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  • 1.
    Abdulbaqi, Dana M.
    et al.
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Al-Shaikh, Mohammed
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a Stepping Stone to Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns about carbon emissions coupled with the oil industry’s need to secure additional CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects have sparked interest in the potential that CO2-EOR may have in jumpstarting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). However, existing studies on the viability of coupling CO2-EOR with CCS have generally placed more focus on either the engineering or economic aspects of the problem. Most engineering studies focus on the technical aspects of the CO2-EOR project to produce the maximum amount of oil, while simultaneously storing the most CO2 during the production process with the economics as an afterthought, while most economic studies found have focused on a singular aspect of the issue such as impacts of exogenously varying injection rates. Furthermore, modelling efforts have stopped at the end of the productive life of the field. We build a unique two-stage dynamic optimization model, which simultaneously addresses engineering and economic policy aspects, to study the viability of coupling CO2-EOR transitioning into CCS. Our model includes a carbon tax for emissions, which becomes a subsidy for full scale sequestration after oil production has ceased; this allows us to explore the transition from CO2-EOR, our first stage, to sole CO2 sequestration in our second stage for a single field. We maximize the operator’s profits across both stages, while tracking the responsiveness of oil production and total carbon movements to both price and policy changes. We pair our optimization model with a reservoir simulation model, allowing us to mimic actual field behavior, giving our work a more realistic representation of both production and sequestration profiles. Our results suggest that small increases in the level of carbon tax can have large and discontinuous impacts on net sequestration. This stems from the observed transition from limited natural sources of CO2 to more expensive captured CO2 resulting from the implemented policy. With appropriate taxes, total volumes of captured CO2 sequestered across both stages are equivalent to 30 to 40% of the emissions from the use of the oil produced. With the credits oil producers receive from sequestering CO2, which equate to the tax, relatively high carbon taxes incentivize additional sequestration without significantly impacting the supply of oil. This, alongside maintaining a steady stream of profits, is a win-win situation for energy security and the climate.

  • 2.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the USA. It is expected to spread beyond the USA, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for the macroeconomy and politics of many countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries. We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 3.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Evaluating the efficency of the global primary aluminium smelting industry: a data envelopment approach2011In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 29-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the global primary aluminum industry. Efficiency is here taken to be evaluated relative to some benchmark, i.e., the smelter or smelters identified as the most efficient in the data set, thus forming the production frontier. The performance of individual smelters, specifically their technical, allocative, and scale efficiencies are calculated by the means of data envelopment analysis. A proprietary database containing data on inputs used, output, and cost of production for 151 primary aluminum smelters operational globally in 2003 were used in the efficiency estimations. In order to assess and contrast the performance of smelters at different locations, facing dissimilar policy and factor supply environments, smelters are grouped into geographical regions. Furthermore, the technology used will also be evaluated in terms of the above efficiency measures. For each region, measures of potential technical and cost-wise factor savings will be calculated in order to assess specifically in what way production factors improvements can be made and approximately how large these improvements are. The findings indicate that; (a) smelters are overall highly efficient given the scale of operation, (b) many smelters operate with increasing returns to scale and thus we find significant scale inefficiencies, (c) substantial allocative inefficiencies exist within the industry, and (d) there are significant variations in the level of efficiency across regions. The allocative efficiency is particularly low in regions such as China and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region. Finally, the greatest potential for factor reductions is in labor input in China, the CIS region and in Asia.

