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  • 1.
    Abdulbaqi, Dana M.
    et al.
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Al-Shaikh, Mohammed
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a Stepping Stone to Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns about carbon emissions coupled with the oil industry’s need to secure additional CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects have sparked interest in the potential that CO2-EOR may have in jumpstarting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). However, existing studies on the viability of coupling CO2-EOR with CCS have generally placed more focus on either the engineering or economic aspects of the problem. Most engineering studies focus on the technical aspects of the CO2-EOR project to produce the maximum amount of oil, while simultaneously storing the most CO2 during the production process with the economics as an afterthought, while most economic studies found have focused on a singular aspect of the issue such as impacts of exogenously varying injection rates. Furthermore, modelling efforts have stopped at the end of the productive life of the field. We build a unique two-stage dynamic optimization model, which simultaneously addresses engineering and economic policy aspects, to study the viability of coupling CO2-EOR transitioning into CCS. Our model includes a carbon tax for emissions, which becomes a subsidy for full scale sequestration after oil production has ceased; this allows us to explore the transition from CO2-EOR, our first stage, to sole CO2 sequestration in our second stage for a single field. We maximize the operator’s profits across both stages, while tracking the responsiveness of oil production and total carbon movements to both price and policy changes. We pair our optimization model with a reservoir simulation model, allowing us to mimic actual field behavior, giving our work a more realistic representation of both production and sequestration profiles. Our results suggest that small increases in the level of carbon tax can have large and discontinuous impacts on net sequestration. This stems from the observed transition from limited natural sources of CO2 to more expensive captured CO2 resulting from the implemented policy. With appropriate taxes, total volumes of captured CO2 sequestered across both stages are equivalent to 30 to 40% of the emissions from the use of the oil produced. With the credits oil producers receive from sequestering CO2, which equate to the tax, relatively high carbon taxes incentivize additional sequestration without significantly impacting the supply of oil. This, alongside maintaining a steady stream of profits, is a win-win situation for energy security and the climate.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Can new technology challenge macho-masculinities?: The case of the mining industry2021In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 263-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this article is to discuss how changes in technology at workplaces engender both change and restoration of gender constructions within the context of underground mining. The discussions are formed around a constructed case based on material from gender and organizational studies of large-scale industrial mines in different countries, most of them from Sweden. New technologies such as digitalization and automation together with new organizational forms engender changes in mining work, e.g., new types of work tasks, new competence demands, and a move from underground to high-tech control rooms aboveground. One main observation is that the changes challenge the old and recalcitrant blue-collar mining masculinity. On the one hand, the organizational resistance and “lagging” seemed to result in re-gendering and restoration of the male dominance. On the other hand, there were tendencies to adaptation in the workplace cultures, including new ways of forming mining masculinities, perhaps even undoing of gender. The main conclusion is that the most probable development lies somewhere in-between and by analyzing such complex processes of gender, technology, and change future research can get more knowledge of changes of gender constructions in working life.

  • 3.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the USA. It is expected to spread beyond the USA, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for the macroeconomy and politics of many countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries. We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 4.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Evaluating the efficency of the global primary aluminium smelting industry: a data envelopment approach2011In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 29-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the global primary aluminum industry. Efficiency is here taken to be evaluated relative to some benchmark, i.e., the smelter or smelters identified as the most efficient in the data set, thus forming the production frontier. The performance of individual smelters, specifically their technical, allocative, and scale efficiencies are calculated by the means of data envelopment analysis. A proprietary database containing data on inputs used, output, and cost of production for 151 primary aluminum smelters operational globally in 2003 were used in the efficiency estimations. In order to assess and contrast the performance of smelters at different locations, facing dissimilar policy and factor supply environments, smelters are grouped into geographical regions. Furthermore, the technology used will also be evaluated in terms of the above efficiency measures. For each region, measures of potential technical and cost-wise factor savings will be calculated in order to assess specifically in what way production factors improvements can be made and approximately how large these improvements are. The findings indicate that; (a) smelters are overall highly efficient given the scale of operation, (b) many smelters operate with increasing returns to scale and thus we find significant scale inefficiencies, (c) substantial allocative inefficiencies exist within the industry, and (d) there are significant variations in the level of efficiency across regions. The allocative efficiency is particularly low in regions such as China and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region. Finally, the greatest potential for factor reductions is in labor input in China, the CIS region and in Asia.

