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  • 1.
    Ahlén, Gustaf
    et al.
    Recopharma AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strindelius, Lena
    Recopharma AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Recopharma AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anki
    Recopharma AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chatzissavidou, Nathalie
    Recopharma AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöblom, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holgersson, Jan
    Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mannosylated mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion proteins enhance antigen-specific antibody and T lymphocyte responses2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 10, article id e46959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG2b), which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with high affinity in vitro. Here, its effects on the humoral and cellular anti-ovalbumin (OVA) responses in C57BL/6 mice are presented.

    OVA antibody class and subclass responses were determined by ELISA, the generation of anti-OVA CTLs was assessed in 51Cr release assays using in vitro-stimulated immune spleen cells from the different groups of mice as effector cells and OVA peptide-fed RMA-S cells as targets, and evaluation of the type of Th cell response was done by IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 ELISpot assays.

    Immunizations with the OVA − mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b conjugate, especially when combined with the AbISCO®-100 adjuvant, lead to faster, stronger and broader (with regard to IgG subclass) OVA IgG responses, a stronger OVA-specific CTL response and stronger Th1 and Th2 responses than if OVA was used alone or together with AbISCO®-100. Also non-covalent mixing of mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b, OVA and AbISCO®-100 lead to relatively stronger humoral and cellular responses. The O-glycan oligomannoses were necessary because PSGL-1/mIgG2b with mono- and disialyl core 1 structures did not have this effect.

    Mannosylated mucin-type fusion proteins can be used as versatile APC-targeting molecules for vaccines and as such enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses.

  • 2.
    Alomar, Mohamed Khalid
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Maarif University College, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Khaleel, Faidhalrahman
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Maarif University College, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Aljumaily, Mustafa M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Maarif University College, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Masood, Adil
    Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.
    Razali, Siti Fatin Mohd
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim
    Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hameed, Mohammed Majeed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Maarif University College, Ramadi, Iraq; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Data-driven models for atmospheric air temperature forecasting at a continental climate region2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 11, article id e0277079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric air temperature is the most crucial metrological parameter. Despite its influence on multiple fields such as hydrology, the environment, irrigation, and agriculture, this parameter describes climate change and global warming quite well. Thus, accurate and timely air temperature forecasting is essential because it provides more important information that can be relied on for future planning. In this study, four Data-Driven Approaches, Support Vector Regression (SVR), Regression Tree (RT), Quantile Regression Tree (QRT), ARIMA, Random Forest (RF), and Gradient Boosting Regression (GBR), have been applied to forecast short-, and mid-term air temperature (daily, and weekly) over North America under continental climatic conditions. The time-series data is relatively long (2000 to 2021), 70% of the data are used for model calibration (2000 to 2015), and the rest are used for validation. The autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions have been used to select the best input combination for the forecasting models. The quality of predicting models is evaluated using several statistical measures and graphical comparisons. For daily scale, the SVR has generated more accurate estimates than other models, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 3.592°C), Correlation Coefficient (R = 0.964), Mean Absolute Error (MAE = 2.745°C), and Thiels’ U-statistics (U = 0.127). Besides, the study found that both RT and SVR performed very well in predicting weekly temperature. This study discovered that the duration of the employed data and its dispersion and volatility from month to month substantially influence the predictive models’ efficacy. Furthermore, the second scenario is conducted using the randomization method to divide the data into training and testing phases. The study found the performance of the models in the second scenario to be much better than the first one, indicating that climate change affects the temperature pattern of the studied station. The findings offered technical support for generating high-resolution daily and weekly temperature forecasts using Data-Driven Methodologies.

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  • 3.
    Antonopoulou, Io
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Hunt, Cameron
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Cerullo, Gabriella
    Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II".
    Varriale, Simona
    Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”.
    Gerogianni, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Faraco, Vincenza
    Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II".
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Tailoring the specificity of the type C feruloyl esterase FoFaeC from Fusarium oxysporum towards methyl sinapate by rational redesign based on small molecule docking simulations2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 5, article id e0198127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The type C feruloyl esterase FoFaeC from Fusarium oxysporum is a newly discovered enzyme with high potential for use in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass but it shows low activity towards sinapates. In this work, small molecule docking simulations were employed in order to identify important residues for the binding of the four model methyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids, methyl ferulate/caffeate/sinapate/p-coumarate, to the predicted structure of FoFaeC. Subsequently rational redesign was applied to the enzyme’ active site in order to improve its specificity towards methyl sinapate. A double mutation (F230H/T202V) was considered to provide hydrophobic environment for stabilization of the methoxy substitution on sinapate and a larger binding pocket. Five mutant clones and the wild type were produced in Pichia pastoris and biochemically characterized. All clones showed improved activity, substrate affinity, catalytic efficiency and turnover rate compared to the wild type against methyl sinapate, with clone P13 showing a 5-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency. Although the affinity of all mutant clones was improved against the four model substrates, the catalytic efficiency and turnover rate decreased for the substrates containing a hydroxyl substitution.

  • 4.
    Arroyo-Morales, Manuel
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Biohealth Research Institute in Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, Spain, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Granada, Spain.
    Martin-Alguacil, Jose
    Orthopedic Surgery Service Hospital Nuestra Señora de la Salud, Granada, Spain.
    Lozano-Lozano, Mario
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Granada, Spain.
    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciencies, University of Málaga, Andalucia. Instituto de Investigación en Biomedica de Málaga (IBIMA), Grupo de Clinimetria, Malaga, Spain. School of Clinical Sciences, The Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Fernández-Fernández, Andrés J.
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    González, Jose A.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Biohealth Research Institute in Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, Spain, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Granada, Spain.
    The Lysholm score: Cross cultural validation and evaluation of psychometric properties of the Spanish version2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0221376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study aims at assessing the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Lysholm score, a widely used instrument for assessing knee function and activity level after ligament injuries.

    Methods

    Ninety-five participants (67.4% male, 22±5 years) completed the questionnaire twice within 7 days and a subsample of 42 participants completed a test-retest reliability. Reliability, validity and feasibility psychometric properties were studied. The validity of the questionnaire was analysed using ceiling and floor effects. Factor structure and construct validity were analysed with the SF-36, the Hip and Knee Questionnaire (HKQ) and one leg jump test (OLJT).

    Results

    Criterion validity with the SF-36 Physical State was moderate (r = 0.50 and p<0.01), poor and inverse relationship (r = -0.31, p<0.01) with HKQ and positive moderate (r = 0.59, p<0.01) with OLJT. Measurement error from MDC90 was 3.9%. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a one-factor solution explaining 51.5% of total variance. The x2 test for the one-factor model was significant (x2 = 29.58, df = 20, p < 0.08). Test-retest reliability level was high (ICC2.1 = 0.92, p<0.01) and also the internal consistency (α = 0.77).

    Conclusion

    The Spanish Lysholm score demonstrated that it is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess knee function after ligament injuries.

  • 5.
    Barchéus, Ida-Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ranner, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyman, Anneli
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Månsson Lexell, Eva
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Memory Clinic and Geriatrics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund-Malmö, Sweden.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Developing and testing the feasibility of a new internet-based intervention-A case study of people with stroke and occupational therapists2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 12, article id e0296364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Internet-based interventions are called for within rehabilitation to meet the limited access to support for self-management after stroke. Therefore, a new intervention program, “Strategies for Empowering activities in Everyday life” (SEE) was developed. The aim of this study was to explore and describe how clients with stroke and their occupational therapists experienced the SEE intervention process and whether SEE has the potential to promote an active everyday life.

    Methods: A qualitative descriptive case study was designed. Four people with stroke (two of each sex, mean age 66,5 years) and their two occupational therapists (one of each sex) were included. A mix of data collection methods as interviews, assessments, registration forms and fieldnotes was used to uncover the participants’ experiences and potential changes. Data were analysed with pattern matching.

    Findings: The analysed data formed three categories: “Not being able to take on the internet-based intervention”, “Being facilitated in the change process of everyday life through the internet-based intervention”, and “Providing a new internet-based intervention is a transition from ordinary practice”. These categories included two to four subcategories that reflected aspects of SEE feasibility and acceptability with a focus on content and delivery.

