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  • 1.
    Abba, Alia Besma
    et al.
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Saggai, Sofiane
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Touil, Youcef
    Laboratory of Biogeochemical of Desert Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Kouadri, Saber
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Nouasria, Fatima Zohra
    Dynamic Interactions and Reactivity of Systems, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Najm, Hadee Mohammed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain Engineering College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.
    Mashaan, Nuha S.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
    Eldirderi, Moutaz Mustafa A.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia.
    Khedher, Khaled Mohamed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, High Institute of Technological Studies, Mrezgua University Campus, Nabeul 8000, Tunisia.
    Copper and Zinc Removal from Wastewater Using Alum Sludge Recovered from Water Treatment Plant2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 16, article id 9806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to determine Aluminum sludge composition and structure for its valorisation as an alternative natural material for heavy metals removal from wastewater for further reuse as treated water in different applications. The study was conducted to investigate the introduction of Al-bearing sludge composition. The physical and chemical properties were examined using X-ray diffraction tests (XRD), scanning electron microscope tests (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared tests (FTIR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller tests (BET). Furthermore, the heavy metal concentrations of synthetic wastewater were measured using the spectrophotometry method. The experimental procedure is based on testing different pH limits and amounts of aluminum sludge to find the optimum conditions for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal. The results demonstrated a high removal efficiency where its value reached up to 97.4% and 96.6% for Zn and Cu, respectively, in an acidic medium (pH = 6) using a relatively high amount of sludge (1400 mg). Nevertheless, a low efficiency was obtained in the strongly acidic medium (pH = 4) and a smaller sludge amount of about 480 mg.

  • 2.
    Abduljaleel, Yasir
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Richland, WA 99354, USA.
    Awad, Ahmed
    Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI), Giza 11925, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Civil Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Salem, Ali
    Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61111, Egypt; Doctoral School of Earth Sciences, University of Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary.
    Negm, Abdelazim
    Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.
    Gabr, Mohamed Elsayed
    Civil Engineering Department, Higher Institute for Engineering and Technology, New Damietta, Ministry of Higher Education, New Damietta 34517, Egypt.
    Assessment of Subsurface Drainage Strategies Using DRAINMOD Model for Sustainable Agriculture: A Review2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 1355Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practicing agricultural drainage strategies is necessary to manage excess water in poorly drained irrigated agricultural lands to protect them from induced waterlogging and salinity problems. This paper provides an overview of subsurface drainage strategies and the modeling of their performance using the DRAINMOD model. Given that the DRAINMOD model considers a fixed value of the surface depression capacity (SDC) for the whole simulation period, which does not suit many agricultural practices, the paper then assesses the model’s performance under time-variable SDC. It was revealed that adopting a fixed value of SDC for the whole simulation period in the DRAINMOD model causes it to produce improper predictions of the water balance in farmlands characterized by time-variable SDC. Such a model drawback will also adversely impact its predictions of the nitrogen and phosphorus fate in farmlands, which represent major inputs when managing both the agricultural process and agricultural water quality. Researchers should pay attention when applying the DRAINMOD model to farmlands characterized by time-variable SDC. Moreover, it is recommended that the DRAINMOD input module be improved by considering changes in SDC during the simulation period to ensure better management of the agricultural process and agricultural water.

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  • 3.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad A.
    et al.
    Collage of Engineering, University of Babylon, Iraq.
    Thameer, Mohanad Y.
    Collage of Engineering, University of Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfill Site Selection by Weighted OverlayTechnique: Case Study of Al-Kufa, Iraq2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a hard and complex process. For this reason, it is considered as one of the major problems in waste management. This is due to the fact that a number of factors are involved within the process such as such as inhabitants’ growth, rapid economic growth, living standards improvements, etc. In Iraq, landfill siting does not follow environmental regulations. Al-Kufa city located is located south-western part of Iraq (area of 550 km2 and inhabitants 372,760). Existing landfills are not selected according to the environmental standards. Landfill site that is required was achieved using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and spatial overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). Many factors were considered in the siting process; including geology, water supplies resources, urban centers, sensitive sites, and wells. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method was used in weighting the criteria used. The result showed that there are six sites most suitable covering an area about (113) km2.

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  • 4.
    Aldieri, Luigi
    et al.
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sundström, Kristoffer
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinci, Concetto Paolo
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Wind Power and Job Creation2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 45Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a global overview of job effects per MW of wind power installations, which will enable improved decision-making and modeling of future wind-power projects. We found indications that job creation connected to wind-power installations is rather limited. In total, 17 peer-reviewed articles and 10 reports/non-peer-reviewed papers between 2001 and 2019 were assessed. Our three major policy conclusions are as follows: (a) job creation seems to be limited; (b) each new project should consider a unique assessment, since all projects have been undertaken within different institutional frameworks, labor markets, and during separate years, meaning that the technology is not comparable; and (c) the number of jobs depends on the labor intensity of the country.

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  • 5.
    Al-Janabi, Ahmed Mohammed Sami
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Ghazali, Abdul Halim
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Ghazaw, Yousry Mahmoud
    Department of Irrigation and Hydraulics, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia.
    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Experimental and Numerical Analysis for Earth-Fill Dam Seepage2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1-14, article id 2490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth-fill dams are the most common types of dam and the most economical choice. However, they are more vulnerable to internal erosion and piping due to seepage problems that are the main causes of dam failure. In this study, the seepage through earth-fill dams was investigated using physical, mathematical, and numerical models. Results from the three methods revealed that both mathematical calculations using L. Casagrande solutions and the SEEP /Wnumerical model have a plotted seepage line compatible with the observed seepage line in the physical model. However,when the seepage flow intersected the downstream slope and when piping took place, the use of SEEP /Wto calculate the flow rate became useless as it was unable to calculate the volume of water flow in pipes. This was revealed by the big dierence in results between physical and numerical models in the first physical model, while the results were compatible in the second physical model when the seepage line stayed within the body of the dam and low compacted soil was adopted. Seepage analysis for seven dierent configurations of an earth-fill dam was conducted using the SEEP /W model at normal and maximum water levels to find the most appropriate configuration among them. The seven dam configurations consisted of four homogenous dams and three zoned dams. Seepage analysis revealed that if sucient quantity of silty sand soil is available around the proposed dam location, a homogenous earth-fill dam with a medium drain length of 0.5 m thickness is the best design configuration. Otherwise, a zoned earth-fill dam with a central core and 1:0.5 Horizontal to Vertical ratio (H:V) is preferred.

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  • 6.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.Komar Research Center, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfill Site Selection Using MCDM Methods and GIS in the Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 17, article id 4530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortage of land for waste disposal is one of the serious problems that faces urban areas in developing countries. The Sulaimaniyah Governorate, located in the north of Iraq, is one of the major cities in the Kurdistan Region of the country, covering an area of 2400 km2 with a population of 856,990 in 2016. Currently, there is no landfill site in the study area that meets scientific and environmental criteria, and inappropriate solid waste dumping is causing negative environmental impacts. The process of landfill site selection is considered a complex process and is restricted by numerous factors and regulations. This paper proposes multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods in a model for landfill site decision. The model assumes the input of two groups of factors that need to satisfy the optimal values of weight coefficients. These groups of constants are natural factors and artificial factors, and they included thirteen selected criteria: slope, geology, land use, urban area, villages, rivers, groundwater, slope, elevation, soil, geology, road, oil and gas, land use, archaeology and power lines. The criteria were used in the geographic information system (GIS), which has a high capacity to process and analyze various data. In addition, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods followed by the weighted linear combination (WLC) method were used to derive criteria weightings using a matrix of pair-wise comparison. Finally, all the multi criteria decision methods were combined to obtain an intersection of the suitability index map for candidate landfill sites. Seven appropriate sites for landfill were suggested, all of which satisfied the scientific and environmental criteria which were adopted in this study.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Klas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindskog, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Learning for the Future?: Effects of ESD on teacher education students2013In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 5135-5152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, politicians, university representatives, scholars and leading NGOs share a strong belief in the ability of educational systems to generate positive attitudes to sustainable development (SD) among citizens, with the idea of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) as perhaps the most apparent expression of this conviction. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether ESD might have the intended effects on teacher education students. More specifically, we account for the results from a panel study on the effects of a course on SD held in autumn 2010 at the University of Gothenburg (n = 323) on teacher education students. The surveys consisted of questions about the students’ concerns about various issues, including issues related to SD, and their attitudes towards SD and views of moral obligations to contributing to SD. The study included a control group (n = 97) consisting of students from the teacher-training programme at University West, which had not and did not include ESD. We find positive effects of ESD on almost all attitudes and perceptions, including e.g., personal responsibility in relation to SD and willingness to contribute to SD, while there is no noticeable effect in the control group. We conclude the paper by discussing the implications of our results for the idea of ESD in teacher training programmes at Swedish higher education institutions.

