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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Hafed Qasem
    et al.
    Dept. of Engineering and Technology, Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 54100, Malaysia; Center of Studies and Engineering Designs, Ministry of Water Resources, Baghdad, 10064, Iraq.
    Kamaruddin, Samira A.
    Dept. of Engineering and Technology, Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 54100, Malaysia.
    Harun, Sobri B.
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310, Malaysia.
    Jasim, Ruqaya M.
    Dept. of Civil Engineering, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, 27310, Turkey.
    Assessment of Spatiotemporal Variability of Meteorological Droughts in Northern Iraq Using Satellite Rainfall Data2021In: KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, ISSN 1226-7988, E-ISSN 1976-3808, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 4481-4493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The absence of a dense rainfall monitoring network and longer period data are the major hindrances of hydroclimatic study in arid and semi-arid regions. An attempt has been made for the evaluation of spatiotemporal changes in droughts at the northern semi-arid region of Iraq for the period 1981-2018 using high-resolution (0.05 degrees) precipitation data of Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS). The performance of CHIRPS in replicating rainfall and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for different timescales at eleven locations for the available period of observation data (2000-2014) was evaluated. The SPI was also used to estimate drought frequency and evaluate drought trends at all the CHIRPS grid points. A modified version of the non-parametric Mann-Kendall (MK) test was employed for a robust evaluation of the spatial distribution of temporal trends in droughts. The results showed a good ability of CHIRPS in reconstructing observed SPI with a correlation coefficient ranged from 0.64 to 0.87, BIAS between 1.05 and 1.81, Nash-Sutcliff efficiency from 0.39 to 0.55, and Willmott Index between 0.67 and 0.79. The CHIRPS also able to reconstruct the time series and probability distribution of observed SPI reasonably. Spatial distribution of droughts revealed a higher frequency of droughts of all categories and timescales in the east and north of Northern Iraq, mainly due to high rainfall variance. The MK test revealed a reduction in 6- and 12-month droughts in the northwest and an intensification at a few northeastern grids. It indicates droughts became more recurrent in the already drought-prone region and lessened in a less drought-prone region.

  • 2.
    Liu, Zhizhen
    et al.
    School of Resource and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.
    Cao, Ping
    School of Resource and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.
    Wang, Fei
    Yellow River Laboratory, School of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.
    Meng, Jingjing
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Cao, Rihong
    School of Resource and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.
    Liu, Jingshuo
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Hunan Polytechnic of Water Resources and Electric Power, Changsha, 410131, China.
    Three-Dimensional Upper Bound Limit Analysis of Tunnel Stability with an Extended Collapse Mechanism2022In: KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, ISSN 1226-7988, E-ISSN 1976-3808, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 5318-5327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional collapse mechanism that can consider a combined collapse of the tunnel roof and the side walls is proposed in this work. The three-dimensional upper bound support pressure is formulated with the power balance principal in the upper bound theorem. The nonlinear Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to replace the commonly used linear MohrCoulomb failure criterion. The method has been validated by a series of examples, in which the three-dimensional collapse mechanism and support pressures are in a good agreement with the numerical results and solutions found in the literatures. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses of the geotechnical and geometrical parameters on the support pressure are conducted and the collapsing range is measured. The results show that a higher value of nonlinear failure coefficient, tensile strength, initial cohesion and tangential internal friction angle can increase tunnel stability, while tunnel stability is threatened by a higher value of burial depth, unit weight, tunnel width and height. The predicted collapse range increases noticeably with the increase of the nonlinear coefficient. This study is of great significance for predicting the three-dimensional safety support pressure and collapse mechanism of tunnel.

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