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  • 1.
    Akhtar, Farid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Ogunwumi, Steven
    Crystalline Materials Research, Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York, USA..
    Bergström, Lennart
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thin zeolite laminates for rapid and energy-efficient carbon capture2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin, binder-less zeolite NaX laminates, with thicknesses ranging between 310 to 750 μm and widths exceeding 50 mm and biaxial tensile strength in excess of 3 MPa, were produced by pulsed current processing. The NaX laminates displayed a high CO2 adsorption capacity and high binary CO2-over-N2 and CO2-over-CH4 selectivity, suitable for CO2 capture from flue gas and upgrading of raw biogas. The thin laminates displayed a rapid CO2 uptake; NaX laminates with a thickness of 310 μm were saturated to 40% of their CO2 capacity within 24 seconds. The structured laminates of 310 μm thickness and 50 mm thickness would offer low pressure drop and efficient carbon capture performance in a laminate-based swing adsorption technology.

  • 2.
    Alvi, Sajid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    High temperature tribology of polymer derived ceramic composite coatings2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 15105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer derived ceramic (PDC) composite coatings were deposited on AISI 304 substrates using siloxane based preceramic polymer polymethlysilsquioxane (PMS) and ZrSi2 as active filler or Ag as passive filler. The tribological performance of the composite coatings was evaluated at room temperature and moderately high temperatures (150 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C). The composite coatings showed low coefficient of friction (COF), µ, from 0.08 to 0.2 for SiOC-ZrSi2 composite coatings, and from 0.02 to 0.3 for SiOC-Ag composite coatings, at room temperature with increasing normal load from 1 to 5 N. High temperature tribology tests showed high COF values from 0.4 to 1 but low wear for SiOC-ZrSi2 coating, and low COF from 0.2 to 0.3 for SiOC-Ag coatings at lower temperature ranges. Low load friction tests at room temperature showed negligible wear in SiOC-ZrSi2 coatings, suggesting good wear resistant and lubricating properties due to formation of t-ZrO2 and carbon. Low COF and high amount of wear was observed in SiOC-Ag composite coatings at room temperature due to high ductility of Ag and smearing of wear debris in the wear track. The coatings and wear tracks were characterized to evaluate the lubrication and wear behavior.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carbonatite ring-complexes explained by caldera-style volcanism2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, article id 1677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonatites are rare, carbonate-rich magmatic rocks that make up a minute portion of the crust only, yet they are of great relevance for our understanding of crustal and mantle processes. Although they occur in all continents and from Archaean to present, the deeper plumbing system of carbonatite ring-complexes is usually poorly constrained. Here, we show that carbonatite ring-complexes can be explained by caldera-style volcanism. Our geophysical investigation of the Alnö carbonatite ring-complex in central Sweden identifies a solidified saucer-shaped magma chamber at ∼3 km depth that links to surface exposures through a ring fault system. Caldera subsidence during final stages of activity caused carbonatite eruptions north of the main complex, providing the crucial element to connect plutonic and eruptive features of carbonatite magmatism. The way carbonatite magmas are stored, transported and erupt at the surface is thus comparable to known emplacement styles from silicic calderas.

  • 4.
    Azua-Bustos, Armando
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain. Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    González-Silva, Carlos
    Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile.
    Fernández-Martínez, Miguel Ángel
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Arenas-Fajardo, Cristián
    Atacama Biotech, Santiago, Chile.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (UGR-CSIC), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Fernández-Sampedro, Maite
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Fairén, Alberto G.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain. Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Aeolian transport of viable microbial life across the Atacama Desert, Chile: Implications for Mars2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 11024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we inspect whether microbial life may disperse using dust transported by wind in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile, a well-known Mars analog model. By setting a simple experiment across the hyperarid core of the Atacama we found that a number of viable bacteria and fungi are in fact able to traverse the driest and most UV irradiated desert on Earth unscathed using wind-transported dust, particularly in the later afternoon hours. This finding suggests that microbial life on Mars, extant or past, may have similarly benefited from aeolian transport to move across the planet and find suitable habitats to thrive and evolve.

  • 5.
    Basu, Kaustubh
    et al.
    Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Varennes.
    Benetti, Daniele
    Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Varennes.
    Zhao, Haiguang
    Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Energie Varennes, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Varennes.
    Jin, Lei
    Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Energie Varennes, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Varennes.
    Vetrone, Fiorenzo
    Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Varennes.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Rosei, Frederico
    Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Energie Varennes, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Varennes.
    Enhanced photovoltaic properties in dye sensitized solar cells by surface treatment of SnO2 photoanodes2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 23312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the fabrication and testing of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on tin oxide (SnO2) particles of average size ~20 nm. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrates were treated with TiOx or TiCl4 precursor solutions to create a blocking layer before tape casting the SnO2 mesoporous anode. In addition, SnO2 photoelectrodes were treated with the same precursor solutions to deposit a TiO2 passivating layer covering the SnO2 particles. We found that the modification enhances the short circuit current, open-circuit voltage and fill factor, leading to nearly 2-fold increase in power conversion efficiency, from 1.48% without any treatment, to 2.85% achieved with TiCl4 treatment. The superior photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs assembled with modified photoanode is attributed to enhanced electron lifetime and suppression of electron recombination to the electrolyte, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) carried out under dark condition. These results indicate that modification of the FTO and SnO2 anode by titania can play a major role in maximizing the photo conversion efficiency