  • 8.
    Armanuos, Asaad M.
    et al.
    Irrigation and Hydraulics Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, 31512 Tanta, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Assessing the Effectiveness of Using Recharge Wells for Controlling the Saltwater Intrusion in Unconfined Coastal Aquifers with Sloping Beds: Numerical Study2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater systems are considered major freshwater sources for many coastal aquifers worldwide. Seawater intrusion (SWI) inland into freshwater coastal aquifers is a common environmental problem that causes deterioration of the groundwater quality. This research investigates the effectiveness of using an injection through a well to mitigate the SWI in sloping beds of unconfined coastal aquifers. The interface was simulated using SEAWAT code. The repulsion ratios due to the length of the SWI wedge (RL) and the area of the saltwater wedge (RA) were computed. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to recognize the change in the confining layer bed slope (horizontal, positive, and negative) and hydraulic parameters of the value of the SWI repulsion ratio. Injection at the toe itself achieved higher repulsion ratios. RL and RA declined if the injection point was located remotely and higher than the toe of the seawater wedge. Installation at the toe achieved a higher RL in positive sloping followed by horizontal and negative slopes. Moreover, the highest value of RA could be reached by injecting at the toe itself with a horizontal bed aquifer, followed by negative and positive slopes. The recharge well is confirmed as one of the most effective applications for the mitigation of SWI in sloping bed aquifers. The Akrotiri case study shows that the proposed recharging water method has a significant impact on controlling SWI and declines in both SWI wedge length and area.

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  • 9.
    Awad, Ahmed
    et al.
    College of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China; Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI), Giza 11925, Egypt.
    Luo, Wan
    College of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Elbeltagi, Ahmed
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.
    El-Rawy, Mustafa
    Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61111, Egypt; Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Shaqra University, Dawadmi 11911, Saudi Arabia.
    Farres, Hesham N.
    Irrigation and Hydraulic Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt.
    Gabr, Mohamed EL-Sayed
    Civil Engineering Department, High Institute for Engineering and Technology, New Damietta 34517, Egypt.
    Farmers’ Awareness in the Context of Climate Change: An Underutilized Way for Ensuring Sustainable Farmland Adaptation and Surface Water Quality2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 21, article id 11802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations using the Crop Water and Irrigation Requirements model (CROPWAT), show that the projected climatic changes over the period from 2026 to 2050 in the Yanyun irrigation district, Yangzhou, China, will cause the paddy lands there to lose about 12.4% to 37.4%, and 1.6% to 45.6%, of their future seasonal rainwater in runoff under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP45 and RCP85), respectively. This may increase future irrigation requirements (IRs), alongside threatening the quality of adjacent water bodies. The CROPWAT simulations were re-run after increasing the Surface Storage Capacity (SSC) of the land by 50% and 100% of its baseline value. The results state that future rainwater runoff will be reduced by up to 76% and 100%, and 53% and 100% when the SSC is increased by 50% and 100%, under RCP45 and RCP85, respectively. This mitigates the future increase in IRs (e.g., under RCP45, up to about 11% and 16% of future IRs will be saved when increasing the SSC by 50% and 100%, respectively), thus saving the adjacent water bodies from the contaminated runoff from these lands. Adjusting the SSC of farmlands is an easy physical approach that can be practiced by farmers, and therefore educating them on how to follow up the rainfall forecast and then adjust the level of their farmlands’ boundaries according to these forecasts may help in the self-adaptation of vast areas of farmlands to climate change. These findings will help water users conserve agricultural water resources (by mitigating the future increase in IRs) alongside ensuring better quality for adjacent water bodies (by decreasing future runoff from these farmlands). Increasing farmers’ awareness, an underutilized approach, is a potential tool for ensuring improved agricultural circumstances amid projected climate changes and preserving the available water resources.

  • 10.
    Bachi, Oum Elkheir
    et al.
    Laboratory of Saharan Bio-Resources: Preservation and Valorization (BRS), University Kasdi Merbah, Ouargla 30000, Algeria; Agricultural Development Commission in the Saharan Regions (CDARS), Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Halilat, Mohammed Tahar
    Laboratory of Saharan Bio-Resources: Preservation and Valorization (BRS), University Kasdi Merbah, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Bissati, Samia
    Laboratory of Saharan Bio-Resources: Preservation and Valorization (BRS), University Kasdi Merbah, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Saggai, Sofiane
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Sahara Milieu (GEEMS), University of Kasdi Merbah, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Kouadri, Saber
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Sahara Milieu (GEEMS), University of Kasdi Merbah, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Najm, Hadee Mohammed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain Engineering College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.
    Wastewater Treatment Performance of Aerated Lagoons, Activated Sludge and Constructed Wetlands under an Arid Algerian Climate2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 24, article id 16503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water pollution reduces the availability of fresh water, especially in arid areas suffering from water stress, and also adversely affects soil, vegetation and environmental processes. Wastewater treatment processes aim to reduce environmental degradation and increase water availability by improving the quality of wastewater to a standard suitable for irrigation. This paper compares the performance of three wastewater treatment processes: (i) aerated lagoon (AL), (ii) activated sludge (AS), and (iii) constructed wetland (plant beds, PB) under the arid climate of Algeria. The statistical analysis focused on the comparison between the removal rates of the physical (SS) and biological pollution (BOD5 and COD) parameters in the three stations during 8 years of operation. Obtained results show that the maximum removal rates were observed in the AS process and the minimum were in the AL process. The comparison between the removal rates for a given parameter has shown that there is a significant difference between the AL process on the one hand and the AS and PB processes on the other hand. For the last two processes, AS and PB, there is a difference, but it is not statistically significant. For the values of the parameters of wastewater leaving the three systems, results showed that there is a seasonal variation in the average values of the parameters (temperature effect) and that with the exception of orthophosphate, the values recorded are, for the most part, below the values of Algerian discharge standards, WHO standards and FAO standards.

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  • 11.
    Backer, Sumina Namboorimadathil
    et al.
    Research Institute of Sciences and Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates.
    Bouaziz, Ines
    Research Institute of Sciences and Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates.
    Kallayi, Nabeela
    Department of Chemistry, India Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552, India.
    Thomas, Reny Thankam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Preethikumar, Gopika
    Functional Materials, Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram 695019, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India.
    Takriff, Mohd Sobri
    Research Institute of Sciences and Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates; Chemical and Water Desalination Engineering Program, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates; Department of Chemical and Processing Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia; Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates.
    Laoui, Tahar
    Research Institute of Sciences and Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates; Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates.
    Atieh, Muataz Ali
    Research Institute of Sciences and Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates; Chemical and Water Desalination Engineering Program, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates.
    Review: Brine Solution: Current Status, Future Management and Technology Development2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 11, article id 6752Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Desalination brine is extremely concentrated saline water; it contains various salts, nutrients, heavy metals, organic contaminants, and microbial contaminants. Conventional disposal of desalination brine has negative impacts on natural and marine ecosystems that increase the levels of toxicity and salinity. These issues demand the development of brine management technologies that can lead to zero liquid discharge. Brine management can be productive by adopting economically feasible methodologies, which enables the recovery of valuable resources like freshwater, minerals, and energy. This review focuses on the recent advances in brine management using various membrane/thermal-based technologies and their applicability in water, mineral, and energy recoveries, considering their pros and cons. This review also exemplifies the hybrid processes for metal recovery and zero liquid discharge that may be adopted, so far, as an appropriate futuristic strategy. The data analyzed and outlook presented in this review could definitely contribute to the development of economically achievable future strategies for sustainable brine management.