  • 4.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mineral development and regional employment effects in northern Sweden: a scenario-based assessment2013In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 25, no 2-3, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the main results of an assessment of the local and regional economic benefits of a new large-scale iron ore project that is currently being developed by Northland Resources in northern Sweden. Specifically, the mine is located in Pajala—a municipality of approximately 6,300 residents in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. We employ the Swedish regional impact model rAps to estimate the local and regional benefits of the project, focusing mainly on the employment opportunities created by multiplier effects. The rAps-system links an input–output model of regional production with a demographic model of net migration and commuting. This allows us to use a scenario-based approach and simulate the impact of different demographic assumptions, which are key determinants of the magnitude of local benefits. The local labour supply is limited and if most of the workers are non-residents who commute, much of the household incomes generated by the project flow out of Pajala and benefit other municipalities in the region. Our results indicate that the local employment multiplier for Pajala varies between 1.4 to 1.6 depending on the demographic assumptions, but the effect on local incomes is limited if labour demand is serviced mainly by commuters from other municipalities. The estimated regional employment multiplier for Norrbotten County is approximately 1.7, reflecting that the bigger and more diverse regional economy is better equipped to supply inputs to mineral development projects.

  • 5.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Garpenberg—the success story by Rolf Jonsson: published by Boliden Mineral, Umeå Sweden 20142016In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 115-115Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hjalmar Fors, The Limits of Matter—Chemistry, mining & enlightenment: The University of Chicago Press Chicago USA 20152015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 131-132Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    International taxation and the extractive industries: Philip Daniel, Michael Keen, Artur Świstak and Viktor Thuronyi (eds): International Monetary Fund and funded by its Managing Natural Resource Wealth Trust Fund. Published by Routledge, Oxon UK 2017, ISBN 978-1-138-24061-2 (pbk)2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 169-170Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Introduction2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 127-129Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jacques Astier (1923–2012)2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 1-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Marian Radetzki 80 years2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mineral Economics/Raw Materials Report 30th anniversary2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olle Lundqvist, Malmletarna, Boliden mineral AB, Umeå Sweden 20132015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 79-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pierre J. Goossens; L’or à travers les âges—Une histoire pas toujours dorée2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 81-82Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    European Association of Mining Industries, Metal Ores and Industrial Minerals, Brussels, Belgium.
    Humphreys, David
    CEPMLP, Dundee University, Dundee, UK.
    Storm, Per
    EIT Raw Materials North AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Why current assessments of ‘future efforts’ are no basis for establishing policies on material use: a response to research on ore grades2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 111-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of declining availability due to declining primary resource quality has been investigated for various resource categories to try to determine the effort needed in future to either extract the resource or to treat it for intended use. The concept of ‘future efforts’ due to declining primary resource quality is explored by Vieira et al. (2016, 2017). They suggest that a specific burden associated with the production of each primary material should be taken into account and that this can be done by studying the costs of production or ore requirements of the material and by projecting forward likely costs into the future. For the purpose of the analysis, they employ mine cost data for 2000–2013 and reserve data published by the US Geological Survey. We will argue below that this approach is not correct and, with this comment, we wish to make it clear that—contrary to what is suggested in much of the Life Cycle Assessment literature—the future efforts concept is not an established rule of natural resource extraction. For mineral resources, it is quite impossible to proceed with extraction in the ordered way that this approach suggests because nobody has a comprehensive view of the entire natural resource. Secondly, there is no evidence available to support the idea that extracting a mineral resource today causes a decrease in availability of that mineral tomorrow. On the contrary, the weight of evidence suggests that where declines in ore grades have been observed, they are overwhelmingly due to technology development in response to high demand and have been accompanied by increased mining efficiency and increased availability of the resource to successive generations. Grade is a rather arbitrary measure since the grade of mined ore ultimately has to do with the relationship of costs and revenues. It is not only the technology employed which matters but also how smartly this technology is applied. Thirdly, the future efforts approach entirely overlooks the potential availability of mineral materials from secondary (scrap) sources, sources which are expected to become increasingly important to mineral supply in the future. Our conclusion from the discussion is that we as humans have been able to economically access ever-increasing amounts of material from often lower and lower-grade sources. What is impossible to conclude from this is that the environment no longer contains any of the higher-grade sources. In fact, all the available evidence suggests that higher-grade deposits are still out there. We remain critical optimists.