  • 6.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martian slope streaks as plausible indicators of transient water activity2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 7074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slope streaks have been frequently observed in the equatorial, low thermal inertia and dusty regions of Mars. The reason behind their formation remains unclear with proposed hypotheses for both dry and wet mechanisms. Here, we report an up-to-date distribution and morphometric investigation of Martian slope streaks. We find: (i) a remarkable coexistence of the slope streak distribution with the regions on Mars with high abundances of water-equivalent hydrogen, chlorine, and iron; (ii) favourable thermodynamic conditions for transient deliquescence and brine development in the slope streak regions; (iii) a significant concurrence of slope streak distribution with the regions of enhanced atmospheric water vapour concentration, thus suggestive of a present-day regolith-atmosphere water cycle; and (iv) terrain preferences and flow patterns supporting a wet mechanism for slope streaks. These results suggest a strong local regolith-atmosphere water coupling in the slope streak regions that leads to the formation of these fluidised features. Our conclusions can have profound astrobiological, habitability, environmental, and planetary protection implications

  • 7.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Discovery of recurring slope lineae candidates in Mawrth Vallis, Mars2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 2040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    utside of established RSL regions and further prompt the inclusion of a new geographical region within the RSL candidate group. Our inferences on the RSL candidates are based on several morphological and geophysical evidences and analogies: (i) the dimensions of the RSL candidates are consistent with confirmed mid-latitude RSL; (ii) albedo and thermal inertia values are comparable to those of other mid-latitude RSL sites; and (iii) features are found in a summer season image and on the steep and warmest slopes. These results denote the plausible presence of transient liquid brines close to the previously proposed landing ellipse of the ExoMars rover, rendering this site particularly relevant to the search of life. Further investigations of Mawrth Vallis carried out at higher spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to identify more of such features at local scales to maximize the scientific return from the future Mars rovers, to prevent probable biological contamination during rover operations, to evade damage to rover components as brines can be highly corrosive, and to quantify the ability of the regolith at mid-latitudes to capture atmospheric water which is relevant for in-situ-resource utilization.

  • 8.
    Delgado-Bonal, A.
    et al.
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR).
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Human vision is determined based on information theory2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly accepted that the evolution of the human eye has been driven by the maximum intensity of the radiation emitted by the Sun. However, the interpretation of the surrounding environment is constrained not only by the amount of energy received but also by the information content of the radiation. Information is related to entropy rather than energy. The human brain follows Bayesian statistical inference for the interpretation of visual space. The maximization of information occurs in the process of maximizing the entropy. Here, we show that the photopic and scotopic vision absorption peaks in humans are determined not only by the intensity but also by the entropy of radiation. We suggest that through the course of evolution, the human eye has not adapted only to the maximum intensity or to the maximum information but to the optimal wavelength for obtaining information. On Earth, the optimal wavelengths for photopic and scotopic vision are 555 nm and 508 nm, respectively, as inferred experimentally. These optimal wavelengths are determined by the temperature of the star (in this case, the Sun) and by the atmospheric composition.

  • 9.
    Epafini, Mauro
    et al.
    Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, IMM-CNR.
    Kaciulis, Saulius
    Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, ISMN-CNR.
    Mezzi, Alessio
    Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, ISMN-CNR.
    Altamura, Davide
    Istituto di Cristallografia, IC-CNR.
    Giannini, Cinzia
    Istituto di Cristallografia, IC-CNR.
    Díaz, Raül
    Electrochemical Processes Unit, IMDEA Energy Institute, Avda.
    Force, Carmen
    NMR Unit, Centro de Apoyo Tecnológico, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos.
    Genç, Aziz
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, Bellaterra.
    Arbiol, Jordi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, Bellaterra.
    Pietro, Siciliano
    Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, IMM-CNR.
    Comini, Elisabetta
    Department of Information Engineering, Brescia University.
    Concina, Isabella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Inorganic Photocatalytic Enhancement: Activated RhB Photodegradation by Surface Modification of SnO2 Nanocrystals with V2O5-like species2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SnO2 nanocrystals were prepared by precipitation in dodecylamine at 100 °C, then they were reacted with vanadium chloromethoxide in oleic acid at 250 °C. The resulting materials were heat-treated at various temperatures up to 650 °C for thermal stabilization, chemical purification and for studying the overall structural transformations. From the crossed use of various characterization techniques, it emerged that the as-prepared materials were constituted by cassiterite SnO2 nanocrystals with a surface modified by isolated V(IV) oxide species. After heat-treatment at 400 °C, the SnO2 nanocrystals were wrapped by layers composed of vanadium oxide (IV-V mixed oxidation state) and carbon residuals. After heating at 500 °C, only SnO2 cassiterite nanocrystals were obtained, with a mean size of 2.8 nm and wrapped by only V2O5-like species. The samples heat-treated at 500 °C were tested as RhB photodegradation catalysts. At 10-7 M concentration, all RhB was degraded within 1 h of reaction, at a much faster rate than all pure SnO2 materials reported until now.

