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  • 1.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    Department of Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Recent Trends and Long-Range Forecasts of Water Resources of Northeast Iraq and Climate Change Adaptation Measures2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 1-19, article id 1562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been experiencing water resources scarcity, and is vulnerable to climate change. Analysis of historical data revealed that the region is experiencing climate change to a degree higher than generally reported elsewhere. The relationship between climate change and its effect on water resources of a region has been sparsely addressed in published literature. To fill that gap this research work first investigates if there has been a significant change in climate in the region, which has been found to be true. In the next stage, the research projects future climatic scenarios of the region based on six oft-used General CirculationModel (GCM) ensembles, namely CCSM4, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0, GFDL-ESM2M, MEROC5, HadGEM2-ES, and IPSL-CM5A-LR. The relationship between climate change and its impact on water resources is explored through the application of the popular, widely used SWAT model. The model depicts the availability of water resources, classified separately as blue and green waters, for near and distant futures for the region. Some of the findings are foreboding and warrants urgent attention of planners and decision makers. According to model outputs, the region may experience precipitation reduction of about 12.6% and 21% in near (2049–2069) and distant (2080–2099) futures, respectively under RCP8.5. Those figures under RCP4.5 are 15% and 23.4%, respectively and under RCP2.6 are 12.2% and 18.4%, respectively. As a consequence, the blue water may experience decreases of about 22.6% and 40% under RCP8.5, 25.8% and 46% under RCP4.5, and 34.4% and 31% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. Green water, by contrast, may reduce by about 10.6% and 19.6% under RCP8.5, by about 14.8% and 19.4% under RCP4.5, and by about 15.8% and 14.2% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. The research further investigates how the population are adapting to already changed climates and how they are expected to cope in the future when the shift in climate is expected to be much greater.

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  • 2.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

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  • 3.
    Al Manmi, Diary Ali Mohammed Amin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Abdullah, Twana Omer
    Sulaymaniyah Groundwater Directorate, Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan Region.
    Al-Jaf, Peshawa Mahmood
    Sulaymaniyah Groundwater Directorate, Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan Region.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Soil and Groundwater Pollution Assessment and Delineation of Intensity Risk Map in Sulaymaniyah City, NE of Iraq2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater and soil pollution caused by (PAHs) spills, mostly from the oil industry and petrol stations in urban areas, represent a major environmental concern worldwide. However, infiltration into groundwater is decreasing due to the natural attenuation processes of PAHs in the vadose zone, which protect invaluable groundwater resources against contamination. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of improper management of the petroleum industry on the groundwater and soil surrounding the petrol station and an oil refinery unit and, furthermore, to prepare the polluted risk intensity (PRI) map. Fifty-one soil samples and twenty-five water samples were analyzed for Light Non-aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPLs), and one soil sample for Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPLs); furthermore, six soil samples analyzed for Tetraethyl Lead (TEL) analysis. The results showed that seventeen wells were polluted with LNAPLs and the soils were highly contaminated with different DNAPLs components and mainly was in the form of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Seven factors introduced to the GIS platform to produce PRI map, which is the distance to source, depth to water table, slope, lineaments, lithology, soil, and recharge rate. The final map revealed that the eastern and western parts of the study area are at a very high-risk level, whereas the center is at a very low to low-risk level.

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  • 4.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. College of Engineering/Al-Musaib, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are widely used around the world, due to their relations to heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications [1]. To achieve the required objectives of these systems, the best design of these systems should be accessed first. The process of determining the best design for any UTES system has two stages, the type selection stage and the site selection stage. In the type selection stage, the best sort of UTES system is determined. There are six kinds of UTES systems, they are: boreholes, aquifer, bit, tank, tubes in clay, and cavern [2–5]. The selection of a particular type depends on three groups of parameters. They are: Site specific, design, and operation parameters (Figure 1). Apart from site specific parameters, the other two types can be changed through the life time of the system. The site specific parameters, e.g., geological, hydrogeological, and metrological, cannot be changed during the service period of the  ystem. Therefore, the design of the best type should depend, at first consideration, on site specific parameters.

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  • 5.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Ibrahim, Zainah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Othman, Faridah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Minimizing the Principle Stresses of Powerhoused Rock-Fill Dams Using Control Turbine Running Units: Application of Finite Element Method2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on improving the safety of embankment dams by considering theeffects of vibration due to powerhouse operation on the dam body. The study contains two ainparts. In the first part, ANSYS-CFX is used to create the three-dimensional (3D) Finite Volume (FV)model of one vertical Francis turbine unit. The 3D model is run by considering various reservoirconditions and the dimensions of units. The Re-Normalization Group (RNG) k-𝜀𝜀 turbulence modelis employed, and the physical properties of water and the flow haracteristics are defined in theturbine model. In the second phases, a 3D finite element (FE) numerical model for a rock-fill dam iscreated by using ANSYS®, considering the dam connection with its powerhouse represented by fourvertical Francis turbines, foundation, and the upstream reservoir. Changing the upstream watertable minimum and maximum water levels, standers earth gravity, fluid-solid interface, hydrostaticpressure, and the soil properties are onsidered. The dam model runs to cover all possibilities forturbines operating in accordance with the reservoir discharge ranges. In order to minimize stressesin the dam body and increase dam safety, this study optimizes the turbine operating system byintegrating turbine and dam models.

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  • 6.
    Anaraki, Mahdi Valikhan
    et al.
    Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111, Iran.
    Achite, Mohammed
    Water and Environment Laboratory, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, Hassiba Benbouali University of Chlef, Chlef 02180, Algeria; Construction and Project Management Research Institute, Housing and Building National Research Centre, Giza 12311, Egypt.
    Farzin, Saeed
    Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111, Iran.
    Elshaboury, Nehal
    Construction and Project Management Research Institute, Housing and Building National Research Centre, Giza 12311, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Elkhrachy, Ismail
    Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran 66291, Saudi Arabia.
    Modeling of Monthly Rainfall–Runoff Using Various Machine Learning Techniques in Wadi Ouahrane Basin, Algeria2023In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 20, article id 3576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainfall–runoff modeling has been the core of hydrological research studies for decades. To comprehend this phenomenon, many machine learning algorithms have been widely used. Nevertheless, a thorough comparison of machine learning algorithms and the effect of pre-processing on their performance is still lacking in the literature. Therefore, the major objective of this research is to simulate rainfall runoff using nine standalone and hybrid machine learning models. The conventional models include artificial neural networks, least squares support vector machines (LSSVMs), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), M5 model trees, random forests, multiple adaptive regression splines, and multivariate nonlinear regression. In contrast, the hybrid models comprise LSSVM and KNN coupled with a gorilla troop optimizer (GTO). Moreover, the present study introduces a new combination of the feature selection method, principal component analysis (PCA), and empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), relative RMSE (RRMSE), person correlation coefficient (R), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and Kling Gupta efficiency (KGE) metrics are used for assessing the performance of the developed models. The proposed models are applied to rainfall and runoff data collected in the Wadi Ouahrane basin, Algeria. According to the results, the KNN–GTO model exhibits the best performance (MAE = 0.1640, RMSE = 0.4741, RRMSE = 0.2979, R = 0.9607, NSE = 0.9088, and KGE = 0.7141). These statistical criteria outperform other developed models by 80%, 70%, 72%, 77%, 112%, and 136%, respectively. The LSSVM model provides the worst results without pre-processing the data. Moreover, the findings indicate that using feature selection, PCA, and EMD significantly improves the accuracy of rainfall–runoff modeling.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Robin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Vattenfall AB Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory, Älvkarleby.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerical investigation of a hydropower tunnel: Estimating localised head-loss using the manning equation2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluid dynamics within a water tunnel is investigated numerically using a RANS approach with the k-ε turbulence model. The computational model is based on a laser scan of a hydropower tunnel located in Gävunda, Sweden. The tunnel has a typical height of 6.9 m and a width of 7.2 m. While the average cross-sectional shape of the tunnel is smooth the local deviations are significant, where some roughness elements may be in the size of 5 m implying a large variation of the hydraulic radius. The results indicate that the Manning equation can successfully be used to study the localised pressure variations by taking into account the varying hydraulic radius and cross-sectional area of the tunnel. This indicates a dominant effect of the tunnel roughness in connection with the flow, which has the potential to be used in the future evaluation of tunnel durability. ANSYS-CFX was used for the simulations along with ICEM-CFD for building the mesh. 

  • 8.
    Armanuos, Asaad M.
    et al.
    Irrigation and Hydraulics Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, 31733 Tanta, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam.
    Underground Barrier Wall Evaluation for Controlling Saltwater Intrusion in Sloping Unconfined Coastal Aquifers2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 2403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barrier walls are considered one of the most effective methods for facilitating the retreat of saltwater intrusion (SWI). This research plans to examine the effect of using barrier walls for controlling of SWI in sloped unconfined aquifers. The sloping unconfined aquifer is considered with three different bed slopes. The SEAWAT model is implemented to simulate the SWI. For model validation, the numerical results of the seawater wedge at steady state were compared with the analytical solution. Increasing the ratio of flow barrier depth (db/d) forced the saltwater interface to move seaward and increased the repulsion ratio (R). With a positive sloping bed, further embedding the barrier wall from 0.2 to 0.7 caused R to increase from 0.3% to 59%, while it increased from 1.8% to 41.7% and from 3.4% to 46.9% in the case of negative and horizontal slopes, respectively. Embedding the barrier wall to a db/d value of more than 0.4 achieved a greater R value in the three bed-sloping cases. Installing the barrier wall near the saltwater side with greater depth contributed to the retreat of the SWI. With a negative bed slope, moving the barrier wall from Xb/L= 1.0 toward the saltwater side (Xb/L= 0.2) increased R from 7.21% to 68.75%, whereas R increased from 5.3% to 67% for the horizontal sloping bed and from 5.1% to 64% for the positive sloping bed. The numerical results for the Akrotiri coastal aquifer confirm that the embedment of the barrier wall significantly affects the controlling of SWI by increasing the repulsion ratio (R) and decreasing the SWI length ratio (L/La). Cost-benefit analysis is recommended to determine the optimal design of barrier walls for increasing the cost-effectiveness of the application of barrier walls as a countermeasure for controlling and preventing SWI in sloped unconfined aquifers.