  • 12.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Scenarios on Energy and Phosphorus Recovery from Mono- and Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 2603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of energy and phosphorus (P) fertilizer (PF) recovery from municipal sewage sludge (MSS) through incineration in new combustion plants. We evaluated the economic impact of five critical process design choices: (1) boiler type, (2) fuel (MSS mono-combustion/co-combustion with wheat straw), (3) production scale (10/100 MW), (4) products (heat, electricity, PF), and (5) ash destination. Aspen Plus modeling provided mass and energy balances of each technology scenario. The economic feasibility was evaluated by calculating the minimum selling price of the products, as well as the MSS gate fees required to reach profitability. The dependency on key boundary conditions (operating time, market prices, policy support) was also evaluated. The results showed a significant dependency on both energy and fertilizer market prices and on financial support in the form of an MSS gate fee. Heat was preferred over combined heat and power (CHP), which was feasible only on the largest scale (100 MW) at maximum annual operating time (8000 h/y). Co-combustion showed lower heat recovery cost (19–30 €/MWh) than mono-combustion (29–66 €/MWh) due to 25–35% lower energy demand and 17–25% higher fuel heating value. Co-combustion also showed promising performance for P recovery, as PF could be recovered without ash post-treatment and sold at a competitive price, and co-combustion could be applicable also in smaller cities. When implementing ash post-treatment, the final cost of ash-based PF was more than four times the price of commercial PF. In conclusion, investment in a new combustion plant for MSS treatment appears conditional to gate fees unless the boundary conditions would change significantly.

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  • 13.
    Bastami, Sina
    et al.
    Department of Mining Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran.
    Ghassa, Sina
    School of Mining, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran.
    Seyedhakimi, Amin
    Department of Mining Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Adsorption of Mercury from a Cyanide Leaching Solution Using Various Activation Rates of Granular Activated Carbon: A Laboratory- and Industrial-Scale Study2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 8, article id 3287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) is a typical and sustainable technique for recovering precious metals from a cyanide leaching solution (CLS). The level of GAC activity is a fundamental factor in assessing the rate of precious metal adsorption; thus, it is essential to determine the efficiency of carbon elution for reproducing GACs. Since mercury (Hg) adsorption plays a critical role, economically and environmentally, in GAC efficiency, we conducted various laboratory and industrial experiments to explore the effect of different rates of GAC activation (10%, 35%, 70% and 100%) on Hg adsorption from CLS. Assessments of laboratory test results showed a direct relationship between the Hg adsorption and GAC activity; by increasing the GAC activity from 10% to 100%, the recovery of Hg was increased from 20% to 41%. Kinetic modeling results indicated that the Hg adsorption for all GAC activities followed chemisorption mechanisms. There was good agreement between the laboratory test results and the results of experiments on the industrial scale (that used a continuous circuit). These outcomes indicate that by increasing the frequency of carbon reactivation and using GAC with a high level of activity in the first tank, Hg desorption was meaningfully decreased and recovery was improved (for 10% GAC activity vs. 35% GAC activity, recovery was 40% vs. 90%, respectively).

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  • 14.
    Bhat, Shakeel Ahmad
    et al.
    College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Sher E Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology-Kashmir, Srinagar 190025, India.
    Kuriqi, Alban
    CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal; Civil Engineering Department, University for Business and Technology, 10000 Pristina, Kosovo.
    Din Dar, Mehraj U.
    Department of Agriculture, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib 140406, India; Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India.
    Bhat, Owais
    College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Sher E Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology-Kashmir, Srinagar 190025, India.
    Sammen, Saad Sh.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Diyala University, Baqubah 32001, Iraq.
    Towfiqul Islam, Abu Reza Md.
    Department of Disaster Management, Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur 5400, Bangladesh.
    Elbeltagi, Ahmed
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.
    Shah, Owais
    College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Sher E Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology-Kashmir, Srinagar 190025, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Rawshan
    Department of Petroleum, Koya Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil 44001, Iraq.
    Heddam, Salim
    Agronomy Department, Faculty of Science, Hydraulics Division University, 20 Août 1955, Route El Hadaik, BP 26, Skikda 21024, Algeria.
    Application of Biochar for Improving Physical, Chemical, and Hydrological Soil Properties: A Systematic Review2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 17, article id 11104Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochar is a carbon-based substance made by the pyrolysis of organic waste. The amount of biochar produced is determined by the type of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Biochar is frequently added to the soil for various reasons, including carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, improved crop production by boosting soil fertility, removing harmful contaminants, and drought mitigation. Biochar may also be used for waste management and wastewater treatment. Biochar’s various advantages make it a potentially appealing instrument material for current science and technology. Although biochar’s impacts on soil chemical qualities and fertility have been extensively researched, little is known about its impact on enhancing soil physical qualities. This review is intended to describe biochar’s influence on some crucial soil physical and hydrological properties, including bulk density of soil, water holding capacity, soil porosity, soil hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water repellence–available plant water, water infiltration, soil temperature, soil color, and surface albedo. Therefore, we propose that the application of biochar in soils has considerable advantages, and this is especially true for arable soils with low fertility.

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  • 15.
    Bishnoi, Sudha
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125004, Haryana, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Khan, Mujahid
    Agricultural Research Station, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner 332301, Rajasthan, India.
    Heddam, Salim
    Agronomy Department, Faculty of Science, Hydraulics Division University, 20 Août 1955, Route El Hadaik, BP 26, Skikda 21024, Algeria.
    Malik, Anurag
    Regional Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Bathinda 151001, Punjab, India.
    Classification of Cotton Genotypes with Mixed Continuous and Categorical Variables: Application of Machine Learning Models2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 20, article id 13685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed data is a combination of continuous and categorical variables and occurs frequently in fields such as agriculture, remote sensing, biology, medical science, marketing, etc., but only limited work has been done with this type of data. In this study, data on continuous and categorical characters of 452 genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) were obtained from an experiment conducted by the Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR), Sirsa, Haryana (India) during the Kharif season of the year 2018–2019. The machine learning (ML) classifiers/models, namely k-nearest neighbor (KNN), Classification and Regression Tree (CART), C4.5, Naïve Bayes, random forest (RF), bagging, and boosting were considered for cotton genotypes classification. The performance of these ML classifiers was compared to each other along with the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression. The holdout method was used for cross-validation with an 80:20 ratio of training and testing data. The results of the appraisal based on hold-out cross-validation showed that the RF and AdaBoost performed very well, having only two misclassifications with the same accuracy of 97.26% and the error rate of 2.74%. The LDA classifier performed the worst in terms of accuracy, with nine misclassifications. The other performance measures, namely sensitivity, specificity, precision, F1 score, and G-mean, were all together used to find out the best ML classifier among all those considered. Moreover, the RF and AdaBoost algorithms had the highest value of all the performance measures, with 96.97% sensitivity and 97.50% specificity. Thus, these models were found to be the best in classifying the low- and high-yielding cotton genotypes.

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  • 16.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    et al.
    Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden.
    Hallman, David M.
    Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden; Department of Occupational Health and Safety, LKAB, 98381 Gällivare, Sweden.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden.
    A participatory approach to identify key areas for sustainable work environment and health in employees with flexible work arrangements2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 13593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible work arrangements are common worldwide, but knowledge on how to achieve a sustainable work environment is sparse. The aim of this study was to use a participatory approach to identify concrete suggestions and key areas for improvement that were considered relevant, effective, and feasible for promoting good work environment and health at organizational, work group and individual level (O-G-I), among office employees with flexible work arrangements. Eight focus group interviews (including 45 employees) were conducted in a large Swedish government agency in 2017. By using a Tree diagram approach, employees made a total of 279 suggestions for improvements, which were sorted into O-G-I levels and mapped into 18 key areas. We found that 13 key areas addressed organizational level (e.g., improving leadership, policy, job demands, and work efficiency), two key areas addressed group level (create common rules of availability and activity-based working), and three key areas addressed individual level (e.g., individuals’ responsibility to clearly communicate their availability). The participatory process was effective in obtaining concrete suggestions and key areas in need of improvement, which may provide an action plan that can guide organizations in developing interventions to promote good work environment and health in flexible work.

