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  • 1.
    Amofah, Lea Rastas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    The influence of temperature, pH/molarity and extractant on the removal of arsenic, chromium and zinc from contaminated soil2011In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 1334-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Normal soil washing leave high residual pollutant content in soil. The remediation could be improved by targeting the extraction to coarser fractions. Further, a low/high extraction pH and higher temperature enhance the pollutant removal, but these measures are costly. In this study, the utility of NaOH, oxalate-citrate (OC) and dithionite-citrate-oxalate (DCO) solutions for extracting of arsenic, chromium and zinc from contaminated soil were assessed and compared. In addition the effects of NaOH concentration and temperature on NaOH extractions, and those of temperature and pH on OC and DCO extractions, were evaluated. Materials and methods: A two-level, full-factorial design with a centre point was implemented. Two factors, concentration and temperature,were evaluated in NaOH extractions, and pH and temperature for OC and DCO solutions. In all cases, the extraction temperature was 20°C, 30°C and 40°C. The studied NaOH concentrations were 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 M. The pH in OC solutions was 3, 5 and 7, and in DCO solutions, 4.7, 6.3 and 6.7. Water-washed and medium coarse soil fraction of arsenic, chromium and zinc contaminated soil was agitated for 15 min with the extraction solution. Results and discussion: In NaOH extractions, the temperature and (less strongly) NaOH concentration significantly affected As and Cr mobilisation, but only the latter affected Zn mobilisation. Both pH and temperature significantly (and similarly) influenced As and Cr mobilisation in OC extractions, while only the pH influenced Zn mobilisation. In contrast, the extraction temperature (but not pH) influenced As, Cr and Zn mobilisation in DCO extractions. Conclusions: For all extractants, mobilisation was most efficient at elevated temperature (40°C). None of the extractants reduced the soil's As content to below the Swedish EPA's guideline value. Use of DCO is not recommended because dithionite has a short lifetime and residual arsenic contents in DCO-extracted soil are relatively high. Instead, sequential extraction with NaOH followed by OC solutions (affording significant reductions in As, Cr and Zn levels in the soil with short extraction times) at 40°C is recommended

  • 2.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rentz, Ralf
    Malmgren, Charlotte
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stormwater impact on urban waterways in a cold climate: variations in sediment metal concentrations due to untreated snowmelt discharge2012In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 758-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Stormwater discharges include contaminated sediments that accumulate in the receiving water body. It is thus important to investigate sediment and pollutant processes and pathways from the catchment to, and within, the receiving water. These processes may be influenced by seasonal changes. The objective of this study was to investigate the stormwater impact on receiving waters in the Luleå area, Northern Sweden; seasonal changes in contamination loads in the receiving waters due to snowmelt; and factors influencing the pollutant pathways in the receiving waters. Materials and methods: In front of three storm sewer outlets in Luleå, samples of bottom sediment (surface layer 0-2 cm) were collected from the connecting ditches and the downstream water body in autumn and spring (before and after the snow season 2009/2010). The characteristics of the receiving waters differed in geomorphology and vegetation. The sediment was analyzed for loss-on-ignition (LOI), grain size, and bulk concentrations of SiO 2, Al 2O 3, CaO, Fe 2O 3, MnO, Na 2O, P 2O 5, TiO 2, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, S, V, and Zn. The sediment contamination was compared to concentrations at a reference point in Luleå where the bottom sediment was not affected by stormwater discharges and with Swedish environmental quality guidelines. Pearson's correlation and a principal component analysis were used to further evaluate the results. Results and discussion: Relative to the reference point, elevated trace metal concentrations were detected in sediments at all three sampling stations. At two of the stations, seasonal variations in ditch sediment grain size, LOI, and contaminant concentrations were observed, originating from stormwater sediment. Snowmelt runoff caused an increased proportion of fine-grained sediment fractions (<0.063 mm) in spring, mainly due to changes in runoff intensity and high sediment loads in the snowmelt runoff. The retention of metals appeared to be due to low turbulence in the water and the presence of organic material. Conclusions: Stormwater discharge affected the contaminant concentrations in the bottom sediments. The observed seasonal variation of contaminants indicated that relatively high amounts of contaminants are discharged during snowmelt and then reallocated within the receiving water body, either directly or after some temporal retention, depending on the characteristics of the receiving water. A calm water column and the presence of organic material in the receiving water body were crucial for the retention of metals

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