    Conclusion: The first test of the intervention indicates that the content and delivery of SEE can be feasible and acceptable both for clients and occupational therapists. The findings suggest that SEE has the potential to support clients’ self-reflections and their adoption of strategies that influence engagement in daily activities and satisfaction with life in various ways. Further research with large-scale studies is needed.

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  • 6.
    Beaven, Martyn
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Cook, Christian
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Physiological comparison of concentric and eccentric arm cycling in males and females2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 9, article id e112079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower body eccentric exercise is well known to elicit high levels of muscular force with relatively low cardiovascular and metabolic strain. As a result, eccentric exercise has been successfully utilised as an adaptive stressor to improve lower body muscle function in populations ranging from the frail and debilitated, to highly-trained individuals. Here we investigate the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and energy costs of upper body eccentric exercise in a healthy population. Seven men and seven women performed 4-min efforts of eccentric (ECC) or concentric (CON) arm cycling on a novel arm ergometer at workloads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of their peak workload as assessed in an incremental concentric trial. The heart rate, ventilation, cardiac output, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood lactate concentrations were all clearly greater in CON condition at all of the relative workloads (all p<0.003). Effect size calculations demonstrated that the magnitude of the differences in VO2 and work economy between the ECC and CON exercise ranged from very large to extremely large; however, in no case did mechanical efficiency (ηMECH) differ between the conditions (all p>0.05). In contrast, delta efficiency (ηΔ), as previously defined by Coyle and colleagues in 1992, demonstrated a sex difference (men>women; p<0.05). Sex differences were also apparent in arteriovenous oxygen difference and heart rate during CON. Here, we reinforce the high-force, low cost attributes of eccentric exercise which can be generalised to the muscles of the upper body. Upper body eccentric exercise is likely to form a useful adjunct in debilitative, rehabilitative, and adaptive clinical exercise programs; however, reports of a shift towards an oxidative phenotype should be taken into consideration by power athletes. We suggest delta efficiency as a sensitive measure of efficiency that allowed the identification of sex differences.

  • 7.
    De Silva, Daswin
    et al.
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
    Ranasinghe, Weranja
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia; Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.
    Bandaragoda, Tharindu
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
    Adikari, Achini
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
    Mills, Nishan
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
    Alahakoon, Damminda
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
    Lawrentschuk, Nathan
    Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.
    Persad, Raj
    North Bristol, NHS Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Gray, Richard
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
    Bolton, Damien
    Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.
    Machine learning to support social media empowered patients in cancer care and cancer treatment decisions2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0205855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    A primary variant of social media, online support groups (OSG) extend beyond the standard definition to incorporate a dimension of advice, support and guidance for patients. OSG are complementary, yet significant adjunct to patient journeys. Machine learning and natural language processing techniques can be applied to these large volumes of unstructured text discussions accumulated in OSG for intelligent extraction of patient-reported demographics, behaviours, decisions, treatment, side effects and expressions of emotions. New insights from the fusion and synthesis of such diverse patient-reported information, as expressed throughout the patient journey from diagnosis to treatment and recovery, can contribute towards informed decision-making on personalized healthcare delivery and the development of healthcare policy guidelines.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS

    We have designed and developed an artificial intelligence based analytics framework using machine learning and natural language processing techniques for intelligent analysis and automated aggregation of patient information and interaction trajectories in online support groups. Alongside the social interactions aspect, patient behaviours, decisions, demographics, clinical factors, emotions, as subsequently expressed over time, are extracted and analysed. More specifically, we utilised this platform to investigate the impact of online social influences on the intimate decision scenario of selecting a treatment type, recovery after treatment, side effects and emotions expressed over time, using prostate cancer as a model. Results manifest the three major decision-making behaviours among patients, Paternalistic group, Autonomous group and Shared group. Furthermore, each group demonstrated diverse behaviours in post-decision discussions on clinical outcomes, advice and expressions of emotion during the twelve months following treatment. Over time, the transition of patients from information and emotional support seeking behaviours to providers of information and emotional support to other patients was also observed.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Findings from this study are a rigorous indication of the expectations of social media empowered patients, their potential for individualised decision-making, clinical and emotional needs. The increasing popularity of OSG further confirms that it is timely for clinicians to consider patient voices as expressed in OSG. We have successfully demonstrated that the proposed platform can be utilised to investigate, analyse and derive actionable insights from patient-reported information on prostate cancer, in support of patient focused healthcare delivery. The platform can be extended and applied just as effectively to any other medical condition.

  • 8.
    Degerman, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Healthcare, Municipality of Skellefteå, Skellefteå, Västerbotten, Sweden.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Bertilson, Bo C.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Academic Primary Care Center, Stockholm Health Care Services (SLSO), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Photobiomodulation, as additional treatment to traditional dressing of hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers, in frail elderly with municipality home healthcare2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 9, article id e0274023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives of the study were to explore whether laser Photobiomodulation (PBM) in addition to traditional dressing of hard-to-heal venous leg ulcer, reduced healing time of the ulcer and if the duration of the ulcer before PBM impacted the treatment time with PBM to healing. The intervention group was frail, elderly patients with home healthcare in the municipality of Skellefteå, registered in the Swedish quality registry RiksSar for ulcer treatment with hard-to-heal venous leg ulcer. The control group with equivalent physical conditions was obtained from the same quality registry. Definition of hard-to-heal ulcer was six weeks duration or more. The PBM was performed two times per week with laser type infrared GaAs, 904nm, 60mW, and 700Hz, targeting lymphatic area and ulcer area. Laser type red visible, GaAllnp, 635nm, 75mW and 250Hz, targeting ulcer area. The intervention group treated with PBM in addition to traditional dressing healed significantly faster than the control group with a mean of 123 days (p = 0.0001). Duration of the ulcer before PBM did not impact the healing time. To conclude, the findings indicate that using PBM in addition to dressing may have multiple benefits on hard-to-heal venous leg ulcer, saving valuable time and resources for patients, healthcare providers, and institutions.

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  • 9.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hjärtström, Hanna
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rudolfsson, Thomas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Occupational Health, Psychology and Sports Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Säfström, Daniel
    Department of Medical and Translational Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brain activations during execution and observation of visually guided sequential manual movements in autism and in typical development: A study protocol2024In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 6, article id e0296225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor issues are frequently observed accompanying core deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Impaired motor behavior has also been linked to cognitive and social abnormalities, and problems with predictive ability have been suggested to play an important, possibly shared, part across all these domains. Brain imaging of sensory-motor behavior is a promising method for characterizing the neurobiological foundation for this proposed key trait. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) developmental study, involving children/youth with ASD, typically developing (TD) children/youth, and neurotypical adults, will investigate brain activations during execution and observation of a visually guided, goal-directed sequential (two-step) manual task. Neural processing related to both execution and observation of the task, as well as activation patterns during the preparation stage before execution/observation will be investigated. Main regions of interest include frontoparietal and occipitotemporal cortical areas, the human mirror neuron system (MNS), and the cerebellum.