  • 5.
    Buchholz, Peter
    et al.
    DERA, Berlin, Germany.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Steinbach, Volker
    Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover, Germany.
    Breakthrough technologies and innovations along the mineral raw materials supply chain - towards a sustainable and secure supply INTRODUCTION2022In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 35, no 3-4, p. 345-347Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Dahl, Carol
    et al.
    Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Introduction2020In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 33, no 1-2, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dahl, Carol
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gilbert, Ben
    Division of Economis and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.
    Lange, Ian
    Division of Economis and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.
    Mineral scarcity on Earth: are Asteroids the answer2020In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 33, no 1-2, p. 29-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depletion of minerals and other non-renewable resources has long been a source of worry to industrial economies. This worry waxes when markets are tight and wanes when they are not. However, evidence has continued to mount that there are staggering amounts of minerals in space that are technically within our grasp. Scientific work has considered mineral availability and technical ability to mine on near earth objects. Within the last decade, a number of space related industries have gained attention. While availability and technical feasibility are both necessary conditions for this industry to develop, they are not sufficient. Rather sufficiency also requires financial feasibility. Although studies have considered the costs of mining asteroids, we are aware of no papers that model the effects on terrestrial mineral market structure with the injection of extra-terrestrial minerals. Our contribution is to consider the current state of mineral markets and provide a model of firm entry to derive implications to the market from space mined minerals entering the market. We provide a numerical simulation to demonstrate what prices asteroidal entrants might face for the injection of a variety of metals and provide an online model for others to change inputs to their asteroid and metals of choice.

  • 8.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mineral development and regional employment effects in northern Sweden: a scenario-based assessment2013In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 25, no 2-3, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the main results of an assessment of the local and regional economic benefits of a new large-scale iron ore project that is currently being developed by Northland Resources in northern Sweden. Specifically, the mine is located in Pajala—a municipality of approximately 6,300 residents in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. We employ the Swedish regional impact model rAps to estimate the local and regional benefits of the project, focusing mainly on the employment opportunities created by multiplier effects. The rAps-system links an input–output model of regional production with a demographic model of net migration and commuting. This allows us to use a scenario-based approach and simulate the impact of different demographic assumptions, which are key determinants of the magnitude of local benefits. The local labour supply is limited and if most of the workers are non-residents who commute, much of the household incomes generated by the project flow out of Pajala and benefit other municipalities in the region. Our results indicate that the local employment multiplier for Pajala varies between 1.4 to 1.6 depending on the demographic assumptions, but the effect on local incomes is limited if labour demand is serviced mainly by commuters from other municipalities. The estimated regional employment multiplier for Norrbotten County is approximately 1.7, reflecting that the bigger and more diverse regional economy is better equipped to supply inputs to mineral development projects.