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  • 9.
    Barcot, Ana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Åkerstedt, Hans O.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Larsson, I. A. Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Stormwater Uptake in Sponge-Like Porous Bodies Surrounded by a Pond: A Fluid Mechanics Analysis2023In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 3209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a previously published model for the water up take of stormwater in sponge-like porous bodies by the group is further developed. This is done by investigating the highest-performing model and considering the water uptake from the surroundings of a pond and rain-infiltrated soil. This implies that water uptake from impermeable to partially permeable surfaces is examined. Hence, the following cases are considered: (1) impervious bottom surface and no precipitation, (2) impervious bottom surface with precipitation, (3) permeable soil with no precipitation, and (4) permeable soil with precipitation. A mathematical model covering all these cases is presented, where the governing equations are the mass conservation and Darcy’s law together with an assumption of a sharp wetting front being a first-order approximation of the complete Richard’s equation. Results for the water uptake height, pond depth, and wetting front are computed numerically and plotted against time. Analytical solutions are also presented in certain cases, and critical values are obtained. The parametric study includes variations in the ratio of the model- to the surrounding ground surface area, initial pond depth, precipitation, and soil characteristics. To exemplify, the time it takes to absorb the water from the pond after a precipitation period is presented. The results are related to the Swedish rainfall data of 1 h duration with a return period of 10 years. When evaluating efficiency, the focus is on the absorption time. Results vary considerably, demonstrating a general trend that with soil infiltration, the water absorption rate is higher. For most cases, the considered water amount is absorbed completely, although depending on the parameters and conditions. These results serve to optimize the model for each of the cases. The main focus of the research lies in the theoretical aspect.

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  • 10.
    Bhagat, Suraj Kumar
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tiyasha, Tiyasha
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Welde, Wakjira
    Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tesfaye, Olana
    Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tung, Tran Minh
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Evaluating Physical and Fiscal Water Leakage in Water Distribution System2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing population, the need for research ideas on the field of reducing wastage of water can save a big amount of water, money, time, and energy. Water leakage (WL) is an essential problem in the field of water supply field. This research is focused on real water loss in the water distribution system located in Ethiopia. Top-down and bursts and background estimates (BABE) methodology is performed to assess the data and the calibration process of the WL variables. The top-down method assists to quantify the water loss by the record and observation throughout the distribution network. In addition, the BABE approach gives a specific water leakage and burst information. The geometrical mean method is used to forecast the population up to 2023 along with their fiscal value by the uniform tariff method. With respect to the revenue lost, 42575 Br and 42664 Br or in 1562$ and 1566$ were lost in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The next five-year population was forecasted to estimate the possible amount of water to be saved, which was about 549,627 m3 and revenue 65,111$ to make the system more efficient. The results suggested that the majority of losses were due to several components of the distribution system including pipe-joint failure, relatively older age pipes, poor repairing and maintenance of water taps, pipe joints and shower taps, negligence of the consumer and unreliable water supply. As per the research findings, recommendations were proposed on minimizing water leakage.

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  • 11.
    Bin Asad, S M Sayeed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andersson, Anders G.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wall shear stress measurement on curve objects with PIV in connection to benthic fauna in regulated rivers2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow characteristics in the vicinity of a set of half-cylinders of different sizes simulating benthic objects were studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The cylinders were mounted on the bottom of an open channel, and the influence of the flow speed on the distribution of the shear stress along the bottom geometry was investigated. Of special interest was how the shear stress changes close to the wall as a function of the flow speed and cylinder arrangement. It was found that the shear stress varies significantly as a function of position. This implies habitat heterogeneity allowing benthic invertebrates with different shear stress tolerance exists when the bottom consists of differently sized stones. It was also shown that direct measurements of near wall velocity gradients are necessary to accurately calculate the wall shear stress for more complex geometries.

  • 12.
    Burman, Anton J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andersson, Anders G.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Angele, Kristian
    Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarlebylaboratoriet, 814 70 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Case Study of Transient Dynamics in a Bypass Reach2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 1585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operating conditions of Nordic hydropower plants are expected to change in the coming years to work more in conjunction with intermittent power production, causing more frequent hydropeaking events. Hydropeaking has been shown to be detrimental to wildlife in the river reaches downstream of hydropower plants. In this work, we investigate how different possible future hydropeaking scenarios affect the water surface elevation dynamics in a bypass reach in the Ume River in northern Sweden. The river dynamics has been modeled using the open-source solver Delft3D. The numerical model was validated and calibrated with water-surface-elevation measurements. A hysteresis effect on the water surface elevation, varying with the downstream distance from the spillways, was seen in both the simulated and the measured data. Increasing the hydropeaking rate is shown to dampen the variation in water surface elevation and wetted area in the most downstream parts of the reach, which could have positive effects on habitat and bed stability compared to slower rates in that region.

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  • 13.
    Chettiyam Thodi, Muhamed Fasil
    et al.
    Department of Climate Variability and Aquatic Ecosystems, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS), Kochi 682508, India.
    Gopinath, Girish
    Department of Climate Variability and Aquatic Ecosystems, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS), Kochi 682508, India.
    Surendran, Udayar Pillai
    Centre for Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM), Kozhikode 673571, India.
    Prem, Pranav
    Centre for Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM), Kozhikode 673571, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mattar, Mohamed A.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Using RS and GIS Techniques to Assess and Monitor Coastal Changes of Coastal Islands in the Marine Environment of a Humid Tropical Region2023In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 21, article id 3819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vypin, Vallarpadam, and Bolgatty are significant tropical coastal islands situated in the humid tropical Kerala region of India, notable for their environmental sensitivity. This study conducted a comprehensive assessment of shoreline alterations on these islands by integrating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Utilizing satellite imagery from the LANDSAT series with a spatial resolution of 30 m, the analysis spanned the years from 1973 to 2019. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) tool, integrated into the ArcGIS software, was employed to monitor and analyze shoreline shifts, encompassing erosion and accretion. Various statistical parameters, including Net Shoreline Movement (NSM), End Point Rate (EPR), and Linear Regression Rate (LRR), were utilized to evaluate these changes. Additionally, the study aimed to discern the root causes of shoreline modifications in the study area, encompassing disturbances and the construction of new structures on these islands. The results conclusively demonstrated the substantial impact endured by these coastal islands, with accretion on both sides leading to the creation of new landmasses. This manuscript effectively illustrates that these islands have experienced marine transgression, notably evidenced by accretion. Anthropogenic activities were identified as the primary drivers behind the observed shoreline changes, underscoring the need for careful management and sustainable practices in these fragile coastal ecosystems.

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  • 14.
    Driessen, Peter P. J.
    et al.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Hegger, Dries L.T.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznań, Poland. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.
    van Rijswick, Helena F. M. W.
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Crabbé, Ann
    Research Group Environment & Society, Sociology Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab’Urba, Paris Est University, Marne La Vallée, France.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Institute of Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Priest, Sally
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Suykens, Cathy
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Institute for Environmental and Energy Law, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Raadgever, Gerrit Thomas
    Sweco Netherlands, The Netherlands.
    Wiering, Mark
    Institute for Management Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Governance Strategies for Improving Flood Resilience in the Face of Climate Change2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is the most common of all natural disasters and accounts for large numbers of casualties and a high amount of economic damage worldwide. To be ‘flood resilient’, countries should have sufficient capacity to resist, the capacity to absorb and recover, and the capacity to transform and adapt. Based on international comparative research, we conclude that six key governance strategies will enhance ‘flood resilience’ and will secure the necessary capacities. These strategies pertain to: (i) the diversification of flood risk management approaches; (ii) the alignment of flood risk management approaches to overcome fragmentation; (iii) the involvement, cooperation, and alignment of both public and private actors in flood risk management; (iv) the presence of adequate formal rules that balance legal certainty and flexibility; (v) the assurance of sufficient financial and other types of resources; (vi) the adoption of normative principles that adequately deal with distributional effects. These governance strategies appear to be relevant across different physical and institutional contexts. The findings may also hold valuable lessons for the governance of climate adaptation more generally.