  • 15.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gylesjö, Susanne
    Raw Materials Group, Solna.
    The role of geological surveys in the development of Africa2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was initiated to address the importance of properly functioning African geological surveys. Africa’s current developmental needs require a robust geoscientific infrastructure and knowledge that can only be achieved through well-developed geological surveys. A geoscientific infrastructure covers a wide range of geo-related areas, e.g. geological mapping, geophysical surveys and geochemical analyses that are needed for a variety of purposes, such as exploration, land-use planning, water resource assessment etc. Many geological surveys in Africa lack human, material and economic resources and therefore cannot perform their work effectively. The questionnaire used as a base for this study was made by Danièle Barberis (French) and Susanne Gylesjö (English). Compilation of the data and the report was performed by Susanne Gylesjö with assistance from Magnus Ericsson.

  • 16.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johnsson, Eva Liedholm
    Section of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    State ownership and control of minerals and mines in Sweden and Finland2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Sweden and Finland both have experienced an exploration and mining boom, in particular, when comparing with the situation 10 years ago. The mining companies are once again highly profitable. A tax or royalty on produced mineral resources has been debated in both countries. The issue of ownership of minerals covered by the Mineral Acts is, however, not clear in any of the countries. Whether or not the State is regarded as the owner of minerals which are regulated by the Mining Acts, the State, however, does have a decisive influence on the exploration and extraction of mineral assets in Sweden and Finland. Ownership may also refer to holding of shares in a company exploring for or mining metals. In a broader context, the role of the State might be traced in mineral policies or strategies, which have been issued recently in several EU member states, Finland and Sweden included. This article, comparative in its nature, aims to investigate and analyse how the State in Sweden and Finland adjusts mineral rights and control of mining companies, and with a historical survey and a short international overview as a basis, the authors present a few observations on the role of the State for the countries’ future mineral strategies. In this article, the role of the State in Sweden and Finland is discussed in a historical context as to ownership of mineral resources, regulatory rules and control of mining and ownership of State-mining and/or exploration companies. The article shows that different roads have been chosen historically depending on the current view of State ownership in society. This also means that mineral strategies must be continuously updated, and actively incorporating the historical experiences. We believe that the role of the State, as an owner or controller of the two countries’ mineral resources and as regulator of exploration and mining activities, must be dealt with more thoroughly in both countries’ mineral strategies. We also believe that Sweden and Finland, sharing an overall positive experience from State ownership and control in all the ways discussed in this article, also must share and communicate this to other countries and international organisations: firstly, in the EU and the European Commission and secondly, outside the EU and Europe and within the UN and the African Union.

  • 17.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jokelainen, Kristiina
    Regional Council of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Introduction2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 7-13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The unprecedented mineral and metal boom beginning in 2004/5 and peaking in 2011 exposed European economic vulnerability and the continent's high dependence on imported raw materials. The almost limitless Chinese appetite for metals and minerals together with Chinese control over certain metals of strategic importance (nowadays called critical metals), such as the rare earths, further exacerbated the situation. European politicians and bureaucrats were caught unaware of the seemingly low security of supply for European industry. Not surprising, as during the two last decades of the twentieth century, the European Commission had been trying to limit damages caused by the crumbling European mining sector, primarily coal but also other minerals and metals, and had not been thinking about future supply issues at all. But since then the Commission has slowly but steadily revved its mineral raw material policies into action. The European actions are carried out under a range of acronyms, and for the non-European reader, it might be useful to present these in some detail, with a focus on R&I (research & innovation) aspects, as a background to this issue of Mineral Economics.