  • 10.
    Gonçalves, Gil
    et al.
    TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Aveiro, University of Aveiro, Nanotechnology Research Division, University of Aveiro.
    Vila, Mercedes
    TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Aveiro.
    Bdikin, Igor
    TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Aveiro.
    Andres, Alicia de
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Ferreira, Rute A.S.
    Physics Department and CICECO, University of Aveiro.
    Carlos, Luis D.
    Physics Department and CICECO, University of Aveiro.
    Gracio, Jose
    TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Aveiro.
    Marques, Paula A.P.A.
    TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Aveiro.
    Breakdown into nanoscale of graphene oxide: Confined hot spot atomic reduction and fragmentation2014In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 4, article id 6735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-graphene oxide (nano-GO) is a new class of carbon based materials being proposed for biomedical applications due to its small size, intrinsic optical properties, large specific surface area, and easy to functionalize. To fully exploit nano-GO properties, a reproducible method for its production is of utmost importance. Herein we report, the study of the sequential fracture of GO sheets onto nano-GO with controllable lateral width, by a simple, and reproducible method based on a mechanism that we describe as a confined hot spot atomic fragmentation/reduction of GO promoted by ultrasonication. The chemical and structural changes on GO structure during the breakage were monitored by XPS, FTIR, Raman and HRTEM. We found that GO sheets starts breaking from the defects region and in a second phase through the disruption of carbon bonds while still maintaining crystalline carbon domains. The breaking of GO is accompanied by its own reduction, essentially by the elimination of carboxylic and carbonyl functional groups. Photoluminescence and photothermal studies using this nano-GO are also presented highlighting the potential of this nanomaterial as a unique imaging/therapy platform

  • 11.
    Hedman, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Barzegar, Hamid Reza
    Department of Physics, Umeå University, Department of Physics, University of California.
    Rosén, Arne
    Physics Department, Göteborg University.
    Wågberg, Thomas
    Department of Physics, Umeå University.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    On the Stability and Abundance of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 16850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many nanotechnological applications, using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are only possible with a uniform product. Thus, direct control over the product during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of SWNT is desirable, and much effort has been made towards the ultimate goal of chirality-controlled growth of SWNTs. We have used density functional theory (DFT) to compute the stability of SWNT fragments of all chiralities in the series representing the targeted products for such applications, which we compare to the chiralities of the actual CVD products from all properly analyzed experiments. From this comparison we find that in 84% of the cases the experimental product represents chiralities among the most stable SWNT fragments (within 0.2 eV) from the computations. Our analysis shows that the diameter of the SWNT product is governed by the well-known relation to size of the catalytic nanoparticles, and the specific chirality is normally determined by the product’s relative stability, suggesting thermodynamic control at the early stage of product formation. Based on our findings, we discuss the effect of other experimental parameters on the chirality of the product. Furthermore, we highlight the possibility to produce any tube chirality in the context of recent published work on seeded-controlled growth.

  • 12.
    Hua, Jing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Björling, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    A smart friction control strategy enabled by CO2 absorption and desorption2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 13262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent control of friction is an attractive but challenging topic and it has rarely been investigated for full size engineering applications. In this work, it is instigated if it would be possible to adjust friction by controlling viscosity in a lubricated contact. By exploiting the ability to adjust the viscosity of the switchable ionic liquids, 1,8-Diazabicyclo (5.4.0) undec-7-ene (DBU)/ glycerol mixture via the addition of CO2, the friction could be controlled in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime. The friction decreased with increasing the amount of CO2 to the lubricant and increased after partial releasing CO2. As CO2 was absorbed by the liquid, the viscosity of the liquid increased which resulted in that the film thickness increased. At the same time the pressure-viscosity coefficient decreased with the addition of CO2. When CO2 was released again the friction increased and it was thus possible to control friction by adding or removing CO2.

  • 13.
    Hunt, Cameron J
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800, Victoria, Australia..
    Antonopoulou, Io
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Tanksale, Akshat
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800, Victoria, Australia..
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Haritos, Victoria S
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800, Victoria, Australia.
    Insights into substrate binding of ferulic acid esterases by arabinose and methyl hydroxycinnamate esters and molecular docking2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 17315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferulic acid esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73) cleave the arabinose hydroxycinnamate ester in plant hemicellulose and other related substrates. FAE are commonly categorised as type A-D based on catalytic activities towards model, short alkyl chain esters of hydroxycinnamates. However, this system correlates poorly with sequence and structural features of the enzymes. In this study, we investigated the basis of the type A categorisation of an FAE from Aspergillus niger, AnFaeA, by comparing its activity toward methyl and arabinose hydroxycinnamate esters. kcat/Km ratios revealed that AnFaeA hydrolysed arabinose ferulate 1600-fold, and arabinose caffeate 6.5 times more efficiently than their methyl ester counterparts. Furthermore, small docking studies showed that while all substrates adopted a catalytic orientation with requisite proximity to the catalytic serine, methyl caffeate and methyl p-coumarate preferentially formed alternative non-catalytic conformations that were energetically favoured. Arabinose ferulate was unable to adopt the alternative conformation while arabinose caffeate preferred the catalytic orientation. This study demonstrates that use of short alkyl chain hydroxycinnnamate esters can result in activity misclassification. The findings of this study provide a basis for developing a robust classification system for FAE and form the basis of sequence-function relationships for this class.

