy-intensive processes. To improve the energy efficiency it is necessary to investigate how to improve the hot blast stove operation.In this work a mathematic model for evaluating the performance of the hot blast stove was developed using a finite difference approximation to represent the heat transfer inside the stove during operation. The developed model was calibrated by using the process data from the stove V26 at SSAB Oxelösund, Sweden. As a case study, the developed model was used to simulate the effect of a new concept of OxyFuel technique to hot blast stoves. The investigation shows that,by using the OxyFuel technique, it is possible to maintain the blast temperature while removing the usage of coke oven gas. Additionally, the hot blast temperature increases while the flue gas temperature decreases, which allows for an increase of the blast temperature, leading to improved energy efficiency for the hot stove system.

  • 18.
    Zhang, Guanru
    et al.
    School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou .
    Lu, Peng
    Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN .
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhu, Chen
    School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou .
    CO2 Plume Migration and Fate at Sleipner, Norway: Calibration of Numerical Models, Uncertainty Analysis, and Reactive Transport Modelling of CO2 Trapping to 10,000 Years2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 114, 2880-2895 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sleipner Project in Norway is the world's first industrial-scale geological carbon dioxide storage project. Time-lapse seismic monitoring data have been collected, tracing CO2 plume development from 1996 to 2010. Therefore, the Sleipner Project provides a somewhat unique opportunity to simulate the dynamics of CO2 in a real geological system. The purpose of this study is to simulate CO2 plume migration dynamics and assess the impact of uncertain factors on short and long term migration and fate of CO2 for the uppermost layer (Layer 9) of the Utsira Sand.

    First, we applied a multi-phase compositional simulator to the Sleipner Benchmark model for Layer 9 and calibrated our model against the time-lapsed seismic monitoring data at the site from 1999 to 2008. By adjusting lateral permeability anisotropy, CH4 in the CO2 stream, and reservoir temperature, approximate match with the observed plume was achieved. Model-predicted gas saturation, thickness of the CO2 accumulation, and CO2 solubility in brine (none of them used as calibration metrics) were all comparable with interpretations of the seismic data in the literature.

    Second, hundreds of simulations of parameter sensitivity (pressure, temperature, feeders, spill rates, relative permeability curves, and CH4 content) were conducted for the plume migration, based on the calibrated model. The results showed that simulated plume extents are sensitive to permeability anisotropy, temperature, and CH4 content, but not sensitive to the other parameters. However, adjusting a single parameter within the reported range of values in the literature would not reproduce the north-south trending CO2 plume; it took a combination of permeability, CH4, and temperature adjustments to match simulated CO2 plume with seismic monitoring data. Although there is a range of uncertain parameters, the predicted fate of CO2 fell within a narrow band, ∼ 93±2% structural trapping and ∼ 7±2% solubility trapping. The calibrated model is not unique. Many combinations of permeability anisotropy, temperature, and CH4 would produce similar matches. Other possibilities that would have improved the development of an N–S elongated CO2 plume, such as a slight tilting of the surface of Utsira top to the south, were not experimented in this study, but are worthy of exploration for future studies.

    Finally, we used coupled reactive mass transport model to investigate the effects of rate laws and regional groundwater flow on long-term CO2 fate in Layer 9. The mineral composition and brine chemistry for the Utsira sand were adopted from the literature, and we modelled 100 year injection and continued water-rock interaction to 10,000 years. The results indicated that: (1) The predicted fraction of CO2 mineral trapping when using the linear rate law for feldspar dissolution is twice as much as when using the non-linear rate law. (2) Mineral trapping is more significant when regional groundwater flow is taken into consideration. Under the influence of regional groundwater flow, the replenishment of fresh brine from upstream continuously dissolves CO2 at the tail of CO2 plume, generating a larger acidified area where mineral trapping takes place. In a Sleipner like aquifer, the upstream replenishment of groundwater results in ∼ 22% mineral trapping at year 10,000, compared to the ∼ 4% when the effects of regional groundwater are ignored.

  • 19.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    et al.
    Department of Power Device, ABB AB, Corporate Research, Vasteras.
    Lindberg, Thomas
    Department of Engineering and Physics, Karlstad University.
    Xiong, N.
    School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Malardalen University, Vasteras.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Cooling Energy Consumption Investigation of Data Center IT Room with Vertical Placed Server2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, 2047-2052 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As energy consumption by cooling data center IT equipment can be over 40% of total energy consumption, efficient cooling for large data centers is essential for reducing operation costs. Modern data centers are complex systems involving IT facilities, power system, cooling and ventilation systems. In our previous work, literature study was made to investigate available data center energy consumption models; and energy consumption models for data center IT room with distributed air flow control were developed. In this paper, the models are further extended and developed to cover the combined distributed air flow control and vertical placed servers in raised floor ventilation system. Simulation of the three types of ventilation systems with Even load, Idle server and Uneven load scenarios showed that significant cooling energy consumed by a traditional ventilation system can be saved by applying the proposed new concept and method.

  • 20.
    Zhang, Yingying
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Xie, Yujiao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhu, Yudan
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy Consumption Analysis for CO2 Separation from Gas Mixtures with Liquid Absorbents2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, 2695-2698 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 separation is an energy intensive process, and it plays an important role in both energy saving and CO2 capture and storage (CCS) to deal with global-warming. CO2 can be from different sources in a wide temperature, pressure and concentrations range. Meanwhile, new liquid absorbents are under-development to cost-effectively separate CO2 from gas mixtures. All this makes it crucial to analyze the energy consumption for CO2 separation from different streams and with different absorbents. In this work, the theoretical energy consumption of CO2 separation from flue gas (CO2/N2), lime kiln gas (CO2/N2), biogas (CO2/CH4) and bio-syngas (CO2/H2/CO) was calculated. The results show that the energy consumption of CO2 separation from flue gas is the highest and that from biogas is the lowest. If the CO2 captured from flue gases was substituted by that from biogases, the energy saving would be equivalent to 28.13 million ton standard coal globally. The energy consumption of CO2 separation from biogas using traditional absorbent of 30%MEA and new developed ionic liquids (ILs) was further studied, in which 1-ethyl-3-methy- limidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Emim][NTf2]), 1-butyl-3-methylimida- zolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl] imide ([Hmim][Tf2N]) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Bmpy][Tf2N]) were screened from 75 ILs. The energy consumptions of CO2 separation using ILs are lower than those of 30%MEA and that of [Bmim][BF4] is the lowest in the four screened ILs. With a very low vapor pressure and high CO2 solubility, it's promising to use ILs as absorbents for CO2 separation.

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