  • 18.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mining’s contribution to national economies between 1996 and 20162019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 223-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several low- and middle-income countries rich in non-fuel mineral resources, mining makes significant contributions to national economic development as measured by the revised Mining Contribution Index (MCI-Wr). Ten countries among the 20 countries where mining contributes most (highest MCI-Wr score) have moved up one or two steps in the World Bank’s country classification between 1996 and 2016. In particular, African countries have benefitted. Socio-economic development indicators also show signs of progress for African mineral-rich countries. This paper provides an update and expansion of an earlier study within the framework of the United Nations University (UNU) World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) initiative Extractives for Development. Based on the detailed data available for the sector, such as production, export, prices, mineral rents, exploration expenditure and government revenues, an analysis is carried out of the current situation for 2016, and trends in mining’s contribution to economic development for the years 1996–2016. The contribution of minerals and mining to GDP and exports reached a maximum at the peak of the mining boom in 2011. Naturally, the figures for mining’s contribution had declined for most countries by 2016, but importantly the levels were still considerably higher than in 1996. The results of this survey contradict the widespread view that mineral resources create a dependency that might not be conducive to economic and social development. In addition, this paper presents an attempt to use already available socio-economic indicators for African mineral-rich countries to measure socio-economic developments. One preliminary conclusion of this survey is that mining countries perform better than oil-producing countries and non-mineral countries in Africa as measured by these indices of human development and governance.

  • 19.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tegen, Andreas
    Raw Materials Group, SNL Mining & Metals.
    Global PGM mining during 40 years: a stable corporate landscape of oligopolistic control2016In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The platinum group mining industry is among the most concentrated of all metal mining industries. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index for palladium is 2413 in 2014, on the threshold to what is defined as “highly concentrated”. When considering that production is also concentrated in a few countries, more than 80 % of total world production is mined in South Africa and Russia, it is obvious that platinum group metals (PGMs) are labelled “critical” by many governments such as the EU, Japan and the USA (EU Commission 2014; National Research Council 2008; Prime Minister of Japan 2015). The development of the corporate structure for PGMs is analysed. Into the future, it looks as if the degree of concentration will decrease.

  • 20.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Halmstad University .
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Löf, Anton
    Raw Materials Group, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Raw materials management in iron and steelmaking firms2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adds new knowledge on how raw materials should be managed in iron and steelmaking firms. While previous research has contributed significantly to how firms should deal with functional challenges related to raw materials, the understanding of Raw Materials Management from a holistic perspective is largely lacking, and extant research does not provide qualified advice to firms on this matter. This study provides such knowledge by drawing on insights from Höganäs AB, a world leader in ferrous powder metallurgy, and their efforts to identify key aspects and principles of raw materials management. Our elaboration of a more holistic view on raw materials management builds on two elements. First, we depict five external uncertainties and three internal conditions that impact firm-level raw materials management. Second, we present six critical capabilities that underpin proficient firm-level raw materials management. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for both firms aiming to increase their raw materials proficiency and to future investigations into this important area.

  • 21.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Are shocks to copper consumption persistent?2013In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks to copper consumption for 37 countries over the period 1967-2010 are transitory or persistent. A variety of time-series unit root tests is first employed. This is followed by several generations of panel data unit root tests. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account while performing those tests. In addition, cross-sectional dependence is detected and effectively controlled when applying some new generations of panel unit root tests. Copper consumption is found to follow a non-stationary process for about 86% of the countries. There is also overwhelming evidence of similar process when panel unit root tests are applied. Generally, shocks to copper consumption are found to be persistent.

  • 22.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Analysis and projection of global iron ore trade: a panel data gravity model approach2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an empirical model of global trade in iron ore is developed and applied. The empirical specification is based on the trade gravity theory in which the trade is determined by the income of the trading countries, the distance between the countries, and other characteristics of the countries. The model is specified allowing for country-specific effects. The estimation is performed with panel data for global bilateral iron ore trade flows from 1980 to 2016 including 121 countries and almost 14,000 observations. The results indicate a strong support of the gravity model hypotheses. On average, the trade value is projected to increase by approximately 5% per year up until 2035. The trade potential of iron ore is estimated to 410 million USD per year. Applied to forecasting and policy analysis, the results represent another worthwhile source of information providing an alternative view of the global trade in iron ore that can be helpful for decision-makers.