  • 15.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Schedules for Some Major Crops in Southern Iraq2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate of Iraq is of the subtropical semi-dry type; however, the country was rich in water resources until a few decades ago. Climate change and the construction of many dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the neighboring countries have caused water shortages and poor water quality. Now, there is a need to decrease consumption, improve management of water resources, and determine the water requirements of the major crops because agriculture is the first consumer of water in Iraq. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) CROPWAT 8.0 simulation software and the CLIMWAT 2.0 tool attached to it have been used in this research for Dhi-Qar Province in southern Iraq to find the crop water requirements (CWRs) and irrigation schedules for some major crops. The CROPWAT Penman–Monteith method was used to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil conservation (S.C.) method was used to estimate the effective rainfall. The study results showed that ET0 varied from 2.18 to 10.5 mm/day and the effective rainfall varied from 0.0 to 23.1 mm. The irrigation requirements were 1142, 203.2, 844.8, and 1180 mm/dec for wheat, barley, white corn, and tomatoes, respectively. There is a higher water demand for crops during the dry seasons (summer and autumn) and a lower demand during the wet seasons (winter and spring). The total gross irrigation and the total net irrigation were 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for wheat, 175.2 mm and 122.6 mm for barley, 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for white corn, and 203.3 mm and 142.3 mm for tomatoes. This study proved that the CROPWAT model is useful for calculating the crop irrigation needs for the proper management of water resources.

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  • 16.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Footprint of Wheat in Iraq2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water footprint (WF) is an indicator of indirect and direct fresh water use. In respect of

    facilitating decision-making processes,WF gives an excellent perspective on how and where fresh water is used in the supply chain. More than 39million people live in Iraq and,with a growing population, there is a water shortage and a rising demand for food that cannot be met in the future. In this study, theWF of wheat production is estimated for the year 2016–2017 for 15 Iraqi provinces. TheWF was calculated using the method ofMekonnen and Hoekstra (2011) and the CROPWAT and CLIMWAT softwares’ crop water requirement option. It was found that theWF in m 3/ton was 1876 m3/ton. The 15 provinces showed variations inWFs, which can be ascribed to the difference in climate and production values. The highest

    wheat WF was found in Nineveh province, followed by Muthanna, Anbar, and Basra. The last three provinces produce little and have a highWF so, in these provinces, wheat can be replaced with crops that need less water and provide more economic benefit. There is an opportunity to reduce the greenWF by increasing production from the 4 rain-fed provinces, which will reduce the need for production from the irrigated provinces and, therefore, reduce the use of blue water.

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  • 17.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Ammar
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, Baghdad Universi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Watershed Sediment and Its Effect on Storage Capacity: Case Study of Dokan Dam Reservoir2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dokan is a multipurpose dam located on the Lesser Zab River in the Iraq/Kurdistan region. The dam has operated since 1959, and it drains an area of 11,690 km2. All reservoirs in the world suffer from sediment deposition. It is one of the main problems for reservoir life sustainability. Sustainable reservoir sediment-management practices enable the reservoir to function for a longer period of time by reducing reservoir sedimentation. This study aims to assess the annual runoff and sediment loads of the Dokan Dam watershed using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to evaluate the relative contributions in comparison with the total values delivered from both watershed and Lesser Zab River and to identify the basins with a high sediment load per unit area. These help in the process of developing a plan and strategy to manage sediment inflow and deposition. The SUFI-2 program was applied for a model calibrated based on the available field measurements of the adjacent Derbendekhan Dam watershed, which has similar geological formations, characteristics and weather. For the calibration period (1961–1968), the considered statistical criteria of determination coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency were 0.75 and 0.64 for runoff while the coefficients were 0.65 and 0.63 for sediment load, respectively. The regionalization technique for parameter transformation from Derbendekhan to Dokan watershed was applied. Furthermore, the model was validated based on transformed parameters and the available observed flow at the Dokan watershed for the period (1961–1964); they gave reasonable results for the determination coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency, which were 0.68 and 0.64, respectively. The results of SWAT project simulation for Dokan watershed for the period (1959–2014) indicated that the average annual runoff volume which entered the reservoir was about 2100 million cubic meters (MCM). The total sediment delivered to the reservoir was about 72 MCM over the 56 years of dam life, which is equivalent to 10% of the reservoir dead storage. Two regression formulas were presented to correlate the annual runoff volume and sediment load with annual rain depth for the studied area. In addition, a spatial distribution of average annual sediment load was constructed to identify the sub basin of the high contribution of sediment load.

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  • 18.
    Fagerström, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Karlsson, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lycksam, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Influence of substrate material on flow in freezing water droplets—an experimental study2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 1628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freezing water droplets are a natural phenomenon that occurs regularly in the Arctic climate. It affects areas such as aircrafts, wind turbine blades and roads, where it can be a safety issue. To further scrutinize the freezing process, the main objective of this paper is to experimentally examine the influence of substrate material on the internal flow of a water droplet. The secondary goal is to reduce uncertainties in the freezing process by decreasing the randomness of the droplet size and form by introducing a groove in the substrate material. Copper, aluminium and steel was chosen due to their differences in thermal conductivities. Measurements were performed with Particle Image Velociometry (PIV) to be able to analyse the velocity field inside the droplet during the freezing process. During the investigation for the secondary goal, it could be seen that by introducing a groove in the substrate material, the contact radius could be controlled with a standard deviation of 0.85%. For the main objective, the velocity profile was investigated during different stages of the freezing process. Five points along the symmetry line of the droplet were compared and copper, which also has the highest thermal conductivity, showed the highest internal velocity. The difference between aluminium and steel was in their turn more difficult to distinguish, since the maximum velocity switched between the two materials along the symmetry line.

  • 19.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Demare, Dominique
    IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Eau et Environnement- route de Bouaye CS4, 44344 Bouguenais CEDEX, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Dubois, Philippe
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Kajeiou, Meriem
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Vitart de Abreu Lima, Maria
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Stochastic Method for Evaluating Removal, Fate and Associated Uncertainties of Micropollutants in a Stormwater Biofilter at an Annual Scale2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stochastic method for evaluating the in situ mass balance of micropollutants in a stormwater biofilter, accounting for inlet and outlet loads and the evolution of pollutant mass in the filter media (ΔMsoil) at an annual scale, is proposed. In the field context, this type of calculation presents a number of methodological challenges, associated with estimating water quality for unsampled rain events, reconstituting missing or invalidated flow data and accounting for significant uncertainties associated with these estimations and experimental measurements. The method is applied to a biofiltration swale treating road runoff for two trace metals, Cu and Zn and six organic micropollutants: pyrene (Pyr), phenanthrene (Phen), bisphenol-A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Pollutant loads were reduced by 27–72%. While organic micropollutants are likely to be lost to degradation or volatilization processes in such systems, dissipation could not be demonstrated for any of the organic micropollutants studied due to emissions from construction materials (case of BPA, OP, NP and DEHP) or high uncertainties in ΔMsoil (case of Pyr and Phen). The necessary conditions for establishing an in situ mass balance demonstrating dissipation, which include acquisition of data associated with all terms over a period long enough that uncertainty propagation is limited and the absence of additional sources of pollutants in the field, are discussed.

  • 20.
    Gasperi, Johnny
    et al.
    GERS-LEE, UniversitéGustave Eiffel, IFSTTAR, F-44344 Bouguenais, France; Leesu, UniversitéParis Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Le Roux, Julien
    Leesu, UniversitéParis Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Ayrault, Sophie
    LSCE-IPSL, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Bordier, Louise
    LSCE-IPSL, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    Leesu, UniversitéParis Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Budzinski, Hélène
    UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, F-33400 Talence, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    Leesu, Université Paris Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Caubrière, Nadège
    GERS-LEE, Université Gustave Eiffel, IFSTTAR, F-44344 Bouguenais, France.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Guillon, Martin
    GERS-LEE, Université Gustave Eiffel, IFSTTAR, F-44344 Bouguenais, France.
    Huynh, Nina
    Leesu, Université Paris Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Labadie, Pierre
    UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, F-33400 Talence, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    CEREMA, Equipe de Recherche Team, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, F-78190 Trappes, France; Aquatycia 7/9ter rue Parmentier, F-94140 Alfortville, France.
    Neveu, Pascale
    STEA, Ville de Paris, F-75000 Paris, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Paupardin, Julien
    DEA, Conseil Départemental de la Seine St Denis, F-93110 Rosny-sous-Bois, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Varnede, Lucie
    CEREMA, Equipe de Recherche Team, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, F-78190 Trappes, France; Ecovegetal, Les Grandes Pieces, F-28410 Broue, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Micropollutants in Urban Runoff from Traffic Areas: Target and Non-Target Screening on Four Contrasted Sites2022In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projected changes in temperature and precipitation in mid-latitude wet regions are expected to significantly affect forest ecosystems. We studied the physiological and shoot growth responses of Abies holophylla and Abies koreana seedlings to warming (3◦C above ambient temperature) and increased precipitation (irrigation with 40% of rainfall) treatments under open-field conditions. The physiological parameters, quantified by the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and total chlorophyll content, were monitored from July to October 2018. Shoot growth (i.e., root collar diameter and height) was assessed in August and December 2018. Irrespective of the treatments, the physiological parameters of both species decreased from July to August under warming treatment due to heat stress before recovering in September and October. Warming alone (W) and warming along with increased precipitation (W*P) decreased the physiological activities of both species in July, August, and September, with more pronounced effects on A. koreana compared with A. holophylla. Increased precipitation resulted in the increased chlorophyll content of both species in October. Shoot growth was not generally affected by the treatments, except for a subtle reduction in height under W*P for A. koreana. A. holophylla had consistently higher values for the physiological parameters and shoot growth than A. koreana. Our results indicate that the physiological activities of the Abies species could be seriously reduced under climate change, with a more severe impact on A. koreana. Among the two species, A. holophylla appears to be a more robust candidate for future forest planting.