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  • 10.
    El Jery, Atef
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
    Khedher, Khaled Mohamed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, High Institute of Technological Studies, Mrezgua University Campus, Nabeul, Tunisia.
    Salman, Hayder Mahmood
    Department of Computer Science, Al-Turath University College, Al Mansour, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sammen, Saad Sh.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Baqubah, Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
    Scholz, Miklas
    Atene KOM, Berlin, Germany; School of Science, Engineering and Environment, Newton Building, The University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom; Department of Civil Engineering Science, School of Civil Engineering and the Built Environment, Kingsway Campus, Aukland Park, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Town Planning, Engineering Networks and Systems, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia; Nexus by Sweden, Västerås, Sweden; Kunststoff-Technik Adams, Specialist Company According to Water Law, Elsfleth, Germany.
    Thermodynamic and structural investigation of oily wastewater treatment using peach kernel and walnut shell based activated carbon2024In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 5, article id e0297024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the many articles about activated carbon with different precursors in adsorption process, no in-depth research has been carried out to understand the causes of the difference in surface adsorption characteristics of activated carbon with different precursors and different activation processes. In this work, the ability of two active carbon adsorbents made of walnut shell and peach kernel by two chemical and physical methods (totally 4 different types of activated carbon) in treatment of oily wastewater including diesel, gasoline, used oil or engine lubricant has been compared. The results show that the chemical activated peach carbon active with 97% hardness has provided the highest hardness and physical activated walnut carbon active has obtained the lowest hardness value (87%). It is also found that peach activated carbon has a higher iodine number than walnut activated carbon, and this amount can be increased using chemical methods; Therefore, the highest amount of Iodine Number is related to Peach activated carbon that is made by chemical method (1230 mg/g), and the lowest amount of iodine number is seen in walnut activated carbon that is made by physical method (1020 mg/g). moreover, the pore diameter of physical activated carbon is lower than chemical activated carbon in all cases. So that the pore diameter of chemical activated peach carbon active is equal to 22.08 μm and the measured pore diameter of physical activated peach carbon active is equal to 20.42 μm. These values for walnut are obtained as 22.74 μm and 21.86 μm, respectively. Furthermore, the temperature and pH effects on the adsorption of different synthesized oily wastewater was studied and it was found that a decrease in adsorption can be seen with an increase in temperature or decreasing the pH value, which can be referred to this fact that the process of adsorption is an exothermic process. Finally, to analyze the compatibility of adsorption isotherms with experimental data and to predict the adsorption process, three different isotherms named Langmuir, Temkin, and Freundlich isotherms were applied and their parameters were correlated. The correlation results show that the Langmuir isotherm had the best correlation in all cases compared to the Freundlich and Temkin isotherms, based on the correlation coefficient, and the calculated R2 values which was greater than 0.99 in all the studied cases.

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  • 11.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Eriksson Dahl, Karl
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Relationships between Dota 2 expertise and decision-making ability2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 3, article id e0264350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esports is an often time-consuming activity that has become increasingly popular with billions of players all over the world. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between skill level in the strategy video game Dota 2, a game that places many demands on decision making to be successful, and decision making under ambiguity and experience as measured by performance in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a task known to have ecological validity. Two indicators of players’ performance in Dota 2, namely match-making rating (MMR) and Medal, were used as predictors of performance in the IGT in path models. Results showed that Medal was a significant predictor of performance in IGT, while MMR score was borderline significant. The cognitive reflection task, included in the models as an indicator of the ability to engage in conscious, analytical, rational, and logical thinking, was a significant predictor of performance in IGT, and was significantly and positively related to MMR. The findings from this study give insight into the cognitive demands related to performance in Dota 2. Although results suggest that strategy video gaming may be a factor that contributes to increased decision making abilities, a reversed relationship is also possible, whereby individuals who are better at decision making are also more likely to become successful in Dota-2. More studies, preferably longitudinal, are needed to replicate the findings of this study and to establish the directionality between factors.

  • 12.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Marsh, John E.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40–65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

  • 13.
    Genuis, Stephen John
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    Siy, Anna Kristen J.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs)-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. Methods: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products) as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. Results: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. Conclusions: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers

  • 14.
    Hatab, Assem Abu
    et al.
    Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Krautscheid, Lena
    Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden,.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Sweden.
    COVID-19 risk perception and public compliance with preventive measures: Evidence from a multi-wave household survey in the MENA region2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 7, article id e0283412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the association between individuals’ concern about contracting COVID-19 and their compliance with recommended preventive and mitigation measures, namely wearing face masks, maintaining social distancing and handwashing, in the context of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The empirical analysis is based on a panel dataset from the Combined COVID-19 MENA Monitor Household Survey, which was carried out in Jordan, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia and Egypt. Applying a probit estimation technique, a positive and statistically significant association was found between the level of COVID-19 worries and individuals’ compliance with the mitigation measures. Notably, the results revealed that this association followed a “first-up-then-down” trend, showing that compliance with the three mitigation measures rose as individuals’ worries about contracting the virus increased, and then markedly decreased after they had been infected. Sociodemographic characteristics contributing to lower levels of compliance included being male, being over 60, having lower levels of education and having a lower household income. A cross-country analysis revealed remarkable differences between the five countries, with the strongest association between COVID-19 concerns and adherence to mitigation measures observed in Tunisia and Sudan, and the weakest association seen in Jordan and Morocco. Policy implications are outlined for effective risk communication and management during disease outbreaks and public health emergencies to encourage appropriate public health behaviours.

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  • 15.
    Hegge, Ann Magdalen
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, Ctr Elite Sports Res, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Myhre, Kenneth
    North Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, Norway.
    Welde, Boye
    North Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, Ctr Elite Sports Res, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Are Gender Differences in Upper-Body Power Generated by Elite Cross-Country Skiers Augmented by Increasing the Intensity of Exercise?2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0127509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM) were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%), the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all P<0.001). During the ergometer tests the work performed per cycle by the men was 97%, 102% and 91% greater, respectively, and the men elevated their cycle rate to a greater extent at higher intensities (both P<0.01). Furthermore, men had a 61% higher VO(2)peak, 58% higher 1RM, relatively larger upper-body mass (61% vs 56%) and reported considerably more upper-body strength and endurance training (all P<0.05). In conclusion, gender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower-and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers.

  • 16.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Jourak, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The effect of hydraulic loading rate and influent source on the binding capacity of phosphorus filters2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorption by active filter media can be a convenient option for phosphorus (P) removal and recovery from wastewater for on-site treatment systems. There is a need for a robust laboratory method for the investigation of filter materials to enable a reliable estimation of their longevity. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate and (2) quantify the effect of hydraulic loading rate and influent source (secondary wastewater and synthetic phosphate solution) on P binding capacity determined in laboratory column tests and (3) to study how much time is needed for the P to react with the filter material (reaction time). To study the effects of these factors, a 22 factorial experiment with 11 filter columns was performed. The reaction time was studied in a batch experiment. Both factors significantly (α = 0.05) affected the P binding capacity negatively, but the interaction of the two factors was not significant. Increasing the loading rate from 100 to 1200 L m-2 d-1 decreased P binding capacity from 1.152 to 0.070 g kg-1 for wastewater filters and from 1.382 to 0.300 g kg-1 for phosphate solution filters. At a loading rate of 100 L m-2 d-1, the average P binding capacity of wastewater filters was 1.152 g kg-1 as opposed to 1.382 g kg-1 for phosphate solution filters. Therefore, influent source or hydraulic loading rate should be carefully controlled in the laboratory. When phosphate solution and wastewater were used, the reaction times for the filters to remove P were determined to be 5 and 15 minutes, respectively, suggesting that a short residence time is required. However, breakthrough in this study occurred unexpectedly quickly, implying that more time is needed for the P that has reacted to be physically retained in the filter.

  • 17.
    Husin, Mohamad Nazri
    et al.
    Special Interest Group on Modeling and Data Analytics, Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia.
    Khan, Abdul Rauf
    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.
    Awan, Nadeem Ul Hassan
    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.
    Campena, Francis Joseph H.
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, De La Salle University, Philippines.
    Tchier, Fairouz
    Mathematics Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Hussain, Shahid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Multicriteria decision making attributes and estimation of physicochemical properties of kidney cancer drugs via topological descriptors2024In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 5, article id e0302276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on topological descriptors, QSPR analysis is an incredibly helpful statistical method for examining many physical and chemical properties of compounds without demanding costly and time-consuming laboratory tests. Firstly, we discuss and provide research on kidney cancer drugs using topological indices and done partition of the edges of kidney cancer drugs which are based on the degree. Secondly, we examine the attributes of nineteen drugs casodex, eligard, mitoxanrone, rubraca, and zoladex, etc and among others, using linear QSPR model. The study in the article not only demonstrates a good correlation between TIs and physical characteristics with the QSPR model being the most suitable for predicting complexity, enthalpy, molar refractivity, and other factors and a best-fit model is attained in this study. This theoretical approach might benefit chemists and professionals in the pharmaceutical industry to forecast the characteristics of kidney cancer therapies. This leads towards new opportunities to paved the way for drug discovery and the formation of efficient and suitable treatment options in therapeutic targeting. We also employed multicriteria decision making techniques like COPRAS and PROMETHEE-II for ranking of said disease treatment drugs and physicochemical characteristics.