  • 17.
    Bressanelli, Gianmarco
    et al.
    RISE Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    RISE Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.
    Pigosso, Daniela C. A.
    Section of Engineering Design and Product Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Business, History and Social Science, USN School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, 3679 Notodden, Norway.
    Circular Economy in the Digital Age2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 5565Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bressanelli, Gianmarco
    et al.
    RISE Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    RISE Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.
    Pigosso, Daniela C. A.
    Section of Engineering Design and Product Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Business, History and Social Science, USN School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, 3679 Notodden, Norway.
    Towards the Smart Circular Economy Paradigm: A Definition, Conceptualization, and Research Agenda2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 4960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital age we live in offers companies many opportunities to jointly advance sustainability and competitiveness. New digital technologies can, in fact, support the incorporation of circular economy principles into businesses, enabling new business models and facilitating the redesign of products and value chains. Despite this considerable potential, the convergence between the circular economy and these technologies is still underinvestigated. By reviewing the literature, this paper aims to provide a definition and a conceptual framework, which systematize the smart circular economy paradigm as an industrial system that uses digital technologies during the product life-cycle phases to implement circular strategies and practices aimed at value creation. Following this conceptualization, the classical, underlying circular economy principle, ‘waste equals food’, is reshaped into an equation more fitting for the digital age-that is to say, ‘waste + data = resource’. Lastly, this paper provides promising research directions to further develop this field. To advance knowledge on the smart circular economy paradigm, researchers and practitioners are advised to: (i) develop research from exploratory and descriptive to confirmatory and prescriptive purposes, relying on a wide spectrum of research methodologies; (ii) move the focus from single organizations to the entire ecosystem and value chain of stakeholders; (iii) combine different enabling digital technologies to leverage their synergistic potential; and (iv) assess the environmental impact of digital technologies to prevent potential rebound effects.

  • 19.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Effect of Environmental Regulation Stringency on the Pulp and Paper Industry2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 2323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he article investigates whether environmental regulations have affected productivity development and technological change in the European pulp and paper industry. A dynamic panel data approach is selected for analyzing a sample consisting of the pulp and paper industries in eight European countries. Industry total factor productivity for the period 1993–2009 is used as the dependent variable; it is explained by the intensities of environmental regulations for various types of pollutants, as well as by a number of other independent variables. The econometric results indicate that the regulation of nitrogen oxides is associated with productivity improvements with a one-year lag, whereas regulations regarding sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide have not had any statistically significant impact. In line with the a priori expectations, the price of pulp is connected to a negative effect, while lagged R&D expenditures have had corresponding positive impacts. However, since stationary tests are asymptotic and the data series are quite short, strong conclusions regarding the actual causal effect of environmental policy could not be drawn. The results could therefore not be viewed as a proof of the so-called strong Porter hypothesis postulating that stringent well-designed environmental regulations increase productivity growth compared to a no-policy scenario.

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  • 20.
    Bui, Dieu Tien
    et al.
    Geographic Information Science Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Minh, Vietnam. Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Minh, Vietnam.
    Asl, Dawood Talebpour
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Ghanavati, Ezatolla
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Geography, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Khezri, Saeed
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Chapi, Kamran
    Department of Watershed and Rangeland Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Effects of Inter-Basin Water Transfer on Water Flow Condition of Destination Basin2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the intensification of drought and unsustainable management and use of water resources have caused a significant decline in the water level of the Urmia Lake in the northwest of Iran. This condition has affected the lake, approaching an irreversible point such that many projects have been implemented and are being implemented to save the natural condition of the Urmia Lake, among which the inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) project from the Zab River to the lake could be considered an important project. The main aim of this research is the evaluation of the IBWT project effects on the Gadar destination basin. Simulations of the geometrical properties of the river, including the bed and flow, have been performed, and the land cover and flood map were overlapped in order to specify the areas prone to flood after implementing the IBWT project. The results showed that with the implementation of this project, the discharge of the Gadar River was approximately tripled and the water level of the river rose 1 m above the average. In April, May, and June, about 952.92, 1458.36, and 731.43 ha of land adjacent to the river (floodplain) will be inundated by flood, respectively. Results also indicated that UNESCO’s criteria No. 3 (“a comprehensive environmental impact assessment must indicate that the project will not substantially degrade the environmental quality within the area of origin or the area of delivery”) and No. 5 (“the net benefits from the transfer must be shared equitably between the area of origin and the area of water delivery”) have been violated by implementing this project in the study area. The findings could help the local government and other decision-makers to better understand the effects of the IBWT projects on the physical and hydrodynamic processes of the Gadar River as a destination basin.

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  • 21.
    Bui, Dieu Tien
    et al.
    Geographic Information Science Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shirzadi, Ataollah
    Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Shahabi, Himan
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj , Iran. Department of Zrebar Lake Environmental Research, Kurdistan Studies Institute, University of Kurdistan.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hamidi, Shahriar
    Department of Water Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Singh, Sushant K.
    Department of Health, Insurance & Life Sciences, Data & Analytics, Virtusa Corporation, Irvington, NJ, USA.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Ahmad, Baharin Bin
    Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Ghazvinei, Pezhman Taherei
    Department of Civil Engineering, Technical and Engineering College, Ale Taha University, Tehran, Iran.
    A Hybrid Intelligence Approach to Enhance the Prediction Accuracy of Local Scour Depth at Complex Bridge Piers2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1-24, article id 1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local scour depth at complex piers (LSCP) cause expensive costs when constructing bridges. In this study, a hybrid artificial intelligence approach of random subspace (RS) meta classifier, based on the reduced error pruning tree (REPTree) base classifier, namely RS-REPTree, was proposed to predict the LSCP. A total of 122 laboratory datasets were used and portioned into training (70%: 85 cases) and validation (30%: 37 cases) datasets for modeling and validation processes, respectively. The statistical metrics such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (R), and Taylor diagram were used to check the goodness-of-fit and performance of the proposed model. The capability of this model was assessed and compared with four state-of-the-art soft-computing benchmark algorithms, including artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), M5P, and REPTree, along with two empirical models, including the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 (HEC-18). The findings showed that machine learning algorithms had the highest goodness-of-fit and prediction accuracy (0.885 < R < 0.945) in comparison to the other models. The results of sensitivity analysis by the proposed model indicated that pile cap location (Y) was a more sensitive factor for LSCP among other factors. The result also depicted that the RS-REPTree ensemble model (R = 0.945) could well enhance the prediction power of the REPTree base classifier (R = 0.885). Therefore, the proposed model can be useful as a promising technique to predict the LSCP.

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  • 22.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Kurdistan Institution for strategic studies and scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla Mustafa Muhamed
    Abdullah Mustafa Muhamed Al-Rawabdeh, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq; Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of selecting proper designs for landfills is to accommodate quantities of waste without having a negative effect on the surrounding environment and human health. The Babylon Governorate (province) in Iraq was taken as an example of an arid area with very shallow groundwater and where irregular waste disposal sites had developed that had not been subject to international standards when they were selected for landfill use. In the current study, the suggested design for landfills is a base liner and final cover system. In this suggested design, the final cover system allows for three scenarios. The first scenario considers an evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type), the second scenario is a modified cover design of “RCRA Subtitle D”, and the third scenario is a combination of the first and second scenarios. The HELP 3.95 D model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there was any penetration of the leachate that might in future percolate from the landfill’s bottom barrier layer in arid areas. The results from the suggested landfill design showed that there was no leachate percolation from the bottom barrier layer using the second and third scenarios. For the first scenario, however, there was a small amount of leachate through the bottom barrier layer in the years 2013 and 2014.

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  • 23.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul 41001, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa 51001, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound design of landfills is essential in order to protect human health and the environment (air, water, and soil). The study area, Babylon Governorate, is situated in the middle of Iraq, and is distinguished by a hot climate and shallow groundwater. The governorate did not have landfill sites that meet international criteria; in addition, the groundwater depth in Babylon Governorate is commonly shallow. Previously, the most important criteria for the study area and GIS software were used to select the best sites for locating landfills in the major cities of the governorate. In this study, the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95D) model was applied in order to ensure that there was no leakage of the leachate that results from the waste in the selected landfill sites. It is the most commonly utilized model for landfill design, and it is used to estimate water inflow through the soil layers. For the present study, to avoid groundwater pollution by leachate from a landfill site due to the shallow groundwater depth, compacted waste was placed on the surface using two height scenarios (2 m and 4 m). This design was developed using the soil properties of the selected sites coupled with the weather parameters in Babylon Governorate (precipitation, temperature, solar, and evapotranspiration) for a 12-year period covering 2005 to 2016. The results from both of the suggested landfill designs showed an absence of leachate from the bottom liner.