  • 14.
    Ilstedt, U.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Tobella, A. Bargues
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Bazie, H.R.
    Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, Departement Productions.
    Bayala, J.H.
    World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), West and Central Africa Regional Office, Sahel.
    Verbeeten, E.
    Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam.
    Nyberg, Gert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sanou, J.
    Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, Departement Productions.
    Benegas, L.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Murdiyarso, D.
    Department of Geophysics and Meteorology, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl..
    Laudon, H.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Sheil, D.
    Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situgede, Bogor.
    Malmer, A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world's people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people

  • 15.
    Liu, Jian-li
    et al.
    School of Energy and Environment Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Yao, Jun
    School of Water Resource and Environment Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing.
    Wang, Fei
    School of Energy and Environment Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing.
    Ni, Wen
    School of Civil and Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Liu, Xing-yu
    National Engineering Laboratory of Biohydrometallurgy, General Research. Institute for Nonferrous Metals .
    Sunahara, Geoffrey
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
    Duran, Robert
    Equipe Environnement et Microbiologie, MELODY group, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, IPREM UMR CNRS.
    Jordan, Gyozo
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Szent István University.
    Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.
    Environment & Sustainability Institute and Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Solevic-Knudsen, Tatjana
    Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade.
    Zhu, Xiao-zhe
    School of Energy and Environment Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Zhang, Yi-yue
    School of Energy and Environment Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Li, Zi-fu
    School of Energy and Environment Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    China's most typical nonferrous organic-metal facilities own specific microbial communities2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 12570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity and function of microorganisms have yet to be explored at non-ferrous metal mining facilities (NMMFs), which are the world's largest and potentially most toxic sources of co-existing metal(loid)s and flotation reagents (FRs). The diversity and inferred functions of different bacterial communities inhabiting two types of sites (active and abandoned) in Guangxi province (China) were investigated for the first time. Here we show that the structure and diversity of bacteria correlated with the types of mine sites, metal(loid)s, and FRs concentrations; and best correlated with the combination of pH, Cu, Pb, and Mn. Combined microbial coenobium may play a pivotal role in NMMFs microbial life. Arenimonas, specific in active mine sites and an acidophilic bacterium, carries functions able to cope with the extreme conditions, whereas Latescibacteria specific in abandoned sites can degrade organics. Such a bacterial consortium provides new insights to develop cost-effective remediation strategies of co-contaminated sites that currently remain intractable for bioremediation.

  • 16.
    Liu, Yang
    et al.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou.
    Feng, Peizhong
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou.
    Wang, Zhang
    School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou.
    Jiao, Xinyang
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Novel Fabrication and Enhanced Photocatalytic MB Degradation of Hierarchical Porous Monoliths of MoO3 Nanoplates2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 1845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous monoliths of MoO3 nanoplates were synthesized from ammonium molybdate (AHM) by freeze-casting and subsequent thermal treatment from 300 to 600 °C. Pure orthorhombic MoO3 phase was obtained at thermal treatment temperature of 400 °C and above. MoO3 monoliths thermally treated at 400 °C displayed bimodal pore structure, including large pore channels replicating the ice crystals and small pores from MoO3 sheets stacking. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the average thicknesses of MoO3 sheet were 50 and 300 nm in porous monoliths thermally treated at 400 °C. The photocatalytic performance of MoO3 was evaluated through degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light radiation and MoO3 synthesized at 400 °C exhibited strong adsorption performance and best photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of MB of 99.7% under visible illumination for 60 min. MoO3 photocatalyst displayed promising cyclic performance, and the decolorization efficiency of MB solution was 98.1% after four cycles