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  • 18.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Rydström, Klara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Protocol for an observational study of working conditions and musculoskeletal health in Swedish online retail warehousing from the perspective of sex/gender and place of birth2024In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 2, article id e0297569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European and International sustainable development agendas aim to reduce inequalities in working conditions and work-related health, yet disparate occupational health outcomes are evident between both men and women and domestic- and foreign-born workers. In Sweden, major growth in online retail warehousing has increased occupational opportunities for foreign-born workers. The rapid change has left research lagging on working conditions, i.e., employment conditions, facility design, work organisation, physical and psychosocial work environment conditions, and their effects on worker health. Further, no known studies have considered patterns of inequality related to these factors. The overall aim of this study is to describe working conditions and musculoskeletal health in online retail warehousing, determine the extent to which differences exist related to sex/gender and place of birth (as a proxy for race/ethnicity), and examine factors at the organisational and individual levels to understand why any differences exist. Three online retail warehouses, each employing 50–150 operations workers performing receiving, order picking, order packing and dispatching tasks will be recruited. Warehouses will, to the extent possible, differ in their extent of digital technology use. Employment conditions, facility design (including digital tool use), work organisation, physical and psychosocial work environment conditions and worker health will be assessed by survey, interview and technical measurements. Analysis of quantitative data stratified by sex and place of birth will consider the extent to which inequalities exist. Focus group interviews with operations employees and in-depth interviews with managers, union and health and safety representatives will be conducted to assess how employee working conditions and musculoskeletal health are related to inequality regimes of sex/gender and/or race/ethnicity in organisational processes and practices in online retail warehousing. The study is pre-registered with the Open Science Framework. This study will describe working conditions and health in online retail warehouse workers and consider the extent to which patterns of inequality exist based on sex/gender and place of birth.

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  • 19.
    Jafari, Hedyeh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Optimal controllers resembling postural sway during upright stance2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 5, article id e0285098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human postural control system can maintain our balance in an upright stance. A simplified control model that can mimic the mechanisms of this complex system and adapt to the changes due to aging and injuries is a significant problem that can be used in clinical applications. While the Intermittent Proportional Derivative (IPD) is commonly used as a postural sway model in the upright stance, it does not consider the predictability and adaptability behavior of the human postural control system and the physical limitations of the human musculoskeletal system. In this article, we studied the methods based on optimization algorithms that can mimic the performance of the postural sway controller in the upright stance. First, we compared three optimal methods (Model Predictive Control (MPC), COP-Based Controller (COP-BC) and Momentum-Based Controller (MBC)) in simulation by considering a feedback structure of the dynamic of the skeletal body as a double link inverted pendulum while taking into account sensory noise and neurological time delay. Second, we evaluated the validity of these methods by the postural sway data of ten subjects in quiet stance trials. The results revealed that the optimal methods could mimic the postural sway with higher accuracy and less energy consumption in the joints compared to the IPD method. Among optimal approaches, COP-BC and MPC show promising results to mimic the human postural sway. The choice of controller weights and parameters is a trade-off between the consumption of energy in the joints and the prediction accuracy. Therefore, the capability and (dis)advantage of each method reviewed in this article can navigate the usage of each controller in different applications of postural sway, from clinical assessments to robotic applications.

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  • 20.
    Kazior, Zuzanna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah J.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Apro, William
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Calbet, Jose A. L.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Endurance Exercise Enhances the Effect of Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Size and Protein Expression of Akt and mTOR2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0149082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports concerning the effect of endurance exercise on the anabolic response to strength training have been contradictory. This study re-investigated this issue, focusing on training effects on indicators of protein synthesis and degradation. Two groups of male subjects performed 7 weeks of resistance exercise alone (R; n = 7) or in combination with preceding endurance exercise, including both continuous and interval cycling (ER; n = 9). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the training period. Similar increases in leg-press 1 repetition maximum (30%; P< 0.05) were observed in both groups, whereas maximal oxygen uptake was elevated (8%; P< 0.05) only in the ER group. The ER training enlarged the areas of both type I and type II fibers, whereas the R protocol increased only the type II fibers. The mean fiber area increased by 28% (P< 0.05) in the ER group, whereas no significant increase was observed in the R group. Moreover, expression of Akt and mTOR protein was enhanced in the ER group, whereas only the level of mTOR was elevated following R training. Training-induced alterations in the levels of both Akt and mTOR protein were correlated to changes in type I fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P< 0.05), as well as mean fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P< 0.05), reflecting the important role played by these proteins in connection with muscle hypertrophy. Both training regimes reduced the level of MAFbx protein (P< 0.05) and tended to elevate that of MuRF-1. The present findings indicate that the larger hypertrophy observed in the ER group is due more to pronounced stimulation of anabolic rather than inhibition of catabolic processes.

  • 21.
    Kovács, László
    et al.
    Savaria Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Szombathely, Hungary.
    Bota, András
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hajdu, László
    Innorenew CoE, Izola, Slovenia; Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia; Gyula Juhász Faculty of Education, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
    Krész, Miklós
    Innorenew CoE, Izola, Slovenia; Andrej Marušič Institute, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia; Gyula Juhász Faculty of Education, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
    Brands, networks, communities: How brand names are wired in the mind2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 8, article id e0273192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brands can be defined as psychological constructs residing in our minds. By analyzing brand associations, we can study the mental constructs around them. In this paper, we study brands as parts of an associative network based on a word association database. We explore the communities–closely-knit groups in the mind–around brand names in this structure using two community detection algorithms in the Hungarian word association database ConnectYourMind. We identify brand names inside the communities of a word association network and explain why these brand names are part of the community. Several detected communities contain brand names from the same product category, and the words in these categories were connected either to brands in the category or to words describing the product category. Based on our findings, we describe the mental position of brand names. We show that brand knowledge, product knowledge and real word knowledge interact with each other. We also show how the meaning of a product category arises and how this meaning is related to brand meaning. Our results suggest that words sharing the same community with brand names can be used in brand communication and brand positioning.

  • 22.
    Leszczyński, Marcin
    et al.
    Deptartment of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Deptartment of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
    Perez-Osorio, Jairo
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Deployment of spatial attention towards locations in memory representations2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 83856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recalling information from visual short-term memory (VSTM) involves the same neural mechanisms as attending to an actually perceived scene. In particular, retrieval from VSTM has been associated with orienting of visual attention towards a location within a spatially-organized memory representation. However, an open question concerns whether spatial attention is also recruited during VSTM retrieval even when performing the task does not require access to spatial coordinates of items in the memorized scene. The present study combined a visual search task with a modified, delayed central probe protocol, together with EEG analysis, to answer this question. We found a temporal contralateral negativity (TCN) elicited by a centrally presented go-signal which was spatially uninformative and featurally unrelated to the search target and informed participants only about a response key that they had to press to indicate a prepared target-present vs. - absent decision. This lateralization during VSTM retrieval (TCN) provides strong evidence of a shift of attention towards the target location in the memory representation, which occurred despite the fact that the present task required no spatial (or featural) information from the search to be encoded, maintained, and retrieved to produce the correct response and that the go-signal did not itself specify any information relating to the location and defining feature of the target

  • 23.
    Lindberg, Monika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ranner, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Månsson-Lexell, Eva
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund-Malmö, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Work and everyday life in a digitalized time: Experiences of people with subjective cognitive difficulties related to neurological disorders2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 11, article id e0260013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Digitalization has changed working life and increased cognitive demands on employees in general. Nevertheless, the consequences for employees with cognitive impairments and subjective cognitive difficulties are to a large extent unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore and describe how employees with subjective cognitive difficulties who are performing digital work tasks experience their vocational situation and how this situation influences their everyday life.