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  • 24.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Combining GIS Applications and Method of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (AHP) for Landfill Siting in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 1932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a complex process. It is one of the major problems in waste management, where many factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a suitable site for landfill in any given area. At the present time, there are many random waste disposal sites distributed throughout Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa in Iraq. In this study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were used to select the best sites for landfill. The process of selecting sites for landfill in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa comprised two steps. First, fifteen different criteria were mapped and incorporated into overlay analyses within GIS software to produce the final suitability index map for the site. The second step comprises the exclusion of unsuitable areas from the final map to simplify identification of the candidate sites for landfill in the study area. The weightings of criteria were identified using AHP, and the weightings of the sub-criteria of each criterion were determined based on multiple factors. In order to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030, two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined which fulfill the required area of 1.013 km2 with areas of 1.374 km2 and 1.288 km2 respectively.

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  • 25.
    Chandran, Praneeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Asber, Johnny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thiery, Florian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    An Investigation of Railway Fastener Detection Using Image Processing and Augmented Deep Learning2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 21, article id 12051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rail fastening system forms an indispensable part of the rail tracks and needs to be periodically inspected to ensure safe, reliable and sustainable rail operations. Automated visual inspection has gained significant importance for fastener inspection in recent years. Position accuracy, robustness, and practical limitations due to the complex environment are some of the major concerns associated with this method. This study investigates the combined use of image processing and deep learning algorithms for detecting missing clamps within a rail fastening system. The images used for this study was acquired during field inspections carried out along the Borlänge-Avesta line in Sweden. The image processing techniques proposed in this study enabled the improvement of the fastener position and removal of redundant information from the fastener images. In addition, image augmentation was carried out to enhance the data set, ensure experimental reliability and replicate practical challenges associated with such visual inspection. Convolutional neural network and ResNet-50 algorithms are used for classification purposes, and both the algorithms achieved over 98% accuracy during training and validation and over 94% accuracy during the test stage. Both the algorithms also maintained a good balance between the precision and recall scores during the test stage. CNN and ResNet-50 algorithms were also tested to analyse their performances when the clamp areas were covered. CNN was able to accurately predict the fastener state up to 70% of clamp area occlusion, and ResNet-50 was able to achieve accurate predictions up to 75% of clamp area occlusion.

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  • 26.
    Chandran, Praneeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thiery, Florian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lind, Håkan
    Alstom Transportation, 11743 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Unsupervised Machine Learning for Missing Clamp Detection from an In-Service Train Using Differential Eddy Current Sensor2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 1035-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rail fastening system plays a crucial role in railway tracks as it ensures operational safety by fixing the rail on to the sleeper. Early detection of rail fastener system defects is crucial to ensure track safety and to enable maintenance optimization. Fastener inspections are normally conducted either manually by trained maintenance personnel or by using automated 2-D visual inspection methods. Such methods have drawbacks when visibility is limited, and they are also found to be expensive in terms of system maintenance cost and track possession time. In a previous study, the authors proposed a train-based differential eddy current sensor system based on the principle of electromagnetic induction for fastener inspection that could overcome the challenges mentioned above. The detection in the previous study was carried out with the aid of a supervised machine learning algorithm. This study reports the finding of a case study, along a heavy haul line in the north of Sweden, using the same eddy current sensor system mounted on an in-service freight train. In this study, unsupervised machine learning models for detecting and analyzing missing clamps in a fastener system were developed. The differential eddy current measurement system was set to use a driving field frequency of 27 kHz. An anomaly detection model combining isolation forest (IF) and connectivity-based outlier factor (COF) was implemented to detect anomalies from fastener inspection measurements. To group the anomalies into meaningful clusters and to detect missing clamps within the fastening system, an unsupervised clustering based on the DBSCAN algorithm was also implemented. The models were verified by measuring a section of the track for which the track conditions were known. The proposed anomaly detection model had a detection accuracy of 96.79% and also exhibited a high score of sensitivity and specificity. The DBSCAN model was successful in clustering missing clamps, both one and two missing clamps, from a fastening system separately.

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  • 27.
    Chen, Shiwei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Dehghanimohammadabadi, Mohammad
    Northeastern University, Boston.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Yaowu
    Harbin Institute of Technology.
    Kailun, Feng
    Harbin Institute of Technology.
    Concrete Construction: How to Explore Environmental and Economic Sustainability in Cold Climates2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 3809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many cold regions around the world, such as northern China and the Nordic countries,on‐site concrete is often cured in cold weather conditions. To protect the concrete from freezing or excessively long maturation during the hardening process, contractors use curing measures. Different types of curing measures have different effects on construction duration, cost, and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, to maximize their sustainability and financial benefits, contractors need to select the appropriate curing measures against different weather conditions. However, there is still a lack of efficient decision support tools for selecting the optimal curing measures, considering the temperature conditions and effects on construction performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a Modeling‐Automation‐Decision Support (MADS) framework and tool to help contractors select curing measures to optimize performance in terms of duration, cost, and CO2 emissions under prevailing temperatures. The developed framework combines a concrete maturity analysis (CMA) tool, a discrete event simulation (DES), and a decision support module to select the best curing measures. The CMA tool calculates the duration of concrete curing needed to reach the required strength, based on the chosen curing measures and anticipated weather conditions. The DES simulates all construction activities to provide input for the CMA and uses the CMA results to evaluate construction performance. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed framework, a software prototype was developed and tested on a case study in Sweden. The results show that the developed framework can efficiently propose solutions that significantlyreduce curing duration and CO2 emissions.

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  • 28.
    Cheng, Li
    et al.
    Deep Mining Laboratory of Shandong Gold Group Co., Yantai, 264000, China.
    Wu, Qinzheng
    Deep Mining Laboratory of Shandong Gold Group Co., Yantai, 264000, China.
    Li, Haotian
    College of Energy and Mining Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China.
    Chen, Kexu
    Deep Mining Laboratory of Shandong Gold Group Co., Yantai, 264000, China.
    Wang, Chunlong
    Deep Mining Laboratory of Shandong Gold Group Co., Yantai, 264000, China.
    Liu, Xingquan
    Deep Mining Laboratory of Shandong Gold Group Co., Yantai, 264000, China.
    Li, Xuelong
    College of Energy and Mining Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China.
    Meng, Jingjing
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Safety and Protection Measures of Underground Non-Coal Mines with Mining Depth over 800 m: A Case Study in Shandong, China2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 20, article id 13345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase in mining depth, the risk of ground pressure disasters in yellow gold mines is becoming more and more serious. This paper carries out a borehole test for the pressure behavior in a non-coal mining area with a mining depth of more than 800 m in the Jiaodong area. The test results show that under a depth of 1050 m, the increase in the vertical principal stress is the same as the increase in the minimum horizontal principal stress, which is about 3 MPa per 100 m. When the depth increases to 1350 m, the vertical principal stress increases by about 3% per 100 m, and the self-weight stress and the maximum horizontal principal stress maintain a steady growth rate of about 3 MPa per 100 m. In addition, based on the test results, the operation of the ground pressure monitoring system in each mine is investigated. The investigation results show that in some of the roadway and stope mines with depths of more than 800 m, varying degrees of rock mass instability have occurred, and a few mines have had sporadic slight rockbursts, accounting for about 5%. There was a stress concentration area in the lower part of the goaf formed in the early stage of mining, and slight rockburst phenomena such as rock mass ejection have occurred; meanwhile, the area stability for normal production and construction was good, and there was no obvious ground pressure. This paper compares the researched mines horizontally as well as to international high-level mines and puts forward some suggestions, including: carrying out ground pressure investigations and improving the level of intelligence, which would provide countermeasures to balance the safety risks of deep mining, reducing all kinds of safety production accidents and providing a solid basis for risk prevention and supervision.

