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  • 1.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdellatif, Mawada
    Liverpool JM University.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    University of Zakho.
    Future Prospects for Macro Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) technique in north east Iraq.2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 403-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries in Middle East and North Africa (MENA region) are considered arid and semi-arid areas that are suffering from water scarcity. They are expected to have more water shortages problem due to climatic change. Iraq is located in the Middle East covering an area of 433,970 square kilometers populated by 31 million inhabitants.One of the solutions suggested to overcome water scarcity is Rain Water Harvesting (RWH).In this study Macro rainwater harvesting technique had been tested for future rainfall data that were predicted by two emission scenarios of climatic change (A2 and B2) for the period 2020-2099 at Sulaimaniyah Governorate north east of Iraq. Future volumes of total runoff that might be harvested for different conditions of maximum, average, and minimum future rainfall seasons under both scenarios (A2 and B2) were calculated. The results indicate that the volumes of average harvested runoff will be reduced when average rainfall seasons are considered due to the effect of climatic change on future rainfall. The reduction reached 53.73 % and 43.0% when scenario A2 is for scenario B2 are considered respectively.

  • 2.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Present conditions and future challenges of water resources problems in Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. 1066-1098Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is part of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region). It greatly relies in its water re-sources on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Iraq was considered rich in its water resources till 1970s. After that problems due to water scarcity aroused. Recently, it is expected that water shortage problems will be more serious. The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be 17.61 and 77BCM respec-tively. In addition, future prediction suggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in 2040.To overcome this problem, prudent water management plan is to be adopted. It should include Strategic Water Management Vision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of water losses, use of non-conventional water resources and research and development planning.

  • 3.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alibrahiem, Naief
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Alsaman, Marwan
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Supply Network Losses in Jordan2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 83-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water supply network losses are an international problem especially in countries suffering from water scarcitylike Jordan. Jordan is one of the poorest countries in its water resources and it is estimated to be below the waterpoverty line. Jordan is located in the Middle East and has a surface area of approximately 90,000 km2. Its populationis around 6.3 million and it is estimated that the population will be 7.8 million in 2022. The gap betweenwater supply and demand is widening due to development and a relatively high population growth rate. In addition,global climate change is expected to intensify the water shortage problem in Jordan. Thirteen years of completerecords obtained from the Ministry of Water and Irrigation were analyzed. According to these records,water losses in Jordan reach about 50%. In view of the evaluation of the data and the case study conducted inthis research, it is believed that Jordan can overcome the water shortage problem by adopting a water demandmanagement strategy. In this context, efforts should be focused on reducing water losses. If this is achieved, itwill save huge quantities of water and revenue.

  • 4.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Baghdad University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of dredging operations for Tigris river within Baghdad, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 202-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans were performed using HEC-RAS program for a 50km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

  • 5. Ali, Salahaldin
    et al.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Salar, Sarkawt
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of selected site location for subsurface dam construction within Isayi watershed using GIS and RS Garmiyan area, Kurdistan region2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 972-987Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Garmiyan area suffers from many water problems such as poor rainfall rate, water shortage, aridity and absence of groundwater in many places. Hence the subsurface dam is the best solution due to many advantages such as; low cost of construction, least maintenance, low evaporation, no con-tamination, utilization of the land over the dam and better storage. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the selected site location for subsurface dam construction, to serve as strategic water supply storage, to solute the aridity and water shortage in this area of arid to semi arid climate in Isayi watershed within the stream deposits.Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital El-evation Model (DEM) interpretation and analysis have facilitated the investigation with more ac-curacy. ArcGIS helped in construction of thematic maps of the studied area.The geologic, structural, geomorphologic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, characteristics with GPR survey show the suitability of the selected site location for construction of subsurface dam. According to the standard water quality for domestic, irrigation and livestock the water quality of all water samples are within the recommended range and the best time to be chosen, for construction of the subsurface dam, is during the autumn season from September to November.

  • 6.
    Bhanbhro, Riaz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Frequent breaches in irrigation canals in Sindh Pakistan2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 214-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year a number of breach failures occur in Irrigation Canals in Sindh. Those failures cause displacement of thou-sands of people, destruction of properties, land, and damages costly crops worth millions rupees. In addition to that breach failures are also can cause water shortages when failure occurs during peak demand period. There are various causes of embankment failures that include overtopping, internal erosion, structural defects and piping. State of art for breach failures is presented in this paper and suggestions for prediction of breaches in context to canals in Sindh are discussed. Seepage and slope stability analyses are recommended for long term breach predictions.

  • 7.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sherwany, Govand
    Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Kurdistan Region.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Expected Future of Water resources within Tigris–Euphrates Rivers basin, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 421-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is one of the riparian countries within basins of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East region. The region is currently facing water shortage problems due to the increase of the demand and climate changes. In the present study, average monthly water flow measurements for 15 stream flow gaging stations within basins of these rivers in Iraq with population growth rate data in some of its part were used to evaluate the reality of the current situation and future challenges of water availability and demand in Iraq. The results showed that Iraq receives annually 70.92 km3 of water 45.4 and 25.52 km3 from River Tigris and Euphrates respectively. An amount of 18.04 km3 of the Tigris water comes from Turkey while 27.36 km3 is supplied by its tributaries inside Iraq. The whole amount of water in the Euphrates Rivers comes outside the Iraqi borders. Annual decrease of the water inflow is 0.1335 km3 year-1 for Tigris and 0.245 km3 year-1 for Euphrates. This implies the annual percentage reduction of inflow rates for the two rivers is 0.294% and 0.960% respectively. Iraq consumes annually 88.89% (63.05 km3) of incoming water from the two rivers, where about 60.43 and 39.57 % are from Rivers Tigris and Euphrates respectively. Water demand increases annually by 1.002 km3; of which 0.5271 km3 and 0.475 km3 within Tigris and Euphrates basins respectively. The average water demand in 2020 will increase to 42.844 km3 year-1 for Tigris basin and for Euphrates 29.225 km3 year-1 (total 72.069 km3 year-1), while water availability will decrease to 63.46 km3 year-1. This means that the overall water shortage will be restricted to 8.61 km3.

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