    Methods: A qualitative, descriptive, multiple-case study was designed. Self-reports, assessments and qualitative interviews were used to collect data from the seven participants with neurological disorders. The data were analysed using pattern matching.

    Findings: The analysed data formed four categories conceptualized as "Working to my full potential", "Working, but it is largely up to me", "Working at the expense of everyday life" and "Working without known difficulties", and these categories included one to four subcategories.

    Conclusion: Managing subjective cognitive difficulties in vocational situations and everyday life was challenging in a digitalized working life for participants with neurological disorders. To provide equal access to preventive measures and rehabilitation and a sustainable working life, it is important to investigate the influence of subjective cognitive difficulties systematically on work, everyday life and management strategies in people with neurological disorders in digitalized work.

  • 24.
    Liu, Bing
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Krishnaswamyreddy, Sumitha
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Olson, Åke
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Broberg, Anders
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Ståhlberg, Jerry
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Sandgren, Mats
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Side-by-side biochemical comparison of two lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from the white-rot fungus Heterobasidion irregulare on their activity against crystalline cellulose and glucomannan2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0203430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our comparative studies reveal that the two lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases HiLP-MO9B and HiLPMO9I from the white-rot conifer pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare display clear difference with respect to their activity against crystalline cellulose and glucomannan. HiLPMO9I produced very little soluble sugar on bacterial microcrystalline cellulose (BMCC). In contrast, HiLPMO9B was much more active against BMCC and even released more soluble sugar than the H. irregulare cellobiohydrolase I, HiCel7A. Furthermore, HiLPMO9B was shown to cooperate with and stimulate the activity of HiCel7A, both when the BMCC was first pretreated with HiLPMO9B, as well as when HiLPMO9B and HiCel7A were added together. No such stimulation was shown by HiLPMO9I. On the other hand, HiLPMO9I was shown to degrade glucomannan, using a C4-oxidizing mechanism, whereas no oxidative cleavage activity of glucomannan was detected for HiLPMO9B. Structural modeling and comparison with other glucomannan-active LPMOs suggest that conserved sugar-interacting residues on the L2, L3 and LC loops may be essential for glucomannan binding, where 4 out of 7 residues are shared by HiLPMO9I, but only one is found in HiLPMO9B. The difference shown between these two H. irregulare LPMOs may reflect distinct biological roles of these enzymes within deconstruction of different plant cell wall polysaccharides during fungal colonization of softwood.

  • 25.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom .
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andrés, Pilar
    Department of Psychology, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Department of Statistics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e73029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178) between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  • 26.
    Loudoun, Fiona M.
    et al.
    Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Boyle, Bryan
    Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Children's experiences of play in digital spaces: A scoping review2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 8, article id e0272630Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has substantiated play for play's sake, thus focusing on the doing or being of play rather than any potentially desired outcomes. Examining this type of play from the perspective of the child acknowledges children as meaning-makers. A scoping review was conducted to expose and map the extent of the evidence available in the emerging and diverse field of children's experiences of play in digital spaces. Specifically, the literature was examined with regards to relevance to children's everyday lives, the personal and ecological relevance, and the methods used. A systematic search of the literature over the past fifteen years found thirty-one articles appropriate for inclusion. The analysis of the literature revealed that the articles formed four categories of how play in digital spaces was approached: 'Videogames, behaviours, and societal norms', 'Videogames for its own sake', 'Videogames for learning', and 'Active Videogames for health promotion'. This scoping review has identified a lack of articles focusing on children's experiences of play in a digital space, and these perspectives are essential for parents, professionals, game designers, and policymakers alike to contribute to an enhanced understanding of the role of play in digital spaces.

  • 27.
    Marsland, Finn
    et al.
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Mackintosh, Colin
    APPSEN Pty Ltd, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Anson, Judith
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Waddington, Gordon
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Lyons, Keith
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Chapman, Dale
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Full course macro-kinematic analysis of a 10 km classical cross-country skiing competition2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0182262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study micro-sensors were employed to analyse macro-kinematic parameters during a classical cross-country skiing competition (10 km, 2-lap). Data were collected from eight male participants during the Australian championship competition wearing a single microsensor unit (MinimaxX (TM), S4) positioned on their upper back. Algorithms and visual classification were used to identify skiing sub-techniques and calculate velocities, cycle lengths (CL) and cycle rates (CR) over the entire course. Double poling (DP) was the predominant cyclical sub-technique utilised (43 +/- 5% of total distance), followed by diagonal stride (DS, 16 +/- 4%) and kick double poling (KDP, 5 +/- 4%), with the non-propulsive Tuck technique accounting for 24 +/- 4% of the course. Large within-athlete variances in CL and CR occurred, particularly for DS (CV% = 25 +/- 2% and CV% = 15 +/- 2%, respectively). For all sub-techniques the mean CR on both laps and for the slower and faster skiers were similar, while there was a trend for the mean velocities in all sub-techniques by the faster athletes to be higher. Overall velocity and mean DP-CL were significantly higher on Lap 1, with no significant change in KDP-CL or DS-CL between laps. Distinct individual velocity thresholds for transitions between sub-techniques were observed. Clearly, valuable insights into cross-country skiing performance can be gained through continuous macro-kinematic monitoring during competition.

  • 28.
    Mishica, Christina
    et al.
    Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kyröläinen, Heikki
    Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hynynen, Esa
    KIHU–Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Nummela, Ari
    KIHU–Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Linnamo, Vesa
    Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland .
    Evaluation of nocturnal vs. morning measures of heart rate indices in young athletes2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 1, article id e0262333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability in young endurance athletes during nocturnal sleep and in the morning; and to assess whether changes in these values are associated with changes in submaximal running (SRT) and counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance. Methods During a three-week period of similar training, eleven athletes (16 ± 1 years) determined daily HR and heart rate variability (RMSSD) during sleep utilizing a ballistocardiographic device (Emfit QS), as well as in the morning with a HR monitor (Polar V800). Aerobic fitness and power production were assessed employing SRT and CMJ test. Results Comparison of the average values for week 1 and week 3 revealed no significant differences with respect to nocturnal RMSSD (6.8%, P = 0.344), morning RMSSD (13.4%, P = 0.151), morning HR (-3.9 bpm, P = 0.063), SRT HR (-0.7 bpm, P = 0.447), SRT blood lactate (4.9%, P = 0.781), CMJ (-4.2%, P = 0.122) or training volume (16%, P = 0.499). There was a strong correlation between morning and nocturnal HRs during week 1 (r = 0.800, P = 0.003) and week 3 (r = 0.815, P = 0.002), as well as between morning and nocturnal RMSSD values (for week 1, r = 0.895, P<0.001 and week 3, r = 0.878, P = 0.001). Conclusion This study concluded that HR and RMSSD obtained during nocturnal sleep and in the morning did not differ significantly. In addition, weekly changes in training and performance were small indicating that fitness was similar throughout the 3-week period of observation. Consequently, daily measurement of HR indices during nocturnal sleep provide a potential tool for long-term monitoring of young endurance athletes.

  • 29.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Distribution of low-molecular lipophilic extractives beneath the surface of air- and kiln-dried Scots pine sapwood boards2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0204212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During industrial wood drying, extractives migrate towards the wood surfaces and make the material more susceptible to photo/biodegradation. The present work provides information about the distribution, quantity and nature of lipophilic substances beneath the surface in air- and kiln-dried Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood boards. Samples were taken from knot-free sapwood surfaces and the composition of lipophilic extractives, phenols and low-molecular fatty/resin acids layers at different nominal depths below the surface was studied gravimetrically, by UV-spectrometry and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentration of total extractives was significantly higher in kiln-dried than in air-dried samples and was higher close to the surface than in the layers beneath. The scatter in the values for the lipophilic extractives was high in both drying types, being highest for linoleic acid and slightly lower for palmitic, oleic and stearic acids. The amount of fatty acids was low in kiln-dried boards, probably due to a stronger degradation due to the high temperature employed. The most abundant resin acid was dehydroabietic acid followed by pimaric, isopimaric, and abietic acids in both drying types. It is concluded that during kiln-drying a migration front is created at a depth of 0.25 mm with a thickness of about 0.5 mm.