  • 29.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change, Linköping University.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy System Models as a Means of Visualising Barriers and Drivers of Forest-Based Biofuels: An Interview Study of Developers and Potential Users2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived biofuels have been on the agenda for several decades. Despite extensive research and development efforts, forest biofuel concepts have nevertheless not yet been realized on any significant scale. The discrepancy between the expectations from the research community and the lack of momentum regarding biofuel production raises the question of if and how research results can be used to achieve such goals. Here, we report results from an interview study with the aim of evaluating how energy system models can be used to illustrate barriers and drivers for forest biofuels, with focus on Swedish conditions, using the BeWhere model as case. The study is framed as an example of expertise, and problematizes how energy system models are interpreted among expected users. While the interviews revealed some general scepticism regarding models, and what kinds of questions they can answer, the belief was also expressed that increased complexity might be an advantage in terms of being able to accommodate more barriers against forest biofuels. The study illustrates the complexity of this policy area, where an energy system model can answer some, but never all, ‘what if…?’ questions. The results reveal a need for reformation in energy system modelling in order to more explicitly make society the subject of the work, and also illustrate that the belief in expertise as a tool for consensus-building in decision-making should be questioned.

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  • 30.
    Feng, Kailun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Chen, Shiwei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    Wang, Yaowu
    Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    An Integrated Environment–Cost–Time Optimisation Method for Construction Contractors Considering Global Warming2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 4207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction contractors play a vital role in reducing the environmental impacts during the construction phase. To mitigate these impacts, contractors need to develop environmentally friendly plans that have optimal equipment, materials and labour configurations. However, construction plans with optimal environment may negatively affect the project cost and duration, resulting in dilemma for contractors on adopting low impacts plans. Moreover, the enumeration method that is usually used needs to assess and compare the performances of a great deal of scenarios, which seems to be time consuming for complicated projects with numerous scenarios. This study therefore developed an integrated method to efficiently provide contractors with plans having optimal environment-cost-time performances. Discrete-event simulation (DES) and particle swarm optimisation algorithms (PSO) are integrated through an iterative loop, which remarkably reduces the efforts on optimal scenarios searching. In the integrated method, the simulation module can model the construction equipment and materials consumption; the assessment module can evaluate multi-objective performances; and the optimisation module fast converges on optimal solutions. A prototype is developed and implemented in a hotel building construction. Results show that the proposed method greatly reduced the times of simulation compared with enumeration method. It provides the contractor with a trade-off solution that can average reduce 26.9% of environmental impact, 19.7% of construction cost, and 10.2% of project duration. The method provides contractors with an efficient and practical decision support tool for environmentally friendly planning.

  • 31.
    Feng, Kailun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Chen, Shiwei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China.
    Yan, Hui
    School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, China.
    Wang, Yaowu
    Harbin Institute of Technology, Information Technology Institute, Harbin, China.
    A predictive environmental assessment method for construction operations: Application to a Northeast China case study2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction accounts for a considerable number of environmental impacts, especially in countries with rapid urbanization. A predictive environmental assessment method enables a comparison of alternatives in construction operations to mitigate these environmental impacts. Process-based life cycle assessment (pLCA), which is the most widely applied environmental assessment method, requires lots of detailed process information to evaluate. However, a construction project usually operates in uncertain and dynamic project environments, and capturing such process information represents a critical challenge for pLCA. Discrete event simulation (DES) provides an opportunity to include uncertainty and capture the dynamic environments of construction operations. This study proposes a predictive assessment method that integrates DES and pLCA (DES-pLCA) to evaluate the environmental impact of on-site construction operations and supply chains. The DES feeds pLCA with process information that considers the uncertain and dynamic environments of construction, while pLCA guides the comprehensive procedure of environmental assessment. A DES-pLCA prototype was developed and implemented in a case study of an 18-storey building in Northeast China. The results showed that the biggest impact variations on the global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication (EP), photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP), abiotic depletion potential (ADP), and human toxicity potential (HTP) were 5.1%, 4.1%, 4.1%, 4.7%, 0.3%, and 5.9%, respectively, due to uncertain and dynamic factors. Based on the proposed method, an average impact reduction can be achieved for these six indictors of 2.5%, 21.7%, 8.2%, 4.8%, 32.5%, and 0.9%, respectively. The method also revealed that the material wastage rate of formwork installation was the most crucial managing factor that influences global warming performance. The method can support contractors in the development and management of environmentally friendly construction operations that consider the effects of uncertainty and dynamics.

  • 32.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 530 21, SE-400 14 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Årstaängsvägen 1A, SE-117 43 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Östling, Ulrika Gunnarsson
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungrren-Söderman, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 530 21, SE-400 14 Stockholm, Sweden;Chalmers University of Technology, Environmental Systems Analysis, Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Profu AB, Götaforsliden 13, SE-43134 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 210 60, SE-100 31 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Profu AB, Götaforsliden 13, SE-43134 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 210 60, SE-100 31 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, SE-800 76, Gävle, Sweden.
    Forsfält, Tomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet, P.O. Box 3116, SE-103 62 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guath, Mona
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Policy instruments towards a sustainable waste management2013In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 841-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

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  • 33.
    Galvez, Antonio
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. TECNALIA, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), 48170 Derio, Spain.
    Diez-Olivan, Alberto
    TECNALIA, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), 48170 Derio, Spain.
    Seneviratne, Dammika
    TECNALIA, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), 48170 Derio, Spain.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. TECNALIA, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), 48170 Derio, Spain.
    Fault Detection and RUL Estimation for Railway HVAC Systems Using a Hybrid Model-Based Approach2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 6828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems installed in a passenger train carriage are critical systems, whose failures can affect people or the environment. This, together with restrictive regulations, results in the replacement of critical components in initial stages of degradation, as well as a lack of data on advanced stages of degradation. This paper proposes a hybrid model-based approach (HyMA) to overcome the lack of failure data on a HVAC system installed in a passenger train carriage. The proposed HyMA combines physics-based models with data-driven models to deploy diagnostic and prognostic processes for a complex and critical system. The physics-based model generates data on healthy and faulty working conditions; the faults are generated in different levels of degradation and can appear individually or together. A fusion of synthetic data and measured data is used to train, validate, and test the proposed hybrid model (HyM) for fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) of the HVAC system. The model obtains an accuracy of 92.60%. In addition, the physics-based model generates run-to-failure data for the HVAC air filter to develop a remaining useful life (RUL) prediction model, the RUL estimations performed obtained an accuracy in the range of 95.21–97.80% Both models obtain a remarkable accuracy. The development presented will result in a tool which provides relevant information on the health state of the HVAC system, extends its useful life, reduces its life cycle cost, and improves its reliability and availability; thus enhancing the sustainability of the system.

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  • 34.
    Garmabaki, Amir Soleimani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Adapting Railway Maintenance to Climate Change2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 13856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway infrastructure is vulnerable to extreme weather events such as elevated temperature, flooding, storms, intense winds, sea level rise, poor visibility, etc. These events have extreme consequences for the dependability of railway infrastructure and the acceptable level of services by infrastructure managers and other stakeholders. It is quite complex and difficult to quantify the consequences of climate change on railway infrastructure because of the inherent nature of the railway itself. Hence, the main aim of this work is to qualitatively identify and assess the impact of climate change on railway infrastructure with associated risks and consequences. A qualitative research methodology is employed in the study using a questionnaire as a tool for information gathering from experts from several municipalities in Sweden, Swedish transport infrastructure managers, maintenance organizations, and train operators. The outcome of this questionnaire revealed that there was a lower level of awareness about the impact of climate change on the various facets of railway infrastructure. Furthermore, the work identifies the challenges and barriers for climate adaptation of railway infrastructure and suggests recommended actions to improve the resilience towards climate change. It also provides recommendations, including adaptation options to ensure an effective and efficient railway transport service.

  • 35.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Issues of Natural Resources Law for Adopting Catchment-Based Measures for Flood Risk Management in Sweden2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 4, article id 2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Floods Directive calls for integrated flood risk management at a catchment scale. The potential of this directive to integrate relevant policy areas and deliver catchment-based measures may however be undermined by sectoral laws and policies in the Member States. This article focuses on the legal issues affecting the integration of catchment-based measures for managing flood risk in three relevant policy areas, namely, energy (in the form of hydropower production), agriculture, and forestry, in Sweden. The results show that that the present legal frameworks not only can restrict attempts to introduce catchment-based measures through compulsory means, but in some cases can also encumber collaborative and voluntary initiatives. It is therefore important to reinforce the catchment perspective in the processes leading to the adoption of flood risk management plans, in terms of assessing flood risks, evaluating measures and engaging stakeholders.