  • 23.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Welfare and the case of recent mergers in the iron ore industry2004In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Moritz, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The local employment impacts of mining: an econometric analysis of job multipliers in northern Sweden2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which mining contributes to job opportunities in the region where it takes place has become increasingly important for the industry’s relations to the local community. The employment impacts of mining are however far from straightforward to assess. Considering these uncertainties about real-life job impacts, it is vital that there are sound assessments of these employment effects. The purpose of this paper is to apply a novel econometric approach to assess mining-induced job multipliers in the empirical context of northern Sweden. This analysis employs data on the number of employees in selected non-mining sectors and in the mining sector, respectively, and covering the relatively recent mining boom period (2003-2013). We also highlight differences across the two main mining counties in northern Sweden. The results show a positive statistical relationship between increases in the number of employees in the mining sector and changes in the number of employees in other sectors. The private services sector is particularly affected, while the industrial sector also benefits in the specific case of mining municipalities. The results also indicate relatively large inter-county differences, in turn highlighting the importance of addressing the context-specific circumstances when estimating the employment effects of mining.

  • 25.
    Priester, Michael
    et al.
    Projekt-Consult GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dolega, Peter
    Öko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt, Germany.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Täby, Sweden.
    Mineral grades: an important indicator for environmental impact of mineral exploitation2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 49-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have collected and analysed grade information for nine metals: copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, PGM, tin, and zinc. Based on this analysis, we have developed a proposal of “grade classes”, i.e., what could be considered low-grade, average-grade, and high-grade deposits for all these metals. We discuss the implications of possible developments into the future of the grades of ores, from which these metals are extracted. A focus on high-grade deposits will naturally reduce the environmental impact of mining. For six metals (copper, gold, iron, nickel, PGM, and zinc), we have further analysed the volumes available for the 10% cohort of projects and operating mines with the highest grades. Three metals (iron, PGM, and zinc) show considerable volumes, between 15 and 20% of total metal content in resources in this high-grade percentile. Copper and gold have between 5 and 10% while nickel has only 1.7% in the highest 10% grade percentile.

  • 26.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Review of David Humphreys, The Remaking of the Mining Industry: Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2015, 256 pages, ISBN 978-1-137-44200-02015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 129-130Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The perseverance of the ongoing metal and mineral boom2013In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 25, no 2-3, p. 83-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    To John Tilton, a personal note2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text provides my praise for my oldest professional friend, John Tilton, as it has developed over more than 40 years through global interaction.

  • 29.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Stakeholder management theory meets CSR practice in Swedish mining2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CSR needs to be implemented into every level of an organization to have a meaningful impact, and management systems are proven useful for CSR practice. Benefits of integrating all CSR aspects into a sustainability management system are often claimed. Stakeholder theory can advance CSR practice. This case study explores how a company reacts to and appropriates stakeholder theory through interviews and workshops with the top management of corporate responsibility. This is an empirical addition to the dominant conceptual contributions to stakeholder management framed within the concept of management system thinking. The focus is on identification of stakeholders and the estimation of “who and what really counts”. This study support conceptual papers and suggest Mitchell and colleagues’ model for the initial step of SMS. It shows that theory easily can be practised and that it works well. The company highlighted the discussions where it had to look at stakeholders from different perspectives.

  • 30.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Klyuchnikova, Elena
    Institute of the Industrial Ecology Problems of the North, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk region.
    Korchak, Elena
    Luzin Institute of Economic Problems, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk region.
    Nygaard, Vigdis
    Northern Research Institute (NORUT), Alta.
    Poelzer, Gregory A.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Social impacts of the “glocal” mining business: case studies from Northern Europe2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining is a global business with international networks of production and consumption, but mineral deposits are place specific and the impacts of mining projects are mostly experienced locally. Hence, mining is an example of a glocal phenomenon par excellence: global processes are realized in local communities and environments. This paper discusses the social impacts of mining in eight communities situated in Northern Europe. The data consist of 85 semi-structured interviews conducted in 2013 and 2014. Using a qualitative approach and starting from the bottom-up, the analyses identified three impact frames that combined individual experiences and meanings expressed in the interviews. The first impact frame focuses on environmental justice. Environmental impacts are corporeal, cognitive, and emotional, as they affect the real life of people living in the vicinity of the mine. The main finding is that environmental “bads” are experienced locally in the North, whereas the economic “goods” go to mining companies and consumers in the “South.” The second impact frame looks at the loss of livelihoods and the cultural way of life. Mining is seen as a threat, especially to reindeer herding and nature-based practices. In the areas where mining is a new industry, the activity is seen as antithetical to those small-scale activities of a local economy. The third impact frame centers on experiences and concerns about the dependency of a community on a single industry. When the fortunes of local communities are dependent on international business and the fluctuations of global markets, the residents feel that they have no power to influence the developments and can thus only adapt.