  • 30.
    Najjarzadeh, Nasim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Krige, Adolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Pamidi, Taraka Rama Krishna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Enman, Josefine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Numerical modeling and verification of a sonobioreactor and its application on two model microorganisms2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 3, article id e0229738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasound has many uses, such as in medical imaging, monitoring of crystallization, characterization of emulsions and suspensions, and disruption of cell membranes in the food industry. It can also affect microbial cells by promoting or slowing their growth and increasing the production of some metabolites. However, the exact mechanism explaining the effect of ultrasound has not been identified yet. Most equipment employed to study the effect of ultrasound on microorganisms has been designed for other applications and then only slightly modified. This results in limited control over ultrasound frequency and input power, or pressure distribution in the reactor. The present study aimed to obtain a well-defined reactor by simulating the pressure distribution of a sonobioreactor. Specifically, we optimized a sonotrode to match the bottle frequency and compared it to measured results to verify the accuracy of the simulation. The measured pressure distribution spectrum presented the same overall trend as the simulated spectrum. However, the peaks were much less intense, likely due to non-linear events such as the collapse of cavitation bubbles. To test the application of the sonobioreactor in biological systems, two biotechnologically interesting microorganisms were assessed: an electroactive bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens, and a lignocellulose-degrading fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. Sonication resulted in increased malate production by Gsulfurreducens, but no major effect on growth. In comparison, morphology and growth of Foxysporum were more sensitive to ultrasound intensity. Despite considerable morphological changes at 4 W input power, the growth rate was not adversely affected; however, at 12 W, growth was nearly halted. The above findings indicate that the novel sonobioreactor provides an effective tool for studying the impact of ultrasound on microorganisms.

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  • 31.
    Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, .School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    The impact of spoken action words on performance in a cross-modal oddball task2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cross-modal oddball task was employed to study the effect that words spokeneither non-urgently or urgently would have on a digit categorization task and if women wouldexhibit greater behavioral inhibitory control. The words were unrelated to the task itself, butrelated to the action required to complete the task. Forty participants (21 women) conducteda computerized categorization task while exposed to a sinewave tone as a standard stimulus(75% of the trials) or a to-be ignored word (press, stop) spoken either non-urgently orurgently as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (6.25% trials for each category). Urgentwords had sharp intonation and an average fundamental frequency (F0) ranging from 191.9(stop) to 204.6 (press) Hz. Non-urgent words had low intonation with average F0 rangingfrom 103.9.9 (stop) to 120.3 (press) Hz. As expected, deviant distraction and longerresponse times were found by exposure to the word stop, but deviant distraction was notfound to be significant with the word press or due to intonation. While the results showedthat women had in general longer reaction times, there were no gender differences foundrelated to the deviant distraction caused by word or intonation. The present results do notsupport the hypothesis that women have greater behavioral inhibitory control, but there wasevidence that the meaning of the word could influence response times.

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  • 32.
    Parreiras, Lucas S.
    et al.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Breuer, Rebecca J.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Narasimhan, Ragothaman Avanasi
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Higbee, Alan J.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    La Reau, Alex
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Tremaine, Mary T.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Qin, Li
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Willis, Laura B.
    Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Bice, Benjamin D.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Bonfert, Brandi L.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Pinhancos, Rebeca C.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Balloon, Allison J.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Uppugundla, Nirmal
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America; Biomass Conversion Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America.
    Liu, Tongjun
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America; School of Food and Bioengineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, China.
    Li, Chenlin
    Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, California, United States of America.
    Tanjore, Deepti
    Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, California, United States of America.
    Ong, Irene
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Li, Haibo
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Pohlmann, Edward L.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Serate, Jose
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Withers, Sydnor T.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Simmons, Blake Alexander
    Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, California, United States of America.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering. DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America; Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America; Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michigan, United States of America.
    Westphall, Michael S.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Coon, Joshua J.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Dale, Bruce E.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America; Biomass Conversion Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America.
    Balan, Venkatesh
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America; Biomass Conversion Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America.
    Keating, David H.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Zhang, Yaoping
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Landick, Robert
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Gasch, Audrey P.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America; Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Sato, Trey
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e107499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.

  • 33.
    Pauelsen, Mascha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Jafari, Hedyeh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Strandkvist, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Vikman, Irene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Frequency domain shows: Fall-related concerns and sensorimotor decline explain inability to adjust postural control strategy in older adults2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 11, article id e0242608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human postural control is a complex system and changes as we age. Frequency based analyses have been argued to be useful to identify altered postural control strategies in balance tasks. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency domain of the quiet stance centre of pressure of older adults with various degrees of fall-related concerns and sensorimotor functioning. We included 45 community dwelling older adults and used a force plate to register 30 seconds of quiet stance with eyes open and closed respectively. We also measured sensory and motor functions, as well as fall-related concerns and morale. We analysed the centre of pressure power spectrum density and extracted the frequency of 4 of its features for each participant. Orthogonal projection of latent structures–discriminant analysis revealed two groups for each quiet stance trial. Group 1 of each trial showed less sensory and motor decline, low/no fall-related concerns and higher frequencies. Group 2 showed more decline, higher fall-related concerns and lower frequencies. During the closed eyes trial, group 1 and group 2 shifted their features to higher frequencies, but only group 1 did so in any significant way. Higher fall-related concerns, sensory and motor decline, and explorative balancing strategies are highly correlated. The control system of individuals experiencing this seems to be highly dependent on vision. Higher fall-related concerns, and sensory and motor decline are also correlated with the inability to adjust to faster, more reactive balancing strategies, when vision is not available.

  • 34.
    Perez-Osorio, Jairo
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Wiese, Eva
    Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Gaze following is modulated by expectations regarding others' action goals2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0143614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others' behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others' mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants' expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following) was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal). In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements). The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gazecueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an actionincongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent. © 2015 Perez-Osorio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 35.
    Pilipiec, Patrick
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden; School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Samsten, Isak
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Bota, András
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Surveillance of communicable diseases using social media: A systematic review2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 2, article id e0282101Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Communicable diseases pose a severe threat to public health and economic growth. The traditional methods that are used for public health surveillance, however, involve many drawbacks, such as being labor intensive to operate and resulting in a lag between data collection and reporting. To effectively address the limitations of these traditional methods and to mitigate the adverse effects of these diseases, a proactive and real-time public health surveillance system is needed. Previous studies have indicated the usefulness of performing text mining on social media.

    Objective

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature that used textual content published to social media for the purpose of the surveillance and prediction of communicable diseases.MethodologyBroad search queries were formulated and performed in four databases. Both journal articles and conference materials were included. The quality of the studies, operationalized as reliability and validity, was assessed. This qualitative systematic review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

    Results

    Twenty-three publications were included in this systematic review. All studies reported positive results for using textual social media content to surveille communicable diseases. Most studies used Twitter as a source for these data. Influenza was studied most frequently, while other communicable diseases received far less attention. Journal articles had a higher quality (reliability and validity) than conference papers. However, studies often failed to provide important information about procedures and implementation.

    Conclusion

    Text mining of health-related content published on social media can serve as a novel and powerful tool for the automated, real-time, and remote monitoring of public health and for the surveillance and prediction of communicable diseases in particular. This tool can address limitations related to traditional surveillance methods, and it has the potential to supplement traditional methods for public health surveillance.

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  • 36.
    Pohl, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering, Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy, Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Olsson, Lillemor Lundin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering, Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men: A qualitative study using focus group discussions2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.METHODS: A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.FINDINGS: Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.CONCLUSIONS: The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.

  • 37.
    Röhlcke, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Time on task matters most in video game expertise2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0206555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated whether working memory capacity (WMC), personality characteristics (grit) and number of matches played (time on task) can predict performance score (matchmaking rating [MMR]) in experienced players of a popular video game called Dota 2. A questionnaire and four online-based cognitive tasks were used to gather the data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to investigate the interrelationships between constructs. The results showed that time on task was the strongest predictor of MMR, and grit also significantly influenced performance. However, WMC did not play a substantial role in predicting performance while playing Dota 2. These results are discussed in relation to sample characteristics and the role of deliberate practice and skill acquisition within the domain of playing Dota 2. Further, we suggest that future research investigates the social aspects of attaining skill, the relationship between personality and performance, and the qualitative aspects of time spent on a task.

