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  • 1.
    Kuzman, Manja Kitek
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Biotechnological Faculty, Department of Wood Science & Technology, Ljubljana.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Comparison of timber-house technologies and initiatives supporting use of timber in Slovenia and in Sweden: the state of the art2017In: iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry, ISSN 1971-7458, E-ISSN 1971-7458, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 930-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, Slovenia and Sweden have equivalent uses of timber in construction and a long tradition of timber engineering and architecture. Nevertheless, in spite of these similarities, the development path to reach a modern and industrialized use of timber in construction which allows a diversity of architectural expression and design possibilities has differed considerably between these two countries, after the function-based building regulations that were introduced in Europe nearly three decades ago. This paper gives an overview of some characteristic modern timber buildings in Slovenia and Sweden, and the different construction techniques that are used in these two countries. Successful initiatives supporting the use of timber in construction are also presented. The opportunities for the further development of sustainable timber constructions in Slovenia and Sweden lie in new production methods, high prefabrication, and energy-efficient and climate-effective architecture, besides partnership and increased responsibilities for planning, improved and systematic feedback of experience and team cooperation, as well as knowing users identity, values and life style.

  • 2.
    Neyses, Benedikt
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University.
    Yamamoto, Akio
    Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Pre-treatment with sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, ionic liquids or methacrylate resin to reduce the set-recovery and increase the hardness of surface-densified Scots pine2017In: iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry, ISSN 1971-7458, E-ISSN 1971-7458, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 857-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hardness of the outer regions of solid wood can be improved by surface densification, and this opens up new fields of application for low-density species. So far, surface densification relies on time- and energy-consuming batch processes, and this means that the potential advantages over more expensive hardwood species or non-renewable materials are reduced. Using fossil-based plastics or applying wood densification processes with a high energy consumption has adverse effects on the environment. In a previous study, it was shown that the surface of wood can be densified by a continuous high-speed process, adopting a roller pressing approach. The desired density profiles could be obtained at process speeds of up to 80 m min-1, but an equally simple and fast method to eliminate the moisture-induced set-recovery of the densified wood cells is still required. For this reason, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect on the set-recovery and hardness of surface-densified Scots pine after a fast pre-treatment with solutions of sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, methacrylate resin, and ionic liquids. The Scots pine specimens were pre-treated by applying the chemical treatment and impregnation agents to the wood surface with a paper towel, before the specimens were densified. For each type of treatment, 15 specimens were densified in a hot press. The set-recovery was measured after two wet-dry cycles, and 30 Brinell hardness measurements were carried out on each group of specimens. In general, the effect of the treatments on the set-recovery was rather low. Ionic liquid solutions appear to work as a strong plasticiser and the treatment led to a reduction in set-recovery by 25%. The treatments with sodium silicate, ionic liquids and methacrylate resin led to a greater hardness than in untreated and densified specimens. Further experiments are needed to improve the depth of penetration of the treatment solutions into the wood surface, as this was identified as one of the main causes of the rather weak effects.

  • 3.
    Sandberg, Dick
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kutnar, Andreja
    University of Primorska, Andrej Marusic Institute.
    Mantanis, George
    InnoRenew CoE, Livad, Izola.
    Wood modification technologies: a review2017In: iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry, ISSN 1971-7458, E-ISSN 1971-7458, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 895-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The market for new durable products of modified wood has increased substantially during the last few years, especially in Europe. This increased interest depends partly on the restricted use of toxic preservatives due to increased environmental concern, as well as the need for reduced maintenance for wood products that are mainly for exterior use. Furthermore, as sustainability becomes a greater concern, the environmental impact of construction and interior materials should be included in planning by considering the entire life cycle and embodied energy of the materials used. As a result, wood modification has been implemented to improve the intrinsic properties of wood, widen the range of sawn timber applications, and acquire the form and functionality desired by engineers, without bringing environmental friendliness into question. The different wood modification processes are at various stages of development, and the challenges that must be overcome to expand to industrial applications differ amongst them. In this paper, three groups of wood modification processes are discussed and exemplified with modified wood products that have been newly introduced to the market: (i) chemical processing (acetylation, furfurylation, resin impregnation etc.); (ii) thermo-hydro processing (thermal treatment); and (iii) thermo-hydro-mechanical processing (surface densification). Building on these examples, the paper will discuss the environmental impact assessment of modification processes and further development needs

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