  • 36.
    Granheimer, Klara
    et al.
    Swedish Transport Administration, 781 70 Borlänge, Sweden; Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adaptability in Public Procurement of Engineering Services Promoting Carbon Reduction: An Organizational Control Perspective2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 5958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have emphasized the importance of engineering services and their adaptability to reduce carbon emissions in the construction sector. As public clients procure these services, selecting efficient (procurement-related) control modes is critical. However, studies of control modes and their effect on adaptability are scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate how, through the choice of control modes, a public client may create incentives for service providers to deliver carbon reduction solutions in the construction phase. In this study, a procurement model and a classification model are developed, and a single case study of an engineering service contract aiming for carbon reduction is used to illustrate the models. The empirical data include 16 interviews with respondents from the 2 contract parties, i.e., the client and service provider. The findings show that it is important to create incentives for adaptability when procuring engineering services with the aim of reducing carbon emissions in the construction phase. The findings also highlight the importance of these incentives being created both in relation to the selection of service providers and to the responsibility between the contract parties. The models developed in the study may serve as important tools for both practitioners and researchers. 

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  • 37.
    Hallstedt, Sophie I.
    et al.
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Ola
    The Division of Product Development, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    The Need for New Product Development Capabilities from Digitalization, Sustainability, and Servitization Trends2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 23, article id 10222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apparent from the latest pandemic, the dynamics and rate of change in society accelerate on a global scale. Ongoing mega-trends in society, such as digitalization, sustainability, and servitization, fundamentally changes the conditions for manufacturers when developing and providing new products. This study clarifies the combined impact and consequences on product development capabilities in manufacturing firms of the three mega-trends: (i) digitalization, (ii) sustainability, and (iii) servitization. The research is based on a pre-study, complemented with a semi-structured interview study at small, medium-sized, and large Swedish-based manufacturing companies, and a systematic literature review. The research makes evident that the main challenge is to empower engineers and development teams to model, present, evaluate, and develop expected and smart digitalized solutions in a time-limited environment and prioritize the most resource efficient and sustainable solution. Therefore, four complementary support resources are suggested: (i) a knowledge management platform, (ii) a data management platform, (iii) a set of criteria and metrics measuring progression, and (iv) support methods and tools to define, model, and evaluate solutions. When integrated into a digital platform, developers can simultaneously access and process the necessary information needed for sustainable, digitalized, and servitized solutions.

  • 38.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Should we trust in values?: Explaining public support for pro-environmental taxes2013In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 210-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are concerned with what explains public acceptance and support of environmental taxes. We examine findings in environmental psychology emphasizing that people’s (environmental) value-orientation is the dominant driver determining individuals’ support for pro-environmental policy instruments. We introduce a complementary model, mainly drawing upon findings in political science, suggesting that people’s support for policy instruments is dependent on their level of political trust and their trust in other citizens. More specifically, we analyze whether political trust and inter-personal trust affect individuals’ support for an increased carbon dioxide tax in Sweden, while checking their value orientation, self-interest, and various socio-economic values. We make use of survey data obtained from a mail questionnaire sent out to a random sample of 3,000 individuals in 2009. We find that apart from people’s values, beliefs, and norms, both political trust and interpersonal trust have significant effects on people's attitudes toward an increased tax on carbon dioxide.

  • 39.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Centre for Collective Action Research, Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Humanities and Social Science Education, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jagers, Sverker C.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Centre for Collective Action Research, Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public Support for Pro-Environmental Policy Measures: Examining the Impact of Personal Values and Ideology2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the relationship between two major explanations of the formation of positive attitudes towards environmental policy measures. Ideological orientation and personal values have, in theory, significant overlaps in the sense that they collect general and cross-situational sentiments used to understand and evaluate a wide range of political issues. However, in the empirical literature, although they independently have been shown to have rather significant effects on pro-environmental policy attitudes, they are rarely tested together in order to explore whether they capture the same basic mechanisms. In this article, two data sets from Sweden are used to demonstrate both that ideological orientation and personal values independently affect pro-environmental policy support, as well as that these effects differ across different policy types.

  • 40.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences.
    A preliminary model for assessing university sustainability from the student perspective2013In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 3690-3701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses university sustainability from the perspective of the interested student. A set of questions for a university website analysis is proposed and preliminary results for Swedish universities are presented. The university website analysis intends to emulate a student looking for a university working with sustainable development. University ranking is compared with the results from the sustainability assessment. Results from the study are based on university website analysis of 18 Swedish universities out of a total of 30. Universities are grouped in high ranked, low ranked and benchmark universities. For the majority of the studied universities it was possible to extract the information needed for a sustainability assessment from the website, which indicates that further development of the method is of interest. The average level of performance in the assessment was found to be less than 50% of the maximum of the proposed scale. With Sweden generally being a leading nation in sustainable development the results are below of what could be expected. Ranking, based on the Swedish ranking system does not seem to predict university sustainability performance. The indication is that Gothenburg University, while having further improvement potential, could be considered a benchmark in the Swedish context.

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  • 41.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rosvall, Max
    Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Buregyeya, Apollo
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala P.O. Box 7062, Uganda.
    Hazarika, Amrita
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marangu, Joseph Mwiti
    Department of Physical Sciences, Meru University of Science & Technology, Meru 972-60200, Kenya.
    Olonade, Kolawole
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos 101017, Nigeria.
    Ramanathan, Swaminathan
    Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rucukye, Anthony
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala P.O. Box 7062, Uganda.
    Valentini, Luca
    Department of Geosciences, University of Padua, 35131 Padua, Italy.
    Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Building Blocks—Diagnosing Opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 7, article id 5822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable building should at least be affordable and carbon neutral. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a region struggling with housing affordability. Residential buildings are often constructed using block-based materials. These are increasingly produced using ordinary Portland cement (PC), which has a high carbon footprint. Using alternative Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) for block production might reduce the footprint and price. The purpose is to assess the level of information for SCM use in blocks in SSA and to use this information for Diagnosing the improvement potential as part of an Opportunity Study. Results from the scoping review show that aggregated information on SCMs and the quantities available is limited. Diagnosing the theoretical improvement potential in using cassava peel ash, rice husk ash, corn cob ash, volcanic ash and calcined clays, indicates that SCMs could represent a yearly value of approximately USD 400 million, which could be transferred from buying cement to local production. The use of SCMs could save 1.7 million tonnes of CO2 per year and create some 50,000 jobs. About 5% of the PC used for block production could be substituted, indicating that, in addition to using SCMs, other solutions are needed to secure production of sustainable blocks.

  • 42.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ecological citizens: identifying values and beliefs that support individual environmental responsibility among Swedes2010In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1055-1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As it has been suggested that involvement of individuals in environmental work is necessary for halting environmental degradation, one focus for contemporary environmental policy and political theory is the need for comprehensive individual lifestyle changes. Ecological Citizenship (EC) has been suggested within the field of political theory as an approach to realize personal responsibility for the environment. However, empirical research on whether EC can serve this purpose is still lacking. Based on a survey sent to 4,000 Swedish households, this paper makes the theory of EC empirically operational and explores whether, and to what extent, people in general hold values and beliefs in line with what is expected of EC, in order to shed light on the feasibility of cultivating ecological citizens in Sweden. The study concludes that a significant proportion of the respondents do demonstrate a value base consistent with EC, i.e., non-territorial altruism and the primacy of social justice. While additional tests and studies are needed, the results support the use of EC as a theoretical model for behavioral change.

  • 43.
    Janta, Rungruang
    et al.
    School of Languages and General Education, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Khwanchum, Laksanara
    School of Languages and General Education, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Ditthakit, Pakorn
    Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; School of Engineering and Technology, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Linh, Nguyen Thi Thuy
    Institute of Applied Technology, Thu Dau Mot University, Thu Dau Mot 75000, Vietnam.
    Water Yield Alteration in Thailand’s Pak Phanang Basin Due to Impacts of Climate and Land-Use Changes2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 15, article id 9106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and land-use change are important factors in the hydrological process. Climatic and anthropic changes have played a crucial role in surface runoff changes. The objective of this research was to apply land-use change and future climate change to predict runoff change in the Pak Phanang River Basin. The Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model was used to predict the land-use change, while the climate data from 2025 to 2085 under RPC2.6, RPC4.5, and RPC8.5 were generated using the MarkSim model. Additionally, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) combined land-use change and the generated meteorological data to predict the runoff change in the study area. The results showed that the annual runoff in the area would increase in the upcoming year, which would affect the production of field crops in the lowland area. Therefore, a good water drainage system is required for the coming years. Since the runoff would be about 50% reduced in the middle and late 21st century, an agroforestry system is also suggested for water capturing and reducing soil evaporation. Moreover, the runoff change’s overall impact was related to GHG emissions. This finding will be useful for the authorities to determine policies and plans for climate change adaptation in the Malay Peninsula.