  • 17.
    López-Delgado, R.
    et al.
    MEMS Research Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio.
    Zhou, Yufeng
    INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, Varennes, QC.
    Zazueta-Raynaud, A.
    MEMS Research Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio.
    Zhao, Haiguang
    INRS-EMT, Varennes, QC.
    Pelayo, J.E.
    MEMS Research Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Alvarez-Ramos, M.E.
    Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo.
    Rosei, Frederico
    Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université du Québec, Varennes, Québec.
    Ayon, Arturo
    MEMS Research Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio.
    Enhanced conversion efficiency in Si solar cells employing photoluminescent down-shifting CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 14104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon solar cells have captured a large portion of the total market of photovoltaic devices mostly due to their relatively high efficiency. However, Silicon exhibits limitations in ultraviolet absorption because high-energy photons are absorbed at the surface of the solar cell, in the heavily doped region, and the photo-generated electron-hole pairs need to diffuse into the junction region, resulting in significant carrier recombination. One of the alternatives to improve the absorption range involves the use of down-shifting nano-structures able to interact with the aforementioned high energy photons. Here, as a proof of concept, we use downshifting CdSe/CdS quantum dots to improve the performance of a silicon solar cell. The incorporation of these nanostructures triggered improvements in the short circuit current density (Jsc, from 32.5 to 37.0 mA/cm2). This improvement led to a ∼13% increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE), from 12.0 to 13.5%. Our results demonstrate that the application of down-shifting materials is a viable strategy to improve the efficiency of Silicon solar cells with mass-compatible techniques that could serve to promote their widespread utilization.

  • 18.
    Mateo-Marti, E.
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Galvez-Martinez,, S.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Gil-Lozano, C.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Pyrite-induced uv-photocatalytic abiotic nitrogen fixation: implications for early atmospheres and Life2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 15311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular form of nitrogen, N2, is universally available but is biochemically inaccessible for life due to the strength of its triple bond. Prior to the emergence of life, there must have been an abiotic process that could fix nitrogen in a biochemically usable form. The UV photo-catalytic effects of minerals such as pyrite on nitrogen fixation have to date been overlooked. Here we show experimentally, using X-ray photoemission and infrared spectroscopies that, under a standard earth atmosphere containing nitrogen and water vapour at Earth or Martian pressures, nitrogen is fixed to pyrite as ammonium iron sulfate after merely two hours of exposure to 2,3 W/m 2 of ultraviolet irradiance in the 200–400 nm range. Our experiments show that this process exists also in the absence of UV, although about 50 times slower. The experiments also show that carbonates species are fixed on pyrite surface.

  • 19.
    Milan, R
    et al.
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia.
    Cattarin, S
    ICMATE-CNR.
    Comisso, N.
    ICMATE-CNR.
    Baratto, C.
    CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory.
    Kaunisto, K.
    Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Tkachenko, N.V.
    Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Concina, Isabella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Compact hematite buffer layer as a promoter of nanorod photoanode performances2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 35049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a thin α-Fe2O3 compact buffer layer (BL) on the photoelectrochemical performances of a bare α-Fe2O3 nanorods photoanode is investigated. The BL is prepared through a simple spray deposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate before the growth of a α-Fe2O3 nanorods via a hydrothermal process. Insertion of the hematite BL between the FTO and the nanorods markedly enhances the generated photocurrent, by limiting undesired losses of photogenerated charges at the FTO||electrolyte interface. The proposed approach warrants a marked improvement of material performances, with no additional thermal treatment and no use/dispersion of rare or toxic species, in agreement with the principles of green chemistry.

  • 20.
    Milan, Riccardo
    et al.
    SENSOR Lab, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, CNR-INO SENSOR Lab.
    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh
    SENSOR Lab, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, CNR-INO SENSOR Lab.
    Epifani, Mauro
    Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi, IMM-CNR, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce.
    Natile, Marta Maria
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa, Universita Degli Studi di Padova.
    Sberveglieria, Giorgio
    SENSOR Lab, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, CNR-INO SENSOR Lab.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Concina, Isabella
    SENSOR Lab, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia.
    ZnO@SnO2 engineered composite photoanodes for dye sensitized solar cells2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 14523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layered multi-oxide concept was applied for fabrication of photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO and SnO2, capitalizing on the beneficial properties of each oxide. The effect of different combinations of ZnO@SnO2 layers was investigated, aimed at exploiting the high carrier mobility provided by the ZnO and the higher stability under UV irradiation pledged by SnO2. Bi-oxide photoanodes performed much better in terms of photoconversion efficiency (PCE) (4.96%) compared to bare SnO2 (1.20%) and ZnO (1.03%). Synergistic cooperation is effective for both open circuit voltage and photocurrent density: enhanced values were indeed recorded for the layered photoanode as compared with bare oxides (Voc enhanced from 0.39 V in case of bare SnO2 to 0.60 V and Jsc improved from 2.58 mA/cm2 pertaining to single ZnO to 14.8 mA/cm2). Improved functional performances of the layered network were ascribable to the optimization of both high chemical capacitance (provided by the SnO2) and low recombination resistance (guaranteed by ZnO) and inhibition of back electron transfer from the SnO2 conduction band to the oxidized species of the electrolyte. Compared with previously reported results, this study testifies how a simple electrode design is powerful in enhancing the functional performances of the final device.