  • 38.
    Saha, Sanjib
    et al.
    Centre for Primary Healthcare Research, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Lund University/Region Skåne.
    Carlsson, Katarina Steen
    Centre for Primary Healthcare Research, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Lund University/Region Skåne.
    Gerdtham, Ulf G.
    Centre for Primary Healthcare Research, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Lund University/Region Skåne.
    Eriksson, Margareta K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Centre for Healthcare Science, Örebro County Council and Örebro University.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University.
    Johansson, Pia
    Centre for Health Economics, Informatics and Healthcare Research, Stockholm County Council.
    Are lifestyle interventions in primary care cost-effective?: An analysis based on a Markov model, differences-in-differences approach and the Swedish Björknäs study2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, article id e80672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lifestyle interventions affect patients' risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MeSy), a pre-stage to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and related complications. An effective lifestyle intervention is the Swedish Bjorknas intervention, a 3-year randomized controlled trial in primary care for MeSy patients. To include future disease-related cost and health consequences in a cost-effectiveness analysis, a simulation model was used to estimate the short-term (3-year) and long-term (lifelong) cost-effectiveness of the Bjorknas study. Methodology/Principal Findings: A Markov micro-simulation model was used to predict the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for MeSy-related diseases based on ten risk factors. Model inputs were levels of individual risk factors at baseline and at the third year. The model estimated short-term and long-term costs and QALYs for the intervention and control groups. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention was assessed using differences-in-differences approach to compare the changes between the groups in the health care and societal perspectives, using a 3% discount rate. A 95% confidence interval (CI), based on bootstrapping, and sensitivity analyses describe the uncertainty in the estimates. In the short-term, costs are predicted to increase over time in both groups, but less in the intervention group, resulting in an average cost saving/reduction of US$-700 (in 2012, US $ 1= six point five seven SEK) and US$-500, in the societal and health care perspectives. The long-term estimate also predicts increased costs, but considerably less in the intervention group: US$-7,300 (95% CI: US$-19,700 to US $-1,000) in the societal, and US$-1,500 (95% CI: US$-5,400 to US$ 2,650) in the health care perspective. As intervention costs were US$ 211 per participant, the intervention would result in cost saving. Furthermore, in the long-term an estimated 0.46 QALYs (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.69) per participant would be gained.

  • 39.
    Song, Zhen
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rinne, Mikael
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto.
    Sturgul, John
    School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide.
    An Approach to Realizing Process Control for Underground Mining Operations of Mobile Machines2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0129572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The excavation and production in underground mines are complicated processes which consist of many different operations. The process of underground mining is considerably constrained by the geometry and geology of the mine. The various mining operations are normally performed in series at each working face. The delay of a single operation will lead to a domino effect, thus delay the starting time for the next process and the completion time of the entire process. This paper presents a new approach to the process control for underground mining operations, e.g. drilling, bolting, mucking. This approach can estimate the working time and its probability for each operation more efficiently and objectively by improving the existing PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method). If the delay of the critical operation (which is on a critical path) inevitably affects the productivity of mined ore, the approach can rapidly assign mucking machines new jobs to increase this amount at a maximum level by using a new mucking algorithm under external constraints.

  • 40.
    Song, Zhen
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rinne, Mikael
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto.
    Sturgul, John
    School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide.
    Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0131003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment) is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine

  • 41.
    Spegel, Elin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The impact of community-based prevention on quality of life—The necessity to control for general health trends the Northern Sweden MONICA study in 20142021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 9, article id e0256872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Västerbotten intervention program (VIP), is a public health promotion program in northern Sweden with the aim of preventing cardiovascular disease. Positive effects have been reported although the evidence is not unequivocal. Since only historical controls have been used, effects from other sources than the program have largely been uncontrolled for and health related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been evaluated.

    Purpose

    By using the neighbouring county of Norrbotten (NB) as the reference population, we compare HRQoL in Västerbotten (VB) and in NB.

    Methods

    In 2014 the Northern Sweden survey, Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA), examined a random sample from the two counties. HRQoL was measured with the EQ-5D-3L. In total, 1112 subjects aged 40–74 years participated, 516 in VB and 594 in NB. Differences in mean QoL between VB and NB were analysed via Student’s t-test and the Pearson chi-square test.

    Results

    Average HRQoL measured by the EQ-5D-index was 0.798 in VB and 0.811 in NB, a difference of 0.013 (p = 0.2, CI -0.009 to 0.036). For subjects aged 45–54 years, the HRQoL was lower in VB than in NB, a difference of 0.048 (p = 0.041; CI 0.002 to 0.0094). Men had higher HRQoL than women, and university educated had higher HRQoL than those without university education. EQ-VAS showed similar results. Subjects from NB and from VB did not differ regarding age, gender and level of education. In NB, HRQoL decrease with age, a pattern not seen in VB.

    Conclusions

    We found similar levels of HRQoL in VB and in NB.

  • 42.
    Strandkvist, Viktor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Pauelsen, Mascha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Backman, Helena
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Section of Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Postural control among individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A cross-sectional study of motor and sensory systems2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 4, article id e0284800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered a heterogenic syndrome with systemic effects, including muscle dysfunction. There is evidence of postural control impairments among individuals with COPD, partly related to muscle weakness. However, research is scarce regarding the other underlying systems of postural control, such as the visual, somatosensory and vestibular system. The aim was to compare postural control, as well as the motor and sensory systems, between individuals with and without COPD.

    Methods

    Twenty-two participants with COPD (mean age 74.0 ±6.2 years) and 34 non-obstructive references (mean age 74.9 ±4.9 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Postural control was assessed with center of pressure trajectory of postural sway in quiet as well as a limits of stability test, calculating mediolateral and anteroposterior amplitudes for each test. Assessment of function in the motor system included maximum hand grip strength, as well as maximum strength in muscles around the hip, knee and ankle joints. Visual acuity, pressure sensibility, proprioception, vestibular screening, and reaction time were also included. Data was compared between groups, and significant differences in postural control were further analyzed with an orthogonal projection of latent structures regression model.

    Results

    There was a significantly increased sway amplitude in the mediolateral direction in quiet stance on soft surface with eyes open (p = 0.014) as well as a smaller anteroposterior amplitude in the limits of stability test (p = 0.019) in the COPD group. Regression models revealed that the mediolateral amplitude was related to visual acuity and the burden of tobacco smoking assessed as pack-years. Further, muscle strength associated with anteroposterior amplitude in limits of stability test in the COPD group, and with age and ankle dorsal flexion strength among the referents. Besides for lower ankle plantar flexion strength in the COPD group, there were however no significant differences in muscle strength.

    Conclusions

    Individuals with COPD had a decreased postural control and several factors were associated with the impairments. The findings imply that the burden of tobacco smoking and reduced visual acuity relate to increased postural sway in quiet stance, and that muscle weakness is related to decreased limits of stability, among individuals with COPD.