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  • 21.
    Gururani, Dheeraj Mohan
    et al.
    Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, Uttarakhand, India; Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Jammu, Nagrota 181221, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Kumar, Yogendra
    Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, Uttarakhand, India.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah 58002, Iraq.
    Kumar, Vinod
    Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, Uttarakhand, India.
    Vishwakarma, Dinesh Kumar
    Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, Uttarakhand, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Singh, Kanwarpreet
    Civil Engineering Department, Chandigarh University, Mohali 140413, Punjab, India.
    Kuriqi, Alban
    CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mattar, Mohamed A.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Mapping Prospects for Artificial Groundwater Recharge Utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS Methods2023In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 22, article id 3904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indiscriminate use of groundwater and its overexploitation has led to a significant decline in groundwater resources in India, making it essential to identify potential recharge zones for aquifer recharge. A study was conducted to determine such potential recharge zones in the Nandhour-Kailash River watershed. The study area included 1481 streams divided into 12 sub-basins (SWS). The results show that the downstream Saraunj sub-basins (SWS-11) and Odra sub-basins (SWS-12) were high priority and required immediate soil and water conservation attention. Sub catchments Lobchla West (SWS-4), Deotar (SWS-5), Balot South (SWS-8), Nandhour (SWS-9), and Nakoliy (SWS-10) had medium priority and were designated for moderate soil erosion and degradation. In contrast, sub-catchments Aligad (SWS-1), Kundal (SWS-2), Lowarnala North (SWS-3), Bhalseni (SWS-6), and Uparla Gauniyarao (SWS-7) had low priority, indicating a low risk of soil erosion and degradation. Using the existing groundwater level data, the potential map of groundwater was validated to confirm its validity. According to the guidelines provided by the Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD), the results of the groundwater potential zones for good to very good zones have been integrated at the slope and stream order. In a 120.94 km2 area with a slope of 0–5% in first-order streams, 36 ponds were proposed, and in a 218.03 km2 area with a slope of 15% in first- to fourth-order streams, 105 retention dams were proposed and recognized as possible sites for artificial groundwater recharge. The proposed water harvesting structure may aid in continuously recharging these zones and benefit water resource managers and planners. Thus, various governmental organizations can use the results to identify possible future recharge areas.

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  • 22.
    Hang, Trieu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Bergström, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Vattenfall, Research & Development Hydraulic Laboratory, 81426 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Lycksam, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Photogrammetry for Free Surface Flow Velocity Measurement: From Laboratory to Field Measurements2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 1675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a multi-camera photogrammetric approach to measure the 3D velocityof free surface flow. The properties of the camera system and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV)algorithm were first investigated in a measurement of a laboratory open channel flow to prepare forfield measurements. The in situ camera calibration methods corresponding to the two measurementsituations were applied to mitigate the instability of the camera mechanism and camera geometry.There are two photogrammetry-based PTV algorithms presented in this study regarding differenttypes of surface particles employed on the water flow. While the first algorithm uses the particletracking method applied for individual particles, the second algorithm is based on correlation-basedparticle clustering tracking applied for clusters of small size particles. In the laboratory, referencedata are provided by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Thedifferences in velocities measured by photogrammetry and PIV, photogrammetry and LDV are 0.1%and 3.6%, respectively. At a natural river, the change of discharges between two measurement timesis found to be 15%, and the corresponding value reported regarding mass flow through a nearbyhydropower plant is 20%. The outcomes reveal that the method can provide a reliable estimation of3D surface velocity with sufficient accuracy.

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  • 23.
    Hedberg, P. A. Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andersson, Anders G.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Vattenfall, Research & Development Hydraulic Laboratory, Älvkarleby, 814 26, Sweden; Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, 901 83, Sweden.
    Andersson, Robin L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Measurements and Simulations of the Flow Distribution in a Down-Scaled Multiple Outlet Spillway with Complex Channel2024In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 16, no 6, article id 871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of mass flow through a three-outlet spillway modeled after a scaled-down spillway were conducted. The inlet and channel leading up to the outlets were placed to lead the water toward the outlet at an angle. With this, measurements of the water level at three locations were recorded by magnetostrictive sensors. The volumetric flow rates for each individual outlet were recorded separately to study the differences between them. Additionally, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure water velocities close to the outlets. The conditions changed were the inlet volume flow rate and the flow distribution was measured at 90, 100, 110, and 200 L per second. Differences between the outlets were mostly within the error margin of the instruments used in the experiments with larger differences shown for the 200 L test. The results produced together with a CAD model of the setup can be used for verification of CFD methods. A simulation with the k-epsilon turbulence model is included and compared to earlier experiments and the new experimental results. Larger differences are seen in the new experiments. Differing inlet conditions are assumed as the principal cause for the differences seen.

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  • 24.
    Kalantar Neyestanaki, Mehrdad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Dunca, Georgiana
    Department of Hydraulics, Hydraulic Machinery and Environmental Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest, București, 060042, Romania.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    Vattenfall AB, 162 87 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cervantes, Michel J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    A Comparison of Different Methods for Modelling Water Hammer Valve Closure with CFD2023In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 8, article id 1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water hammer is a transient phenomenon that occurs when a flowing fluid is rapidly decelerated, which can be harmful and damaging to a piping system. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional geometry is a common tool for studying water hammer, which is more accurate than numerical simulation with one-dimension approximation of the geometry. There are different methods with different accuracy and computational costs for valve closure modelling. This paper presents the result of water hammer 3D simulation with three main technics for modelling an axial valve closure: dynamic mesh, sliding mesh, and immersed solid methods. The variation of the differential pressure variation and the wall shear stress are compared with experimental results. Additionally, the 3D effects of the flow after the valve closure and the computational cost are addressed. The sliding mesh method presents the most physical results compared to the other two methods. The immersed solid method predicts a smaller pressure rise which may be the result of using a source term in the momentum equation instead of modelling the valve movement. The dynamic mesh method adds fluctuations to the primary phenomenon. Moreover, the sliding mesh is less expensive than the dynamic mesh method in terms of computational cost (approximately one-third), which was the primary method for axial valve closure modelling in the literature.

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  • 25.
    Kali, Suna Ekin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Amur, Achira
    Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085, USA.
    Champlin, Lena K.
    Department of Biodiversity Earth and Environmental Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Olson, Mira S.
    Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Gurian, Patrick L.
    Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Climate Change Scenarios Reduce Water Resources in the Schuylkill River Watershed during the Next Two Decades Based on Hydrologic Modeling in STELLA2023In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 20, article id 3666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Schuylkill River Watershed in southeastern PA provides essential ecosystem services, including drinking water, power generation, recreation, transportation, irrigation, and habitats for aquatic life. The impact of changing climate and land use on these resources could negatively affect the ability of the watershed to continually provide these services. This study applies a hydrologic model to assess the impact of climate and land use change on water resources in the Schuylkill River Basin. A hydrologic model was created within the Structural Thinking Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation (STELLA) modeling environment. Downscaled future climate change scenarios were generated using Localized Constructed Analogs (LOCA) from 2020 to 2040 for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Three regional land use change scenarios were developed based on historical land use and land cover change trends. The calibrated model was then run under projected climate and land use scenarios to simulate daily streamflow, reservoir water levels, and investigate the availability of water resources in the basin. Historically, the streamflow objective for the Schuylkill was met 89.8% of the time. However, the model forecasts that this will drop to 67.2–76.9% of the time, depending on the climate models used. Streamflow forecasts varied little with changes in land use. The two greenhouse gas emission scenarios considered (high and medium emissions) also produced similar predictions for the frequency with which the streamflow target is met. Barring substantial changes in global greenhouse gas emissions, the region should prepare for substantially greater frequency of low flow conditions in the Schuylkill River.

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  • 26.
    Karlsson, Linn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Comparing Internal Flow in Freezing and Evaporating Water Droplets Using PIV2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 1489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of evaporation and freezing of droplets is important in, e.g., spray cooling, surface coating, ink-jet printing, and when dealing with icing on wind turbines, airplane wings, and roads. Due to the complex nature of the flow within droplets, a wide range of temperatures, from freezing temperatures to heating temperatures, have to be taken into account in order to increase the understanding of the flow behavior. This study aimed to reveal if natural convection and/or Marangoni convection influence the flow in freezing and evaporating droplets. Droplets were released on cold and warm surfaces using similar experimental techniques and setups, and the internal flow within freezing and evaporating water droplets were then investigated and compared to one another using Particle Image Velocimetry. It was shown that, for both freezing and evaporating droplets, a shift in flow direction occurs early in the processes. For the freezing droplets, this effect could be traced to the Marangoni convection, but this could not be concluded for the evaporating droplets. For both evaporating and freezing droplets, after the shift in flow direction, natural convection dominates the flow. In the end of the freezing process, conduction seems to be the only contributing factor for the flow.

