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  • 1.
    Auchar Zardari, Muhammad
    et al.
    Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science and Technology: Nawabshah, Pakistan.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Khalid, Muhammad S.
    Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lund, Björn
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Numerical Analyses of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction and Deformation Behaviour of an Upstream Tailings Dam2017In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, Vol. 2017, article id 5389308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the seismic activity of northern Sweden consists of micro-earthquakes occurring near postglacial faults. However, larger magnitude earthquakes do occur in Sweden, and earthquake statistics indicate that a magnitude 5 event is likely to occur once every century. This paper presents dynamic analyses of the effects of larger earthquakes on an upstream tailings dam at the Aitik copper mine in northern Sweden. The analyses were performed to evaluate the potential for liquefaction and to assess stability of the dam under two specific earthquakes: a commonly occurring magnitude 3.6 event and a more extreme earthquake of magnitude 5.8. The dynamic analyses were carried out with the finite element program PLAXIS using a recently implemented constitutive model called UBCSAND. The results indicate that the magnitude 5.8 earthquake would likely induce liquefaction in a limited zone located below the ground surface near the embankment dikes. It is interpreted that stability of the dam may not be affected due to the limited extent of the liquefied zone. Both types of earthquakes are predicted to induce tolerable magnitudes of displacements. The results of the postseismic slope stability analysis, performed for a state after a seismic event, suggest that the dam is stable during both the earthquakes

  • 2.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Metsäpelto, Lari
    MSc, YIT Infra Oy, Helsinki, Finland.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Interaction of Magnesia with Limestone-Metakaolin-Calcium Hydroxide Ternary Alkali-Activated Systems2018In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, Vol. 2018, article id 1249615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of magnesia on ternary systems composed of limestone, metakaolin and calcium hydroxide, alkali activated with sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulphate was studied by determination of the compressive strength, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pastes activated with sodium silicate and sodium sulphate showed strength regression caused by a formation of an unstable prone to cracking geopolymer gel. The presence of magnesia in sodium hydroxide-activated system hindered this trend by promoting a formation of more stable crystalline phases intermixed with brucide. In general, magnesia densified the binder matrix by promoting a formation of amorphous phases while sodium hydroxide produced the most porous microstructure containing high amount of crystalline phases.

  • 3.
    Peltola, Heidi
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Madsen, Bo
    Materials Research Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Nättinen, Kalle
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Experimental study of the fiber length and orientation in injection molded natural fiber/starch acetate composites2011In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, Vol. 2011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite compounds based on triethyl citrate plasticized starch acetate and natural fibers (hemp and flax) were prepared by melt processing. Plasticizer contents from 20 to 35 wt% and fiber contents of 10 and 40 wt% were used. The compounded composites were injection molded to tensile test specimens. The effect of process steps, melt viscosity and fiber type on the fiber length was investigated. The lengths of fully processed fibers were determined by dissolving the starch acetate matrix and measuring the length of the remaining fibers by optical microscopy and image analysis. A clear reductive effect of the pelletising and melt processing on the fiber length was noticed. Also a reduction of fiber length along the increasing fiber content and the decreasing plasticizer content was detected. This reduction was originated from the increasing shear forces during compounding, which again depended on the increased viscosity of the material. When comparing the fully processed hemp and flax fibers, hemp fibers remained longer and fibrillated more than flax fibers, leading to higher aspect ratio. Thus, the reinforcement efficiency of hemp fibers by the processing was improved, on the contrary to the reduced reinforcement efficiency of flax fibers. In addition, the analysis of fiber dispersion and orientation showed a good dispersion of fibers in the matrix, and a predominant orientation of the fibers in the melt flow direction.

  • 4.
    Thipprakmas, Sutasn
    et al.
    Department of Tool and Materials Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok.
    Joun, Man Soo
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Modern Engineered Materials and Technologies for Metal Forming Applications2017In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, Vol. 2017, article id 3196509Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Zhang, Juanrong
    et al.
    College of Civil Engineering, Zhengzhou University.
    Guo, Lijie
    Beijing General Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
    Sun, Xiaoxiao
    College of Civil Engineering, Zhengzhou University.
    Li, Wenchen
    Beijing General Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
    Jia, Qi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Study on the Strength Development of Cemented Backfill Body from Lead-Zinc Mine Tailings with Sulphide2018In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, Vol. 2018, article id 7278014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) development of cemented backfill materials for lead-zinc mine tailings with sulphide was studied. The results showed that the UCS of the cemented backfill body with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as binder decreased in the later curing days, regardless of particle size. Under the same conditions, the higher the OPC content, the higher the UCS of the cemented backfill body, and the UCS of the cemented backfill body began to decrease at the longer curing days. Under the same conditions, the finer the tailings, the lower the UCS of the cemented backfill body at each age, and the UCS of the cemented backfill body began to decrease at the earlier curing age. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that the reduction of the UCS of the cemented backfill body was related to the formation of an expansive substance (expansive gypsum) in the cemented backfill body, which led to the cracking of the test sample. In the cemented backfill materials of coarse tailings of lead-zinc mine, the composite binder formed by OPC and calcined kaolin (CK) containing metakaolin was used; the amount of calcium hydroxide, the hydration product of cement, was reduced or eliminated due to the pozzolanic reaction of metakaolin; and the amount of expansive gypsum was reduced or eliminated, so the UCS of the cemented backfill body increased within 360 days of curing.

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