  • 21.
    Milan, Riccardo
    et al.
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory, Brescia, Italy; Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion−Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel .
    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, P. R. China; Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Varennes, Canada.
    Cavazzini, Marco
    Institute of Molecular Science and Technology, ISTM-CNR, Milano, Italy .
    Orlandi, Simonetta
    Institute of Molecular Science and Technology, ISTM-CNR, Milano, Italy .
    Boaretto, Rita
    Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy .
    Caramori, Stefano
    Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy .
    Concina, Isabella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Italy; CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory, Italy.
    Pozzi, Gianluca
    Institute of Molecular Science and Technology, ISTM-CNR, Milano, Italy .
    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on a push-pull zinc phthalocyanine bearing diphenylamine donor groups: computational predictions face experimental reality2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 15675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational studies have suggested that the integration of secondary amine as donor groups in the structure of unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) should have positive effects on photovoltaic performance, once the molecule is integrated as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Aiming at obtaining experimental confirmation, we synthesized a peripherally substituted push-pull ZnPc bearing three electron donating diphenylamine substituents and a carboxylic acid anchoring group and integrated it as sensitizer in TiO2-based DSSCs. Detailed functional characterization of solar energy converting devices resulted in ruling out the original hypothesis. The causes of this discrepancy have been highlighted, leading to a better understanding of the conditions for an effective design of push-pull diarylamino substituted ZnPcs for DSSCs.

  • 22.
    Mompeán, C.
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Marín-Yaseli, M.R.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Espigares, P.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    González-Toril, E.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Ruiz-Bermejo, M.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Prebiotic chemistry in neutral/reduced-alkaline gas-liquid interfaces2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions for the potential abiotic formation of organic compounds from inorganic precursors have great implications for our understanding of the origin of life on Earth and for its possible detection in other environments of the Solar System. It is known that aerosol-interfaces are effective at enhancing prebiotic chemical reactions, but the roles of salinity and pH have been poorly investigated to date. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the uniqueness of alkaline aerosols as prebiotic reactors that produce an undifferentiated accumulation of a variety of multi-carbon biomolecules resulting from high-energy processes (in our case, electrical discharges). Using simulation experiments, we demonstrate that the detection of important biomolecules in tholins increases when plausible and particular local planetary environmental conditions are simulated. A greater diversity in amino acids, carboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and ketoacids, such as glyoxylic and pyruvic acid, was identified in tholins synthetized from reduced and neutral atmospheres in the presence of alkaline aqueous aerosols than that from the same atmospheres but using neutral or acidic aqueous aerosols.

  • 23.
    Saintilan, Nicolas J.
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Spangenberg, Jorge E.
    Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Chiaradia, Massimo
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva , Geneva, Switzerland.
    Chelle-Michou, Cyril
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Stephens, Michael B.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Formerly Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fontboté, Lluís
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Petroleum as source and carrier of metals in epigenetic sediment-hosted mineralization2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 8283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment-hosted ore deposits contribute a significant amount (up to 65%) of the global resources of lead and zinc. Among them, the Mississippi-Valley type deposits and related oil fields often comprise large-scale hydrothermal systems where regional host rocks are stained with disseminated liquid petroleum (crude oil) and other organic compounds. Current models for the formation of those epigenetic Pb-Zn sulphide deposits consider that metals are mostly leached from basement rocks and their detrital erosional products, and transported by oxidized basinal hydrothermal fluids as chloride complexes. Sulphide precipitation mainly occurs when these basinal brines interact with fluids rich in reduced sulphur species produced mostly by thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) mediated by hydrocarbons. Here, using organic geochemistry and Pb isotopes, we provide evidence that petroleum and associated water were key for the formation of sulphide mineralization in the world-class sandstone-hosted ore deposit at Laisvall, not only by supplying reduced sulphur but also by contributing metals in significant amounts. The lead originally found in bitumen of the Alum Shale Formation was transported —during an arc-continent collisional event— by liquid petroleum and associated water to the site of sulphide mineralization. The alteration of petroleum by TSR made lead available for precipitation as sulphide. The petroleum-associated lead represents 40 to 60% of the metal budget in the deposit, the remainder being sourced by leaching of basement rocks.

  • 24.
    Sam, Lydia
    et al.
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Buchroithner, Manfred F.
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada .
    Heterogeneity in topographic control on velocities of Western Himalayan glaciers2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 12843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the seasonal and annual patterns of glacier velocities improve our understanding of the ice volume, topography, responses to climate change, and surge events of glaciers. Such studies are especially relevant and equally rare for the Himalayan glaciers, which supply many rivers that sustain some of the most heavily populated mountainous regions in the world. In particular, the control of the hypsometric distribution of geomorphometric parameters, such as slope, aspect, and curvature, on the dynamics of Himalayan glaciers have never been studied so far, at the river basin scale. Here, we present the degree to which topographic and hypsometric parameters affect the seasonal and annual average flow velocities of 112 glaciers in the Baspa River basin in the Western Indian Himalaya by analysing Global Land Ice Velocity Extraction from Landsat 8 (GoLIVE) datasets for the years 2013–2017. We observe, (i) significant heterogeneity in topographic controls on the velocities of these glaciers, (ii) elevation and the seasons play important roles in regulating the degree to which morphometric parameters (slope, aspect, and curvature) affect these velocities, (iii) a possible polythermal regime promoting both sliding and deformational forms of motion in a majority of these glaciers, and (iv) a detailed analysis of complex topographic controls within various elevation zones using a novel hypso-morphometric approach. These findings can help us to better model the dynamics of Himalayan glaciers and their responses to the future climatic scenarios. The inferences also suggest the need to incorporate dynamic topography in glacio-hydrological models in the wake of constant glacial evolutions.