  • 27.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    Business School, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou, China.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Mohammad, Thamer Ahmad
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    A Systematic Operation Program of a Hydropower Plant Based on Minimizing the Principal Stress: Haditha Dam Case Study2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 1270, p. 2-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam operation and management have become more complex recently because of the need for considering hydraulic structure sustainability and environmental protect on. An Earthfill dam that includes a powerhouse system is considered as a significant multipurpose hydraulic structure. Understanding the effects of running hydropower plant turbines on the dam body is one of the major safety concerns for earthfill dams. In this research, dynamic analysis of earthfill dam, integrated with a hydropower plant system containing six vertical Kaplan turbines (i.e., Haditha dam), is investigated.In the first stage of the study, ANSYS-CFX was used to represent one vertical Kaplan turbine unit by designing a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) model. This model was used to differentiate between the effect of turbine units’ operation on dam stability in accordance to maximum and minimum reservoir upstream water levels, and the varying flowrates in a fully open gate condition. In the second stage of the analysis, an ANSYS-static modeling approach was used to develop a 3-D FE earthfill dam model. The water pressure pattern determined on the boundary of the running turbine model is transformed into the pressure at the common area of the dam body with turbines. The model is inspected for maximum and minimum upstream water levels. Findings indicate that the water stress fluctuations on the dam body are proportional to the inverse distance from the turbine region. Also, it was found that the cone and outlet of the hydropower turbine system are the most affected regions when turbine is running. Based on the attained results, a systematic operation program was proposed in order to control the running hydropower plant with minimized principal stress atselected nodes on the dam model and the six turbines.

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  • 28.
    Lundström, Staffan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Åkerstedt, Hans O.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Dynamic Distributed Storage of Stormwater in Sponge-Like Porous Bodies: Modelling Water Uptake2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 8, article id 2080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative concept of dynamic stormwater storage in sponge-like porous bodies (SPBs) is presented and modelled using first principles, for down-flow and up-flow variants of SPBs. The rate of inflow driven by absorption and/or capillary action into various porous material structures was computed as a function of time and found to be critically dependent on the type of structure and the porous material used. In a case study, the rates of inflow and storage filling were modelled for various conditions and found to match, or exceed, the rates of rainwater inflow and volume accumulation associated with two types of Swedish rainfalls, of 60-min duration and a return period of 10 years. Hence, the mathematical models indicated that the SPB devices studied could capture relevant amounts of water. The theoretical study also showed that the SPB concepts could be further optimized. Such findings confirmed the potential of dynamic SPB storage to control stormwater runoff and serve as one of numerous elements contributing to restoration of pre-urban hydrology in urban catchments. Finally, the issues to be considered in bringing this theoretical concept to a higher Technological Readiness Level were discussed briefly, including operational challenges. However, it should be noted that a proper analysis of such issues requires a separate study building on the current presentation of theoretical concepts.

  • 29.
    Malik, Anurag
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kumar, Anil
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kushwaha, Daniel Prakash
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kisi, Ozgur
    School of Business, Technology and Education, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    The Implementation of a Hybrid Model for Hilly Sub-Watershed Prioritization Using Morphometric Variables: Case Study in India2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1-19, article id 1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among several components of watershed prioritization, morphometric parameters are considered to be essential elements for appropriate water resource planning and anagement. In the current study, nine hilly sub-watersheds are prioritized using novel hybrid model ased on morphometric variables analysis at Bino Watershed (BW) located in the upper Ramganga basin, India. The proposed model is based on the hybridization of principal component analysis (PCA) with weighted-sum approach (WSA), presenting a single-frame methodology (PCWSA) for sub-watershed prioritization. The prioritization process was conducted based on several morphometric parameters including linear, areal, and shape. The PCA was performed to identify the significant correlated factor-loading matrix whereas WSA was established to provide the weights for the morphometric parameters and fix their priority ranking (PR) to be categorized based on compound factor value. The findings showed that 37.81% of total area is under highly susceptible zone sub-watersheds (SW-6 and SW-7). This is verifying the necessity for appropriate soil and water conservation measures for the area. The proposed hybrid methodology demonstrated a reliable approach for water resource planning and management, agriculture, and irrigation activities in the study region.

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  • 30.
    Mansouri, Zina
    et al.
    Research Laboratory in Exploitation and Development of Natural Resources in Arid Zones, University of Kasdi Merbah-Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Leghrieb, Youcef
    Research Laboratory in Exploitation and Development of Natural Resources in Arid Zones, University of Kasdi Merbah-Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Kouadri, Saber
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Najm, Hadee Mohammed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain Engineering College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.
    Mashaan, Nuha S.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
    Eldirderi, Moutaz Mustafa A.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia.
    Khedher, Khaled Mohamed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, High Institute of Technological Studies, Mrezgua University Campus, Nabeul 8000, Tunisia.
    Hydro-Geochemistry and Groundwater Quality Assessment of Ouargla Basin, South of Algeria2022In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 14, no 15, article id 2441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the hydro-chemical characteristics of Ouargla, Algeria basin groundwaters harvested from the Mio Pliocene aquifer. The study covered 70 samples; the physical parameters, potential of hydrogen (pH), and electrical conductivity EC μS.cm−1 were determined in situ, using a multiparameter; the laboratory analysis included dry residuals DR (mg/L), calcium Ca2+ (mg/L), magnesium Mg2+ (mg/L), sodium Na+ (mg/L), potassium K+ (mg/L), bicarbonates HCO3 (mg/L), sulfates SO42− (mg/L), and chloride Cl(mg/L). The piper diagram shows that the Ouargla basin ground waters divided into two facies, sodic chlorinated in 93% and sodic sulphated in 7% of samples. The United States Salinity Laboratory Staff (USSL) diagram was used to detect the suitability of groundwater in irrigation where the results show that the groundwater was classed into two classes, poor water (C4 S4) and bad water (C4 S4). Furthermore, indices such as the Kelly index (KI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium solubility percentage (Na%), and magnesium hazards (MH) confirm the negative effect of groundwater on soil permeability in 96%, 80%, 89%, and 53% of samples. The permeability index (PI) shows that the analyzed samples were considered as doubtful (71%) and safe (29%), otherwise there is no risk related to residual sodium carbonate (RSC). The geo-spatial distribution of deferent indices shows that all the study area has poor groundwater for irrigation, except the south-west part, where the groundwaters of this sub-area do not form a problem related to RSC.

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  • 31.
    Mohammad, Mohammad E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    A Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Model of Sediment Deposition in a Storage Reservoir Subject to Water Withdrawal2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Siltation is one of the most common problems in storage projects and attached structures around the world, due to its effects on a project’s life span and operational efficiency. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was applied to study the flow and sediment deposition in a multipurpose reservoir (Mosul Dam Reservoir, Iraq) subject to water withdrawal via a pumping station. A suitable control code was developed for the sediment simulation in intakes with multiblock option (SSIIM) model, in order to simulate a study case and achieve the study aims. The measured total deposited load in the reservoir after 25 years of operation and the measured sediment load concentration at different points near the pumping station intake were considered to validate the model results. The sediment load concentrations at several points near the water intake were compared; the percent bias (PBIAS) value was 3.6%, while the t-test value was 0.43, less than the tabulated value, indicating fair model performance. The model sensitivity to grid size and time steps was also tested. Four selected bed level sections along the reservoir were compared with the simulated values and indicate good performance of the model in predicting the sediment load deposition. The PBIAS ranged between 4.8% and 80.7%, and the paired t-test values indicate good model performance for most of the sections.

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  • 32.
    Naganna, Sujay Raghavendra
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Madhwa Vadiraja Institute of Technology and Management, Bantakal, Udupi, India. Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
    Deka, Paresh Chandra
    Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore, India.
    Ghorbani, Mohammad Ali
    Department of Civil Engineering, Near East University, Nicosia, Turkey. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Biazar, Seyed Mostafa
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Dew Point Temperature Estimation: Application of Artificial Intelligence Model Integrated with Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, water, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dew point temperature (DPT) is known to fluctuate in space and time regardless of the climatic zone considered. The accurate estimation of the DPT is highly significant for various applications of hydro and agro–climatological researches. The current research investigated the hybridization of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with nature-inspired optimization algorithms (i.e., gravitational search (GSA) and firefly (FFA)) to model the DPT of two climatically contrasted (humid and semi-arid) regions in India. Daily time scale measured weather information, such as wet bulb temperature (WBT), vapor pressure (VP), relative humidity (RH), and dew point temperature, was used to build the proposed predictive models. The efficiencies of the proposed hybrid MLP networks (MLP–FFA and MLP–GSA) were authenticated against standard MLP tuned by a Levenberg–Marquardt back-propagation algorithm, extreme learning machine (ELM), and support vector machine (SVM) models. Statistical evaluation metrics such as Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to validate the model efficiency. The proposed hybrid MLP models exhibited excellent estimation accuracy. The hybridization of MLP with nature-inspired optimization algorithms boosted the estimation accuracy that is clearly owing to the tuning robustness. In general, the applied methodology showed very convincing results for both inspected climate zones.