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  • 44.
    Jassim, Hassanean
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Predicting energy consumption and CO2 emissions of excavators in earthwork operations: An artificial neural network model2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excavators are one of the most energy-intensive elements of earthwork operations. Predicting the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of excavators is therefore critical in order to mitigate the environmental impact of earthwork operations. However, there is a lack of method for estimating such energy consumption and CO2 emissions, especially during the early planning stages of these activities. This research proposes a model using an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict an excavator's hourly energy consumption and CO2 emissions under different site conditions. The proposed ANN model includes five input parameters: digging depth, cycle time, bucket payload, engine horsepower, and load factor. The Caterpillar handbook's data, that included operational characteristics of twenty-five models of excavators, were used to develop the training and testing sets for the ANN model. The proposed ANN models were also designed to identify which factors from all the input parameters have the greatest impact on energy and emissions, based on partitioning weight analysis. The results showed that the proposed ANN models can provide an accurate estimating tool for the early planning stage to predict the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of excavators. Analyses have revealed that, within all the input parameters, cycle time has the greatest impact on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The findings from the research enable the control of crucial factors which significantly impact on energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

  • 45.
    Jiangdong, Bao
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Jingdong, Zhang
    Zhongnan University of Economics and Law.
    Comprehensive Evaluation on Employee Satisfaction of Mine Occupational Health and Safety Management System based on Improved AHP and 2-Tuple Linguistic Information2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to comprehensively evaluate the employee satisfaction of mine occupational health and safety management system, an analytic method based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and 2-tuple linguistic model was established. Based on the establishment of 5 first-grade indicators and 20 second-grade ones, method of improved AHP and the time-orderedWeighted Averaging Operator (T-OWA) model is constructed. The results demonstrate that the employee satisfaction of the mine occupational health and safety management system is of the ‘general’ rank. The method including the evaluation of employee satisfaction and the quantitative analysis of language evaluation information ensures the authenticity of the language evaluation information

  • 46.
    Jiangdong, Bao
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Zhang, Jingdong
    Research Center for Environment and Health, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan.
    An occupational disease assessment of the mining industry's occupational health and safety management system based on FMEA and an improved AHP model2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to effectively analyze, control, and prevent occupational health risk and ensure the reliability of the weight, a method based on FMEA (failure mode and effects analysis) and an improved AHP (analytic hierarchy process) model was established. The occupational disease of the occupational health and safety management system (OHSAS18001) of the mining industry in the southwest of Hubei Province is taken as an example, the three most significant risk factors (dust, noise, and gas) are selected as the research objects, the FMEA method is used, an expert questionnaire is carried out to establish the comprehensive assessment matrix of each indicator according to the RPN (risk priority number) value, and, finally, a case study is conducted through the FMEA and the improved AHP model The results show that the occupational disease of the mining industry's occupational health and safety management system belongs to a "general" grade, which is in line with the physical examination results of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ezhou City in 2015. The improved AHP and FMEA comprehensive assessment model of occupational disease is proved feasible. This method can be incorporated in the process management of the enterprise for the purpose of occupational disease prevention in advance and continuous improvement on the occupational health and safety of employees. Additionally, the area research on this integrated model should be optimized continually in actual situations.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Roth, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Reim, Wiebke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Smart and Sustainable eMaintenance: Capabilities for Digitalization of Maintenance2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 13, article id 3553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of Industry 4.0, researchers have begun to more thoroughly examine digital maintenance, i.e., eMaintenance, as digitization is increasingly affecting today’s society. This area is particularly interesting in the case of long-life components such as those used in the mining and transport industries. With eMaintenance, the correct type of maintenance can be utilized and the frequency for device maintenance can be reduced through real-time diagnosis. This leads to reduced costs for companies that implement eMaintenance as well as environmental benefits through improved resource utilization. Advantages of eMaintenance have been described in the literature; however, the capabilities necessary to implement eMaintenance lack proper research. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that presents the required capabilities and their connection when an organization wants to implement eMaintenance, as well as to identify the outcomes of the transition to eMaintenance. The study is based on an exploratory case study that includes 26 interviews with a digital railway maintenance development company and its main customer, the traffic agency. The study findings are presented in a framework, including five main capabilities for implementing eMaintenance and its relationship within the noted industries. The required capabilities are, namely, digital technology development, organizational development, change of work routines, compliance with regulations, and assuring information security. The framework also analyzes the outcomes of implementing digital maintenance, which demonstrate a variety of economic, environmental, and social benefits.

  • 48.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Segerstedt, Eugenia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jakobsson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Revealing Social Values by 3D City Visualization in City Transformations2016In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social sustainability is a widely used concept in urban planning research and practice. However, knowledge of spatial distributions of social values and aspects of social sustainability is required. Visualization of these distributions is also highly valuable, but challenging, and rarely attempted in sparsely populated urban environments in rural areas. This article presents a method that highlights social values in spatial models through 3D visualization, describes the methodology to generate the models, and discusses potential applications. The models were created using survey, building, infrastructure and demographic data for Gällivare, Sweden, a small city facing major transformation due to mining subsidence. It provides an example of how 3D models of important social sustainability indices can be designed to display citizens’ attitudes regarding their financial status, the built environment, social inclusion and welfare services. The models helped identify spatial variations in perceptions of the built environment that correlate (inter alia) with closeness to certain locations, gender and distances to public buildings. Potential uses of the model for supporting efforts by practitioners, researchers and citizens to visualize and understand social values in similar urban environments are discussed, together with ethical issues (particularly regarding degrees of anonymity) concerning its wider use for inclusive planning.

  • 49.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Pigs and Pollards: Medieval Insights for UK Wood Pasture Restoration2013In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English wood pastures have become a target for ecological restoration, including the restoration of pollarded trees and grazing animals, although pigs have not been frequently incorporated into wood pasture restoration schemes. Because wood pastures are cultural landscapes, created through the interaction of natural processes and human practices, a historical perspective on wood pasture management practices has the potential to provide insights for modern restoration projects. Using a wide range of both written and artistic sources form the Middle Ages, this article argues that pigs were fed in wood pastures both during the mast season when acorns were available and at other times as grazing fields. Pollarded pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) likely dominated these sustainable cultural landscapes during the medieval period.

  • 50.
    Kadri, Abdelaziz
    et al.
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Baouia, Kais
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Kateb, Samir
    Research Laboratory in Exploitation and Development of Natural Resources in Arid Zones, University of Kasdi Merbah−Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Kouadri, Saber
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Najm, Hadee Mohammed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain Engineering College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.
    Mashaan, Nuha S.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
    Eldirderi, Moutaz Mustafa A.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia.
    Khedher, Khaled Mohamed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, High Institute of Technological Studies, Mrezgua University Campus, Nabeul 8000, Tunisia.
    Assessment of Groundwater Suitability for Agricultural Purposes: A Case Study of South Oued Righ Region, Algeria2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, article id 8858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater in the Touggourt region—or as its named, Oued Righ—in southeastern Algeria, is the only source of irrigation. To assess its suitability for agricultural purposes, we collected 72 samples from wells at this region, physical and chemical measurements were carried out for each water sample, and calculations of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), soluble sodium percent (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard ratio (MHR) and Kelley’s ratio (KR) were carried out, as these indices are often used to assess the suitability of groundwater for irrigation uses. Based on the irrigation water quality index (IWQI) values, a spatial distribution map for each parameter using the inverse interpolation technique (IDW) was produced by Geographical Information System (GIS). According to the IWQI map, about 35% of the water samples analyzed fall into the Severe Restriction category (SR), making it unsuitable for irrigation under normal circumstance. Again, the remaining 65% of the groundwater has a high restriction (HR) for use. Groundwater in the study area could be used for irrigation in highly permeable soils where salt-tolerant crops are grown. Adequate drainage and continuous monitoring of water quality are recommended.

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