  • 25.
    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh
    et al.
    SENSOR Lab, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia.
    Wu, Hui-Ping
    Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu.
    Lu, Jianfeng
    Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.
    Chang, Yu-Cheng
    Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu.
    Wang, Mingkui
    Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Concina, Isabella
    SENSOR Lab, Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia.
    Diau, Eric Wei Guang
    Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu.
    Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 18756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction

  • 26.
    Shah, Faiz Ullah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Oleg I., Gnezdilov
    Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, 420008, Kazan, Russia.
    Rashi, Gusain
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Filippov, Andrei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering. Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Russia.
    Transport and Association of Ions in Lithium Battery Electrolytes Based on Glycol Ether Mixed with Halogen-Free Orthoborate Ionic Liquid2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 16340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion transport behaviour of halogen-free hybrid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries based on phosphonium bis(salicylato)borate [P4,4,4,8][BScB] ionic liquid mixed with diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (DEGDBE) is investigated. The Li[BScB] salt is dissolved at different concentrations in the range from 0.15 mol kg−1 to 1.0 mol kg−1 in a mixture of [P4,4,4,8][BScB] and DEGDBE in 1:5 molar ratio. The ion transport properties of the resulting electrolytes are investigated using viscosity, electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulsed-Field Gradient (PFG) NMR. The apparent transfer numbers of ions are calculated from the diffusion coefficients measured by using PFG NMR. PFG NMR data suggested ion association upon addition of Li salt to the [P4,4,4,8][BScB] in DEGDBE solution. This is further confirmed by liquid state 7Li and 11B NMR, and FTIR spectroscopic techniques, which suggest strong interactions between the lithium cation and oxygen atoms of the [BScB]− anion in the hybrid electrolytes.

  • 27.
    Shahim, Pashtun
    et al.
    Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospita.
    Gren, Magnus
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology / The Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Liman, Victor
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology / The Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Andreasson, Ulf
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Norgren, Niklas
    UmanDiagnostics, Umeå.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Mattsson, Niklas
    Clinical Memory Research Unit, Lund University.
    Andreassen, Niels
    Department of NVS, Karolinska Institute, Center for Alzheimer Research.
    Öst, Martin
    Institute of Clinical Sciences / Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal.
    Nellgård, Bengt
    Institute of Clinical Sciences / Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospita.
    Serum neurofilament light protein predicts clinical outcome in traumatic brain injury2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Axonal white matter injury is believed to be a major determinant of adverse outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that measurement of neurofilament light protein (NF-L), a protein found in long white-matter axons, in blood samples, may serve as a suitable biomarker for neuronal damage in TBI patients. To test our hypotheses, we designed a study in two parts: i) we developed an immunoassay based on Single molecule array technology for quantification of NF-L in blood, and ii) in a proof-of-concept study, we tested our newly developed method on serial serum samples from severe TBI (sTBI) patients (n = 72) and controls (n = 35). We also compared the diagnostic and prognostic utility of NF-L with the established blood biomarker S100B. NF-L levels were markedly increased in sTBI patients compared with controls. NF-L at admission yielded an AUC of 0.99 to detect TBI versus controls (AUC 0.96 for S100B), and increased to 1.00 at day 12 (0.65 for S100B). Importantly, initial NF-L levels predicted poor 12-month clinical outcome. In contrast, S100B was not related to outcome. Taken together, our data suggests that measurement of serum NF-L may be useful to assess the severity of neuronal injury following sTBI.

  • 28.
    Shekhar, Mayank
    et al.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Ranhotra, Parminder S.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Bhattacharyya, Amalava
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Pal, Ashish K.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Roy, Ipsita
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Martín-Torres, F. Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), 28850, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Himalayan glaciers experienced significant mass loss during later phases of little ice age2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, there is a gap in the data about the state and mass balance of glaciers in the climate-sensitive subtropical regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here, based on an unprecedented tree-ring sampling coverage, we present the longest reconstructed mass balance record for the Western Himalayan glaciers, dating to 1615. Our results confirm that the later phase of LIA was substantially briefer and weaker in the Himalaya than in the Arctic and subarctic regions. Furthermore, analysis of the time-series of the mass-balance against other time-series shows clear evidence of the existence of (i) a significant glacial decay and a significantly weaker magnitude of glaciation during the latter half of the LIA; (ii) a weak regional mass balance dependence on either the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) taken in isolation, but a considerable combined influence of both of them during the LIA; and (iii) in addition to anthropogenic climate change, the strong effect from the increased yearly concurrence of extremely high TSI with El Niño over the past five decades, resulting in severe glacial mass loss. The generated mass balance time-series can serve as a source of reliable reconstructed data to the scientific community.