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  • 33.
    Nhu, Viet-Ha
    et al.
    Geographic Information Science Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Rahmati, Omid
    Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Department, Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Falah, Fatemeh
    Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.
    Shojaei, Saeed
    Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shahabi, Himan
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran. Department of Zrebar Lake Environmental Research, Kurdistan Studies Institute, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Shirzadi, Ataollah
    Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Górski, Krzysztof
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Radom, Poland.
    Nguyen, Hoang
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Ahmad, Baharin Bin
    Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Mapping of Groundwater Spring Potential in Karst Aquifer System Using Novel Ensemble Bivariate and Multivariate Models2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is an important natural resource in arid and semi-arid environments, where discharge from karst springs is utilized as the principal water supply for human use. The occurrence of karst springs over large areas is often poorly documented, and interpolation strategies are often utilized to map the distribution and discharge potential of springs. This study develops a novel method to delineate karst spring zones on the basis of various hydrogeological factors. A case study of the Bojnourd Region, Iran, where spring discharge measurements are available for 359 sites, is used to demonstrate application of the new approach. Spatial mapping is achieved using ensemble modelling, which is based on certainty factors (CF) and logistic regression (LR). Maps of the CF and LR components of groundwater potential were generated individually, and then, combined to prepare an ensemble map of the study area. The accuracy (A) of the ensemble map was then assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results of this analysis show that LR (A = 78%) outperformed CF (A = 67%) in terms of the comparison between model predictions and known occurrences of karst springs (i.e., calibration data). However, combining the CF and LR results through ensemble modelling produced superior accuracy (A = 85%) in terms of spring potential mapping. By combining CF and LR statistical models through ensemble modelling, weaknesses in CF and LR methods are offset, and therefore, we recommend this ensemble approach for similar karst mapping projects. The methodology developed here offers an efficient method for assessing spring discharge and karst spring potentials over regional scales.

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  • 34.
    Panasiuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Langeveld, Jeroen
    Department of Water Management, TU Delft. Partners4UrbanWater, The Netherlands.
    de Haan, Cornelis
    Partners4UrbanWater, The Netherlands.
    Liefting, Erik
    Partners4UrbanWater, The Netherlands.
    Schilperoort, Remy
    Partners4UrbanWater, The Netherlands.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) for Locating and Characterising Infiltration and Inflow into Foul Sewers before, during and after Snowmelt Period2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infiltration and inflow (I/I) into sewers cause negative effects on the sewer system,wastewater treatment plant and environment. Identifying the causes and locating the inflows isnecessary in order to address the I/I problem. This paper focuses on using distributed temperaturesensing (DTS) for identifying, locating and characterising I/I into a sewer system during the endof winter–beginning of summer transition period under dry and wet weather conditions. Duringsnowmelt, several locations with I/I were identified, while these locations did not show I/I duringstorm events after the snowmelt. In addition, during a very heavy storm after the snowmelt period,I/I was found at other locations. Therefore, DTS was demonstrated to be effective in identifying thetype of I/I and in locating I/I. Finally, I/I monitoring campaigns in cold climates should take intoaccount the variety of pathways of I/I during snowmelt and during rainfall.

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  • 35.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    et al.
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Avand, Mohammadtaghi
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Janizadeh, Saeid
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Phong, Tran Van
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Das, Sumit
    Department of Geography, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India.
    Le, Hiep Van
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Iran.
    Bozchaloei, Saeid Khosrobeigi
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
    Jafari, Faeze
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinag, India.
    GIS Based Hybrid Computational Approaches for Flash Flood Susceptibility Assessment2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1-29, article id 683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flash floods are one of the most devastating natural hazards; they occur within a catchment (region) where the response time of the drainage basin is short. Identification of probable flash flood locations and development of accurate flash flood susceptibility maps are important for proper flash flood management of a region. With this objective, we proposed and compared several novel hybrid computational approaches of machine learning methods for flash flood susceptibility mapping, namely AdaBoostM1 based Credal Decision Tree (ABM-CDT); Bagging based Credal Decision Tree (Bag-CDT); Dagging based Credal Decision Tree (Dag-CDT); MultiBoostAB based Credal Decision Tree (MBAB-CDT), and single Credal Decision Tree (CDT). These models were applied at a catchment of Markazi state in Iran. About 320 past flash flood events and nine flash flood influencing factors, namely distance from rivers, aspect, elevation, slope, rainfall, distance from faults, soil, land use, and lithology were considered and analyzed for the development of flash flood susceptibility maps. Correlation based feature selection method was used to validate and select the important factors for modeling of flash floods. Based on this feature selection analysis, only eight factors (distance from rivers, aspect, elevation, slope, rainfall, soil, land use, and lithology) were selected for the modeling, where distance to rivers is the most important factor for modeling of flash flood in this area. Performance of the models was validated and compared by using several robust metrics such as statistical measures and Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC) curve. The results of this study suggested that ABM-CDT (AUC = 0.957) has the best predictive capability in terms of accuracy, followed by Dag-CDT (AUC = 0.947), MBAB-CDT (AUC = 0.933), Bag-CDT (AUC = 0.932), and CDT (0.900), respectively. The proposed methods presented in this study would help in the development of accurate flash flood susceptible maps of watershed areas not only in Iran but also other parts of the world.

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  • 36.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    et al.
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Phong, Tran Van
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Nguyen, Huu Duy
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Qi, Chongchong
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Tuyen, Tran Thi
    Department of Resource and Environment Management, School of Agriculture and Resources, Vinh University, Vietnam.
    Yen, Hoang Phan Hai
    Department of Geography, School of Social Education, Vinh University, Vietnam.
    Ly, Hai‐Bang
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India.
    Bui, Dieu Tien
    Geographic Information System group, Department of Business and IT, University of South-Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway.
    A Comparative Study of Kernel Logistic Regression, Radial Basis Function Classifier, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, and Logistic Model Tree for Flash Flood Susceptibility Mapping2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-21, article id 239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk of flash floods is currently an important problem in many parts of Vietnam. In this study, we used four machine-learning methods, namely Kernel Logistic Regression (KLR), Radial Basis Function Classifier (RBFC), Multinomial Naïve Bayes (NBM), and Logistic Model Tree (LMT) to generate flash flood susceptibility maps at the minor part of Nghe An province of the Center region (Vietnam) where recurrent flood problems are being experienced. Performance of these four methods was evaluated to select the best method for flash flood susceptibility mapping. In the model studies, ten flash flood conditioning factors, namely soil, slope, curvature, river density, flow direction, distance from rivers, elevation, aspect, land use, and geology, were chosen based on topography and geo-environmental conditions of the site. For the validation of models, the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), Area Under Curve (AUC), and various statistical indices were used. The results indicated that performance of all the models is good for generating flash flood susceptibility maps (AUC = 0.983–0.988). However, performance of LMT model is the best among the four methods (LMT: AUC = 0.988; KLR: AUC = 0.985; RBFC: AUC = 0.984; and NBM: AUC = 0.983). The present study would be useful for the construction of accurate flash flood susceptibility maps with the objectives of identifying flood-susceptible areas/zones for proper flash flood risk management.

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  • 37.
    Qutbudin, Ishanch
    et al.
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Shiru, Mohammed Sanusi
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Dutse, Nigeria.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ahmed, Kamal
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Faculty of Water Resource Management, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Balochistan, Pakistan.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Wang, Xiaojun
    State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing, China. Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing, China.
    Seasonal Drought Pattern Changes Due to Climate Variability: Case Study in Afghanistan2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1-20, article id 1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the changes in meteorological drought severity and drought return periods during cropping seasons in Afghanistan for the period of 1901 to 2010. The droughts in the country were analyzed using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). Global Precipitation Climatology Center rainfall and Climate Research Unit temperature data both at 0.5 resolutions were used for this purpose. Seasonal drought return periods were estimated using the values of the SPEI fitted with the best distribution function. Trends in climatic variables and SPEI were assessed using modified Mann–Kendal trend test, which has the ability to remove the influence of long-term persistence on trend significance. The study revealed increases in drought severity and frequency in Afghanistan over the study period. Temperature, which increased up to 0.14 C/decade, was the major factor influencing the decreasing trend in the SPEI values in the northwest and southwest of the country during rice- and corn-growing seasons, whereas increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall were the cause of a decrease in SPEI during wheat-growing season. We concluded that temperature plays a more significant role in decreasing the SPEI values and, therefore, more severe droughts in the future are expected due to global warming.

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  • 38.
    Ren, Weichen
    et al.
    College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.
    Wei, Jie
    Power China Zhongnan Engineering Corporation Limited, Changsha 410014, China.
    Xie, Qiancheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Miao, Baoguang
    Power China Zhongnan Engineering Corporation Limited, Changsha 410014, China.
    Wang, Lijie
    Power China Zhongnan Engineering Corporation Limited, Changsha 410014, China.
    Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Hydraulics in Water Intake with Stop-Log Gate2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 1788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stop-log gate, installed in water intake of hydropower project, has become an effective facility in achieving selective withdrawal and temperature control for the sake of benefiting downstream ecosystems. Hence, it is of great importance to comprehensively explore the water intake hydraulics with the gate, not limited to some specific case studies. This study deals, through laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, with flow features of such a gate-functioned intake. The physical model test is used to validate the numerical simulation. Subsequently, a series of numerical cases considering different hydraulic and geometric conditions are performed to help look into the behaviors. Particular attention is paid to the flow regimes, head loss and flow velocity distributions. The results showcase the effect of the gate on the intake flow regime, and in terms of head loss and flow velocity distribution, the influences of the upstream water head, intake chamber width and withdrawal depth are revealed in detail. An empirical expression, with regard to the coefficient of head loss, is derived and validated by data from the available literature. Moreover, it is found that the maximum velocity at trash rack section is dependent exclusively on the relative withdrawal depth and always occurs at a certain height range above the gate. These results may provide a meaningful reference for the research of water intake with similar situations.