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  • 43.
    Welde, Boye
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Stöggl, Thomas L.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Mathisen, Gunnar E.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Supej, Matej
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Zoppirolli, Chiara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Winther, Andreas K.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    The pacing strategy and technique of male cross-country skiers with different levels of performance during a 15-km classical race2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0187111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0), intermediate (3.5) and uphill sections (7.1) of the first and final laps. All skiers adopted a positive pacing strategy, skiing more slowly (11.8%) with shorter cycles (11.7%) on the final than first lap (both p&lt;0.001; pη2 = 0.93 and 0.87, respectively). The fast skiers were 7.0% faster overall (p&lt;0.001, d = 4.20), and 6.1% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.32) and 7.0% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.68) faster on the first and final laps, respectively, compared to slower skiers. On all sections of both laps, the fast skiers exhibited 9.5% more rapid (pη2 = 0.74) and 8.9% (pη2 = 0.48) longer cycles (both p&lt;0.001). On intermediate terrain, the fast skiers employed primarily double poling (DP, 38.9% on the first lap) and double poling with a kick (DPKICK, 50% on the final lap). In contrast, the slow skiers utilized for the most part DP alone (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) or in combination with other techniques (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) and decreased their usage of DPKICK from 27.8% on the first to 16.7% on the final lap. Skiing velocity on flat and intermediate terrain proved to be the best predictor of race performance (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, during a 15-km classical XC skiing race, velocity and cycle length decreased from the first to the final lap, most extensively on flat terrain and least uphill. Moreover, on the intermediate sections the fast and slow skiers chose to use different techniques.

  • 44.
    Wiese, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich.
    What we observe is biased by what other people tell us: Beliefs about the reliability of gaze behavior modulate attentional orienting to gaze cues2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e94529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For effective social interactions with other people, information about the physical environment must be integrated with information about the interaction partner. In order to achieve this, processing of social information is guided by two components: a bottom-up mechanism reflexively triggered by stimulus-related information in the social scene and a topdown mechanism activated by task-related context information. In the present study, we investigated whether these components interact during attentional orienting to gaze direction. In particular, we examined whether the spatial specificity of gaze cueing is modulated by expectations about the reliability of gaze behavior. Expectations were either induced by instruction or could be derived from experience with displayed gaze behavior. Spatially specific cueing effects were observed with highly predictive gaze cues, but also when participants merely believed that actually non-predictive cues were highly predictive. Conversely, cueing effects for the whole gazed-at hemifield were observed with non-predictive gaze cues, and spatially specific cueing effects were attenuated when actually predictive gaze cues were believed to be non-predictive. This pattern indicates that (i) information about cue predictivity gained from sampling gaze behavior across social episodes can be incorporated in the attentional orienting to social cues, and that (ii) beliefs about gaze behavior modulate attentional orienting to gaze direction even when they contradict information available from social episodes.

  • 45.
    Wiese, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.
    Zwickel, Jan
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.
    I See What You Mean: Attentional Selection Is Shaped by Ascribing Intentions to Others2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 9, article id e45391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to understand and predict others' behavior is essential for successful interactions. When making predictions about what other humans will do, we treat them as intentional systems and adopt the intentional stance, i.e., refer to their mental states such as desires and intentions. In the present experiments, we investigated whether the mere belief that the observed agent is an intentional system influences basic social attention mechanisms. We presented pictures of a human and a robot face in a gaze cuing paradigm and manipulated the likelihood of adopting the intentional stance by instruction: in some conditions, participants were told that they were observing a human or a robot, in others, that they were observing a human-like mannequin or a robot whose eyes were controlled by a human. In conditions in which participants were made to believe they were observing human behavior (intentional stance likely) gaze cuing effects were significantly larger as compared to conditions when adopting the intentional stance was less likely. This effect was independent of whether a human or a robot face was presented. Therefore, we conclude that adopting the intentional stance when observing others' behavior fundamentally influences basic mechanisms of social attention. The present results provide striking evidence that high-level cognitive processes, such as beliefs, modulate bottom-up mechanisms of attentional selection in a top-down manner

  • 46.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität.
    Wiese, Eva
    Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität.
    Prosser, Aaron
    Neuro-Cognitive Psychology Master Program, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Beliefs about the minds of others influence how we process sensory information2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e94339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attending where others gaze is one of the most fundamental mechanisms of social cognition. The present study is the first to examine the impact of the attribution of mind to others on gaze-guided attentional orienting and its ERP correlates. Using a paradigm in which attention was guided to a location by the gaze of a centrally presented face, we manipulated participants' beliefs about the gazer: gaze behavior was believed to result either from operations of a mind or from a machine. In Experiment 1, beliefs were manipulated by cue identity (human or robot), while in Experiment 2, cue identity (robot) remained identical across conditions and beliefs were manipulated solely via instruction, which was irrelevant to the task. ERP results and behavior showed that participants' attention was guided by gaze only when gaze was believed to be controlled by a human. Specifically, the P1 was more enhanced for validly, relative to invalidly, cued targets only when participants believed the gaze behavior was the result of a mind, rather than of a machine. This shows that sensory gain control can be influenced by higher-order (task-irrelevant) beliefs about the observed scene. We propose a new interdisciplinary model of social attention, which integrates ideas from cognitive and social neuroscience, as well as philosophy in order to provide a framework for understanding a crucial aspect of how humans' beliefs about the observed scene influence sensory processing

  • 47.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine Unit and School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bonnerud, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Stål, Per S.
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Section for Anatomy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine Unit and School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e105330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression = 0.93 and prediction = 0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained morphological changes in human skeletal muscle, leading to physical performance enhancement.

  • 48.
    Zhu, Zhaolong
    et al.
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Pingxiang, Cao
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Wu, Zhenzeng
    Department of Material Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fujian, China.
    Machinability investigation in turning of high density fiberboard2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 1-13, article id e0203838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the machinability of high density fiberboardusing cemented carbide cutting tools. The objective of this work was to investigate theinfluence of two cutting parameters, spindle speed and feed per turn, on cutting forces, chipformation and cutting quality. The results are as follows: cutting forces and chip-breakinglength decrease with increasing spindle speed and decreasing feed per turn. In contrast,surface roughness increases with decrease of spindle speed and increase in feed perturn. Chips were divided into four categories based on their shape: dust, particle, splinter,and semicontinuous chips. Chip-breaking length had a similar tendency to the varianceof cutting forces with respect to average roughness and mean peak-to-valley height: anincrease in the variance of cutting forces resulted in increased average roughness andmean peak-to-valley height. Thus, high cutting speed and low feed rate are parameters suitablefor high-quality HDF processing and will improve not only machining quality, but productionefficiency.

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  • 49.
    Zinner, Christoph
    et al.
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany; Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Swedish Winter Sports Res Ctr, Östersund, Sweden.
    Hauser, Anna
    Swiss Fed Inst Sport, Sect Elite Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Born, Dennis-Peter
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Wehrlin, Jon P.
    Swiss Fed Inst Sport, Sect Elite Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap, Sweden.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap, Sweden.
    Influence of Hypoxic Interval Training and Hyperoxic Recovery on Muscle Activation and Oxygenation in Connection with Double-Poling Exercise2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0140616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we evaluated the influence of breathing oxygen at different partial pressures during recovery from exercise on performance at sea-level and a simulated altitude of 1800 m, as reflected in activation of different upper body muscles, and oxygenation of the m. triceps brachii. Ten well-trained, male endurance athletes (25.3 +/- 4.1 yrs; 179.2 +/- 4.5 cm; 74.2 +/- 3.4 kg) performed four test trials, each involving three 3-min sessions on a double-poling ergometer with 3-min intervals of recovery. One trial was conducted entirely under normoxic (No) and another under hypoxic conditions (Ho; FiO2 = 0.165). In the third and fourth trials, the exercise was performed in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, with hyperoxic recovery (HOX; FiO2 = 1.00) in both cases. Arterial hemoglobin saturation was higher under the two HOX conditions than without HOX (p<0.05). Integrated muscle electrical activity was not influenced by the oxygen content (best d = 0.51). Furthermore, the only difference in tissue saturation index measured via near-infrared spectroscopy observed was between the recovery periods during the NoNo and HoHOX interventions (P<0.05, d = 0.93). In the case of HoHo the athletes' P-mean declined from the first to the third interval (P < 0.05), whereas P-mean was unaltered under the HoHOX, NoHOX and NoNo conditions. We conclude that the less pronounced decline in P-mean during 3 x 3-min double-poling sprints in normoxia and hypoxia with hyperoxic recovery is not related to changes inmuscle activity or oxygenation. Moreover, we conclude that hyperoxia (FiO2 = 1.00) used in conjunction with hypoxic or normoxic work intervals may serve as an effective aid when inhaled during the subsequent recovery intervals.

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