  • 29.
    Zairov, Rustem
    et al.
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Arbuzov str., 8, Kazan, Russia.
    Khakimullina, Gulshat
    Kazan (Volga region) Federal university, Kremlyovskaya str., 18, Kazan, Russia.
    Podyachev, Sergey
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Arbuzov str., 8, Kazan, Russia.
    Nizameev, Irek
    Kazan National Research Technical University, K. Marx str., 10, Kazan, Russia.
    Safiullin, Georgy
    Zavoisky Physical -Technical Institute of Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Sibirsky tract, 10/7, Kazan, Russia.
    Amirov, Rustem
    Kazan (Volga region) Federal university, Kremlyovskaya str., 18, Kazan, Russia.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mustafina, Asiya
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Arbuzov str., 8, Kazan, Russia.
    Hydration number: crucial role in nuclear magnetic relaxivity of Gd(III) chelate-based nanoparticles2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 14010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, nanostructure-based contrast agents (CA) are emerging in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Their sensitivity is reported as greatly improved in comparison to commercially used chelate-based ones. The present work is aimed at revealing the factors governing the efficiency of longitudinal magnetic relaxivity (r1) in aqueous colloids of core-shell Gd(III)-based nanoparticles. We report for the first time on hydration number (q) of gadolinium(III) as a substantial factor in controlling r1 values of polyelectrolyte-stabilized nanoparticles built from water insoluble complexes of Gd(III). The use of specific complex structure enables to reveal the impact of the inner-sphere hydration number on both r1 values for the Gd(III)-based nanoparticles and the photophysical properties of their luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) counterparts. The low hydration of TTA-based Gd(III) complexes (q ≈ 1) agrees well with the poor relaxivity values (r1 = 2.82 mM−1s−1 and r2 = 3.95 mM−1s−1), while these values tend to increase substantially (r1 = 12.41 mM−1s−1, r2 = 14.36 mM−1s−1) for aqueous Gd(III)-based colloids, when macrocyclic 1,3-diketonate is applied as the ligand (q ≈ 3). The regularities obtained in this work are fundamental in understanding the efficiency of MRI probes in the fast growing field of nanoparticulate contrast agents.

  • 30.
    Zairov, Rustem
    et al.
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Mustafina, Asyia
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Shamsutdinova, Nataliya
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Nizameev, Irek
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Moreira, Beatriz
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg.
    Sudakova, Svetlana
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Podyachev, Sergey
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Fattakhova, Alfia
    Kazan (Volga region) Federal university.
    Safina, Gulnara
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gubaidullin, Aidar
    A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    High performance magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles assembled from terbium and gadolinium 1,3-diketones2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 40486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyelectrolyte-coated nanoparticles consisting of terbium and gadolinium complexes with calix[4]arene tetra-diketone ligand were first synthesized. The antenna effect of the ligand on Tb(III) green luminescence and the presence of water molecules in the coordination sphere of Gd(III) bring strong luminescent and magnetic performance to the core-shell nanoparticles. The size and the core-shell morphology of the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The correlation between photophysical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and their core composition was highlighted. The core composition was optimized for the longitudinal relaxivity to be greater than that of the commercial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents together with high level of Tb(III)-centered luminescence. The tuning of both magnetic and luminescent output of nanoparticles is obtained via the simple variation of lanthanide chelates concentrations in the initial synthetic solution. The exposure of the pheochromocytoma 12 (PC 12) tumor cells and periphery human blood lymphocytes to nanoparticles results in negligible effect on cell viability, decreased platelet aggregation and bright coloring, indicating the nanoparticles as promising candidates for dual magneto-fluorescent bioimaging

  • 31.
    Zhang, Hanzhu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Feng, Peizhong
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Aluminium matrix tungsten aluminide and tungsten reinforced composites by solid-state diffusion mechanism2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 12391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-situ processing of tungsten aluminide and tungsten reinforced aluminium matrix composites from elemental tungsten (W) and aluminium (Al) was investigated by thermal analysis and pulsed current processing (PCP). The formation mechanism of tungsten aluminides in 80 at.% Al-20 at.% W system was controlled by atomic diffusion. The particle size of W and Al in the starting powder mixture regulated the phase formation and microstructure. PCP of micron sized elemental Al and W resulted in formation of particulate reinforcements, W, Al4W and Al12W, dispersed in Al matrix. W particles were surrounded by a ~3 μm thick dual-layer structure of Al12W and Al4W. The hardness of Al matrix, containing Al12W reinforcements, was increased by 50% compared to pure Al, from 0.3 GPa to 0.45 GPa and W reinforcements showed a hardness of 4.35 GPa. On PCP of 80 at.% Al-20 at.% W mixture with particle size of W and Al ~70 nm, resulted in formation of Al4W as major phase along with small fractions of Al5W and unreacted W phase. This suggested strongly that the particle size of the starting elemental Al and W could be the controlling parameter in processing and tailoring of phase evolution, microstructure of particulate reinforced Al matrix composite.

1 - 31 of 31
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