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  • 39.
    Roy, Dilip Kumar
    et al.
    Irrigation and Water Management Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh.
    Munmun, Tasnia Hossain
    Irrigation and Water Management Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh.
    Paul, Chitra Rani
    Irrigation and Water Management Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Mohamed Panjarul
    Irrigation and Water Management Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mattar, Mohamed A.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Improving Forecasting Accuracy of Multi-Scale Groundwater Level Fluctuations Using a Heterogeneous Ensemble of Machine Learning Algorithms2023In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 20, article id 3624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate groundwater level (GWL) forecasts are crucial for the efficient utilization, strategic long-term planning, and sustainable management of finite groundwater resources. These resources have a substantial impact on decisions related to irrigation planning, crop selection, and water supply. This study evaluates data-driven models using different machine learning algorithms to forecast GWL fluctuations for one, two, and three weeks ahead in Bangladesh’s Godagari upazila. To address the accuracy limitations inherent in individual forecasting models, a Bayesian model averaging (BMA)-based heterogeneous ensemble of forecasting models was proposed. The dataset encompasses 1807 weekly GWL readings (February 1984 to September 2018) from four wells, divided into training (70%), validation (15%), and testing (15%) subsets. Both standalone models and ensembles employed a Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (MRMR) algorithm to select the most influential lag times among candidate GWL lags up to 15 weeks. Statistical metrics and visual aids were used to evaluate the standalone and ensemble GWL forecasts. The results consistently favor the heterogeneous BMA ensemble, excelling over standalone models for multi-step ahead forecasts across time horizons. For instance, at GT8134017, the BMA approach yielded values like R (0.93), NRMSE (0.09), MAE (0.50 m), IOA (0.96), NS (0.87), and a-20 index (0.94) for one-week-ahead forecasts. Despite a slight decline in performance with an increasing forecast horizon, evaluation indices confirmed the superior BMA ensemble performance. This ensemble also outperformed standalone models for other observation wells. Thus, the BMA-based heterogeneous ensemble emerges as a promising strategy to bolster multi-step ahead GWL forecasts within this area and beyond.

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  • 40.
    Sharannya, Thalli Mani
    et al.
    Department of Water Resources and Ocean Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore 575025, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Barma, Surajit Deb
    Department of Water Resources and Ocean Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore 575025, India.
    Mahesha, Amai
    Department of Water Resources and Ocean Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore 575025, India.
    Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Products in Simulating Streamflow in a Humid Tropical Catchment of India Using a Semi-Distributed Hydrological Model2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 2400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation obtained from rain gauges is an essential input for hydrological modelling. It is often sparse in highly topographically varying terrain, exhibiting a certain amount of uncertainty in hydrological modelling. Hence, satellite rainfall estimates have been used as an alternative or as a supplement to station observations. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS), employing a semi-distributed hydrological model, i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), for simulating streamflow and validating them against the flows generated by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) rainfall dataset in the Gurupura river catchment of India. Distinct testing scenarios for simulating streamflow were made to check the suitability of these satellite precipitation data. The TRMM was able to better estimate rainfall than CHIRPS after performing categorical and continuous statistical results with respect to IMD rainfall data. While comparing the performance of model simulations, the IMD rainfall-driven streamflow emerged as the best followed by the TRMM, CHIRPS-0.05, and CHIRPS-0.25. The coefficient of determination (R2), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) were in the range 0.63 to 0.86, 0.62 to 0.86, and −14.98 to 0.87, respectively. Further, an attempt was made to examine the spatial distribution of key hydrological signature, i.e., flow duration curve (FDC) in the 30–95 percentile range of non-exceedance probability. It was observed that TRMM underestimated the flow for agricultural water availability corresponding to 30 percent, even though it showed a good performance compared to the other satellite rainfall-driven model outputs.

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  • 41.
    Storli, Pål-Tore
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    A New Technical Concept for Water Management and Possible Uses in Future Water Systems2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 2528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new degree of freedom in water management is presented here. This is obtained by displacing water, and in this paper is conceptually explained by two methods: using an excavated cavern as a container for compressed air to displace water, and using inflatable balloons. The concepts might have a large impact on a variety of water management applications, ranging from mitigating discharge fluctuation in rivers to flood control, energy storage applications and disease-reduction measures. Currently at a low technological readiness level, the concepts require further research and development, but the authors see no technical challenges related to these concepts. The reader is encouraged to use the ideas within this paper to find new applications and to continue the out-of-the-box thinking initiated by the ideas presented in this paper. 

  • 42.
    Tayebiyan, Aida
    et al.
    Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Mohammad, Thamer Ahmad
    University of Baghdad, Jadriya, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Malakootian, Mohammad
    Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Comparison of Optimal Hedging Policies forHydropower Reservoir System Operation2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservoiroperation rules play an important role in regions economic development. Meanwhile, hedging policies are mostly applied for municipal, industrial, and irrigation water supplies from reservoirs and it is less used for reservoir operation for hydropower generation. The concept of hedging and rationing factors can be used to maintain the water in a reservoir for the sake of increasing water storage and water head for future use. However, water storage and head are the key factors in operation of reservoir systems for hydropower generation. This study investigates the applicability of seven competing hedging policies including four customary forms of hedging (1PHP, 2PHP, 3PHP, DHP) and three new forms of hedging rules (SOPHP, BSOPHP, SHPHP) for reservoir operation for hydropower generation. The models were constructed in MATLABR2011b based on the characteristics of the Batang Padang hydropower reservoir system, Malaysia. In order to maximize the output of power generation in operational periods (2003–2009), three optimization algorithms namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and hybrid PSO-GA were linked to one of the constructed model (1PHP as a test) to find the most effective algorithm. Since the results demonstrated the superiority of the hybrid PSO-GA algorithm compared to either PSO or GA, the hybrid PSO-GA were linked to each constructed model in order to find the optimal decision variables of each model. The proposed methodology was validated using monthly data from 2010–2012. The results showed that there are no significant difference between the output of monthly mean power generation during 2003–2009 and 2010–2012. The results declared that by applying the proposed policies, the output of power generation could increase by 13% with respect to the historical management. Moreover, the discrepancies between mean power generations from highest to lowest months were reduced from 49 MW to 26 MW, which is almost half. This means that hedging policies could efficiently distribute the water-supply and power-supply in the operational period and increase the stability of the system. Among the studied hedging policies, SHPHP is the most convenient policy for hydropower reservoir operation and gave the best result.

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  • 43.
    Xie, Qiancheng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Yang, J.
    Division of Resources, Energy and Infrastructure, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden; Vattenfall AB, Research and Development (R and D), Älvkarleby Laboratory, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Dai, W.
    College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.
    Understanding morphodynamic changes of a tidal river confluence through field measurements and numerical modeling2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 1424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A confluence is a natural component in river and channel networks. This study deals, through field and numerical studies, with alluvial behaviors of a confluence affected by both river run-offand strong tides. Field measurements were conducted along the rivers including the confluence. Field data show that the changes in flow velocity and sediment concentration are not always in phase with each other. The concentration shows a general trend of decrease from the river mouth to the confluence. For a given location, the tides affect both the sediment concentration and transport. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of suspended load was set up to illustrate the combined effects of run-offand tidal flows. Modeled cases included the flood and ebb tides in a wet season. Typical features examined included tidal flow fields, bed shear stress, and scour evolution in the confluence. The confluence migration pattern of scour is dependent on the interaction between the river currents and tidal flows. The flood tides are attributable to the suspended load deposition in the confluence, while the ebb tides in combination with run-offs lead to erosion. The flood tides play a dominant role in the morphodynamic changes of the confluence. 

  • 44.
    Yang, James
    et al.
    Vattenfall AB Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Vattenfall AB Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory.
    Högström, Carl-Maikel
    Vattenfall AB Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory.
    Teng, Penghua
    Division of Resources, Energy and Infrastructure, Royal Institute of Technology.
    The tale of an intake vortex and its mitigation countermeasure: A case study from akkats hydropower station2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The upgrade of Akkats power station in Sweden included a new, separate waterway for the addition of a 75 MW generating unit. The vertical intake of its headrace was formed by means of lake tapping. A physical model was used to help understand the blasting process involving fragmented rock, water, air, and gas. Upon commissioning of the unit, swirling flows occurred unexpectedly at the intake, which gave rise to negative consequences including limitations in power output. Echo-sounding showed that the blasted piercing resulted in an irregular intake. A hydraulic model, as part of the design process, was built to examine potential countermeasures for vortex suppression. The final solution was a segmented barrier between the intake and the dam. It effectively suppressed the intake flow circulations; only minor intermittent vortices were left. The fabricated steel segments were anchored into the bedrock, stretching to 1.0 m below the lowest legal reservoir level. The local intake headloss was also reduced. The implemented solution was tested under full turbine loading and the result was satisfactory. Even during winter seasons with ice cover above the wall, the power station ran normally. The case study is expected to provide guidance for solving similar problems with vortex formation.