  • 31.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Linus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Managing the 1970s energy crises in a state-owned mining company: strategies pursued by the Swedish iron ore producer LKAB2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the strategies adopted by the Swedish state-owned iron ore mining producer LKAB in response to the 1970s energy crises, i.e., soaring energy input expenses in combination with stagnating demand for iron ore. The analysis builds on a unique empirical material, e.g., minutes from board meetings, over an extended time period. This permits in-depth analyses of the two main strategies pursued by LKAB at the time: (a) securing energy supplies (as well as output sales) through upstream investments in uranium and coal mining; and (b) engaging in own R&D to enable energy-saving measures and product development. While the LKAB experiences tend to support the notion that investments supporting broader societal goals, although at the expense of firm productivity, may be likely in the presence of strong state government involvement, they also show that state-owned mineral enterprises can be highly innovative and competitive following investments in internal R&D. Specifically, LKAB’s R&D contributed to significant product development and energy savings, the latter occurring both in the company’s own pelletizing process as well as in the processes of key customers (i.e., the steel companies). The paper concludes by highlighting a number of important lessons for contemporary energy transitions in the process industries.

  • 32.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Metal markets and recycling policies: impacts and challenges2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased understanding of the existing markets for recycled (secondary) metals, including interactions with virgin material production, is essential for public decision-making processes concerning the implementation and evaluation of different categories of recycling policies. In this paper, we review the existing literature with the purpose of discussing (1) the impacts of various recycling policies on metal markets in which aggregate demand can be met by both primary and secondary production, and (2) a number of challenges that policy-makers need to confront in choosing between various types of recycling policies and policy designs. A simple partial equilibrium model is used as a pedagogical tool for shedding light on the impacts of tradable recycling credits, virgin material taxes, and recycling subsidies. In a second step, the paper identifies and discusses a few key challenges that policy-makers will need to address in recycling policy-making. These challenges include improving the functioning of secondary material markets by addressing various non-environmental market inefficiencies; identifying and designing (second-best) policy mixes due to the presence of incomplete monitoring and enforcement of waste disposal behavior, and regulating environmental impacts through price- or quantity-based policies. Throughout the analysis, we consult the empirical literature on the functioning of scrap metal markets (e.g., steel, copper, and aluminum).

  • 33.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An analysis of iron ore prices during the latest commodity boom2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 203-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs a quantitative analysis of iron ore prices, and is an extension of Wårell (2014), which analyzed the change in iron ore pricing regime on iron ore prices using data from 2003 until September 2012. However, considering that the iron ore market still was characterized by surging prices in 2012, it is of interest to see if the same conclusions hold today when the latest commodity boom has come to an end. The quantitative analysis uses monthly data between January 2003 and June 2017, and performs both statistical tests for structural breaks and a reduced price regression of the most important factors for iron ore prices during the time period. The overall results indicate that the change in pricing regime does not have a significant impact on the iron ore prices when extending the time period; rather, it is the end of the commodity boom in 2014 that is picked up as a structural break in the price series. Furthermore, results regarding whether the variables are cointegrated are more inconclusive when analyzing the entire commodity boom. However, the result that GDP growth in China has had the strongest impact on iron ore prices is though robust when extending the time period. To conclude, even though the commodity boom now has come to an end the developments in China still seems to be the most influential factor determining international iron ore prices.

1 - 33 of 33
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