  • 45.
    Yang, James
    et al.
    Vattenfall, R&D Hydraulic Laboratory, Älvkarleby, Sweden; Civil and Architectural Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Teng, Penghua
    Civil and Architectural Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Xie, Qiancheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Shicheng
    Civil and Architectural Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Understanding Water Flows and Air Venting Features of Spillway: a Case Study2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 8, article id 2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For safe spillway discharge of floods, attention is paid to the water flow. The resulting air flow inside the facility, an issue of personnel security, is sometimes disregarded. The spillway in question comprises two surface gates and two bottom outlet gates lying right below. Air passages to the outlet gates include an original gallery and a recently constructed vertical shaft. To understand water-air flow behavior, 3D CFD modelling is performed in combination with the physical model tests. The simulations are made with fully opened radial gates and at the full pool water level (FPWL). The results show that the operation of only the bottom outlets leads to an air supply amounting to ~57 m3/s, with the air flow rates 35 and 22 m3/s to the left and right outlets. The air supply to the right outlet comes from both the shaft and the gallery. The averaged air velocity in the shaft and the gallery are approximately 5 and 7 m/s. If only the surface gates are fully open, the water jet impinges upon the canal bottom, which encloses the air space leading to the bottom outlets; the air flow rate fluctuates about zero. If all the four gates are open, the total air demand is limited to ~10 m3/s, which is mainly attributable to the shear action of the meeting jets downstream. The air demand differs significantly among the flow cases. It is not the simultaneous discharge of all openings that results in the largest air demand. The flood release from only the two outlets is the most critical situation for the operation of the facility. The findings should provide reference for spillways with the same or similar layout

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  • 46.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Ebtehaj, Isa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Iran.
    Kim, Sungwon
    Department of Railroad Construction and Safety Engineering, Dongyang University, Korea.
    Sanikhani, Hadi
    Water Engineering Department, Agriculture Faculty, University of Kurdistan, Iran.
    Asadi, H.
    Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran.
    Ghareb, Mazen Ismaeel
    Department of Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, University of Human Development, Iraq.
    Bonakdari, Hossein
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Iran.
    Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan
    Sustainable and Smart Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Novel Hybrid Data-Intelligence Model for Forecasting Monthly Rainfall with Uncertainty Analysis2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, three different evolutionary algorithms (EAs), namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and differential evolution (DE), are integrated with the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model. The developed hybrid models are proposed to forecast rainfall time series. The capability of the proposed evolutionary hybrid ANFIS was compared with the conventional ANFIS in forecasting monthly rainfall for the Pahang watershed, Malaysia. To select the optimal model, sixteen different combinations of six different lag attributes taking into account the effect of monthly, seasonal, and annual history were considered. The performances of the forecasting models were assessed using various forecasting skill indicators. Moreover, an uncertainty analysis of the developed forecasting models was performed to evaluate the ability of the hybrid ANFIS models. The bound width of 95% confidence interval (d-factor) and the percentage of observed samples which was enveloped by 95% forecasted uncertainties (95PPU) were used for this purpose. The results indicated that all the hybrid ANFIS models performed better than the conventional ANFIS and for all input combinations. The obtained results showed that the models with best input combinations had the (95PPU and d-factor) values of (91.67 and 1.41), (91.03 and 1.41), (89.74 and 1.42), and (88.46 and 1.43) for ANFIS-PSO, ANFIS-GA, ANFIS-DE, and the conventional ANFIS, respectively. Based on the 95PPU and d-factor, it is concluded that all hybrid ANFIS models have an acceptable degree of uncertainty in forecasting monthly rainfall. The results of this study proved that the hybrid ANFIS with an evolutionary algorithm is a reliable modeling technique for forecasting monthly rainfall.

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  • 47.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    et al.
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Ehteram, Mohammad
    Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Civil Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM).
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    El-Shafie, Ahmed
    Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    The Integration of Nature-Inspired Algorithms with Least Square Support Vector Regression Models: Application to Modeling River Dissolved Oxygen Concentration2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates an improved version of Least Square Support Vector

    Machines integrated with a Bat Algorithm (LSSVM-BA) for modeling the dissolved oxygen (DO)concentration in rivers. The LSSVM-BA model results are compared with those obtained using M5Tree and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) models to show the efficacy of this novelintegrated model. The river water quality data at three monitoring stations located in the USA areconsidered for the simulation of DO concentration. Eight input combinations of four water quality parameters, namely, water temperature, discharge, pH, and specific conductance, are used to simulate the DO concentration. The results revealed the superiority of the LSSVM-BA model over the M5 Tree and MARS models in the prediction of river DO. The accuracy of the LSSVM-BA model compared with those of the M5 Tree and MARS models is found to increase by 20% and 42%, respectively, in terms of the root-mean-square error. All the predictive models are found to perform best when all the four water quality variables are used as input, which indicates that it is possible to supply more information to the predictive model by way of incorporation of all the water quality variables.

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  • 48.
    Younas, Umer
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.
    Gulzar, Afzaal
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.
    Ali, Faisal
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.
    Pervaiz, Muhammad
    Department of Chemistry, Government College University Lahore, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.
    Ali, Zahid
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54590, Pakistan; Laboratory of Functional Material, College of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical and Technology, Beijing 100029, China.
    Khan, Safia
    Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
    Saeed, Zohaib
    Department of Chemistry, Government College University Lahore, Lahore 54590, Pakistan.
    Ahmed, Mukhtiar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Alothman, Asma A.
    Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Antioxidant and Organic Dye Removal Potential of Cu-Ni Bimetallic Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Gazania rigens Extract2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 19, article id 2653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper-nickel bimetallic nanoparticles (Cu-Ni BNPs) were fabricated using an eco-friendly green method of synthesis. An extract of synthesized Gazania rigens was used for the synthesis of BNPs followed by characterization employing different techniques including UV/Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. Spectrophotometric studies (UV-Vis and FTIR) confirmed the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles. The SEM studies indicated that the particle size ranged from 50 to 100 nm. Analysis of the BNPs by the XRD technique confirmed the presence of both Cu and Ni crystal structure. The synthesized nanoparticles were then tested for their catalytic potential for photoreduction of methylene blue dye in an aqueous medium and DPPH radical scavenging in a methanol medium. The BNPs were found to be efficient in the reduction of methylene blue dye as well as the scavenging of DPPH free radicals such that the MB dye was completely degraded in just 17 min at the maximum absorption of 660 nm. Therefore, it is concluded that Cu-Ni BNPs can be successfully synthesized using Gazania rigens extract with suitable size and potent catalytic and radical scavenging activities.

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  • 49.
    Yousif, Ali A.
    et al.
    Water Resources Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
    Sulaiman, Sadeq Oleiwi
    Dams and Water Resources Department, College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Diop, Lamine
    UFR S2ATA, Sciences Agronomiques, de l’Aquaculture et des Technologies Alimentaires, Université Gaston Berger (UGB), Saint Louis, Sénégal.
    Etheram, Mohammad
    Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    ustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Open Channel Sluice Gate Scouring Parameters Prediction: Different Scenarios of Dimensional and Non-Dimensional Input Parameters2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of scour characteristics in the downstream of sluice gate is highly importantfor designing and protection of hydraulic structure.  The applicability of modern data-intelligence technique known as extreme learning machine (ELM) to simulate scour characteristics has been examined in this study.  Three major characteristics of scour hole in the downstream of a sluice gate, namely the length of scour hole (Ls), the maximum scour depth (Ds), and the position of maximum scour depth (Lsm), are modeled using different properties of the flow and bed material. The obtained results using ELM were compared with multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS). The dimensional analysis technique was used to reduce the number of input variable to a smaller number of dimensionless groups and both the dimensional and non-dimensional variables were used to model the scour characteristics. The prediction performances of the developed models were examined using several statistical metrics. The results revealed that ELM can predict scour properties with much higher accuracy compared to MARS. The errors in prediction can be reduced in the range of 79%–81% using ELM models compared to MARS models. Better performance of the models was observed when dimensional variables were used as input. The result indicates that the use of ELM with non-dimensional data can provide high accuracy in modeling complex hydrological problems.

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  • 50.
    Zerouali, Bilel
    et al.
    Research Laboratory of Water Resources, Soil and Environment, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Amar Telidji University, Laghouat 3000, Algeria.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chettih, Mohamed
    Research Laboratory of Water Resources, Soil and Environment, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Amar Telidji University, Laghouat 3000, Algeria.
    Mohamed, Mesbah
    Earth Sciences Faculty, University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32, Bab Ezzouar 16311, Algeria.
    Abda, Zaki
    Research Laboratory of Water Resources, Soil and Environment, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Amar Telidji University, Laghouat 3000, Algeria.
    Santos, Celso Augusto Guimarães
    Center for Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, Paraíba, Brazil.
    Zerouali, Bilal
    Petrochemical and Process Engineering Department, 20 August 1955 University, 26 Road, El Hadaiek-Skikda 21000, Algeria.
    Elbeltagi, Ahmed
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt. College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.
    An Enhanced Innovative Triangular Trend Analysis of Rainfall Based on a Spectral Approach2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is currently witnessing high rainfall variability at the spatiotemporal level. In this paper, data from three representative rain gauges in northern Algeria, from 1920 to 2011, at an annual scale, were used to assess a relatively new hybrid method, which combines the innovative triangular trend analysis (ITTA) with the orthogonal discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for partial trend identification. The analysis revealed that the period from 1950 to 1975 transported the wettest periods, followed by a long-term dry period beginning in 1973. The analysis also revealed a rainfall increase during the latter decade. The combined method (ITTA–DWT) showed a good efficiency for extreme rainfall event detection. In addition, the analysis indicated the inter- to multiannual phenomena that explained the short to medium processes that dominated the high rainfall variability, masking the partial trend components existing in the rainfall time series and making the identification of such trends a challenging task. The results indicate that the approaches—combining ITTA and selected input combination models resulting from the DWT—are auspicious compared to those found using the original rainfall observations. This analysis revealed that the ITTA–DWT method outperformed the ITTA method for partial trend identification, which proved DWT’s efficiency as a coupling method.

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