  • 9.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Changing locus of mining2022In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 35, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Editorial2021In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Editorial2012In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 25, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Garpenberg—the success story by Rolf Jonsson: published by Boliden Mineral, Umeå Sweden 20142016In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 115-115Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hjalmar Fors, The Limits of Matter—Chemistry, mining & enlightenment: The University of Chicago Press Chicago USA 20152015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 131-132Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    International taxation and the extractive industries: Philip Daniel, Michael Keen, Artur Świstak and Viktor Thuronyi (eds): International Monetary Fund and funded by its Managing Natural Resource Wealth Trust Fund. Published by Routledge, Oxon UK 2017, ISBN 978-1-138-24061-2 (pbk)2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 169-170Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Introduction2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 127-129Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jacques Astier (1923–2012)2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 1-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Marian Radetzki 80 years2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mineral Economics/Raw Materials Report 30th anniversary2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olle Lundqvist, Malmletarna, Boliden mineral AB, Umeå Sweden 20132015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 79-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pierre J. Goossens; L’or à travers les âges—Une histoire pas toujours dorée2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 81-82Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Professor Ajoy K. Ghose in memoriam2020In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 413-413Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    XXIX World Marble and Stones Report 2018 by Carlo Montani2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 255-256Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    European Association of Mining Industries, Metal Ores and Industrial Minerals, Brussels, Belgium.
    Humphreys, David
    CEPMLP, Dundee University, Dundee, UK.
    Storm, Per
    EIT Raw Materials North AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Why current assessments of ‘future efforts’ are no basis for establishing policies on material use: a response to research on ore grades2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 111-121Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of declining availability due to declining primary resource quality has been investigated for various resource categories to try to determine the effort needed in future to either extract the resource or to treat it for intended use. The concept of ‘future efforts’ due to declining primary resource quality is explored by Vieira et al. (2016, 2017). They suggest that a specific burden associated with the production of each primary material should be taken into account and that this can be done by studying the costs of production or ore requirements of the material and by projecting forward likely costs into the future. For the purpose of the analysis, they employ mine cost data for 2000–2013 and reserve data published by the US Geological Survey. We will argue below that this approach is not correct and, with this comment, we wish to make it clear that—contrary to what is suggested in much of the Life Cycle Assessment literature—the future efforts concept is not an established rule of natural resource extraction. For mineral resources, it is quite impossible to proceed with extraction in the ordered way that this approach suggests because nobody has a comprehensive view of the entire natural resource. Secondly, there is no evidence available to support the idea that extracting a mineral resource today causes a decrease in availability of that mineral tomorrow. On the contrary, the weight of evidence suggests that where declines in ore grades have been observed, they are overwhelmingly due to technology development in response to high demand and have been accompanied by increased mining efficiency and increased availability of the resource to successive generations. Grade is a rather arbitrary measure since the grade of mined ore ultimately has to do with the relationship of costs and revenues. It is not only the technology employed which matters but also how smartly this technology is applied. Thirdly, the future efforts approach entirely overlooks the potential availability of mineral materials from secondary (scrap) sources, sources which are expected to become increasingly important to mineral supply in the future. Our conclusion from the discussion is that we as humans have been able to economically access ever-increasing amounts of material from often lower and lower-grade sources. What is impossible to conclude from this is that the environment no longer contains any of the higher-grade sources. In fact, all the available evidence suggests that higher-grade deposits are still out there. We remain critical optimists.

  • 24.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gylesjö, Susanne
    Raw Materials Group, Solna.
    The role of geological surveys in the development of Africa2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was initiated to address the importance of properly functioning African geological surveys. Africa’s current developmental needs require a robust geoscientific infrastructure and knowledge that can only be achieved through well-developed geological surveys. A geoscientific infrastructure covers a wide range of geo-related areas, e.g. geological mapping, geophysical surveys and geochemical analyses that are needed for a variety of purposes, such as exploration, land-use planning, water resource assessment etc. Many geological surveys in Africa lack human, material and economic resources and therefore cannot perform their work effectively. The questionnaire used as a base for this study was made by Danièle Barberis (French) and Susanne Gylesjö (English). Compilation of the data and the report was performed by Susanne Gylesjö with assistance from Magnus Ericsson.

  • 25.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jokelainen, Kristiina
    Regional Council of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Introduction2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 7-13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The unprecedented mineral and metal boom beginning in 2004/5 and peaking in 2011 exposed European economic vulnerability and the continent's high dependence on imported raw materials. The almost limitless Chinese appetite for metals and minerals together with Chinese control over certain metals of strategic importance (nowadays called critical metals), such as the rare earths, further exacerbated the situation. European politicians and bureaucrats were caught unaware of the seemingly low security of supply for European industry. Not surprising, as during the two last decades of the twentieth century, the European Commission had been trying to limit damages caused by the crumbling European mining sector, primarily coal but also other minerals and metals, and had not been thinking about future supply issues at all. But since then the Commission has slowly but steadily revved its mineral raw material policies into action. The European actions are carried out under a range of acronyms, and for the non-European reader, it might be useful to present these in some detail, with a focus on R&I (research & innovation) aspects, as a background to this issue of Mineral Economics.

  • 26.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Anton
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Muller, Daniel B.
    Industrial Ecology Program, Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cobalt: corporate concentration 1975-20182023In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s dependency on cobalt mines in Congo and cobalt refineries in China is seen as serious security issues with potentially dangerous implications for the energy transition. However, Chinese refineries have a similar supply security issue as most of its cobalt concentrates are imported. Most supply security studies take a country perspective on market concentration and supply risks. However, control of the mines and refineries lies with the producing companies, not the governments of the countries where they are located. This paper analyses the corporate structure of the cobalt industry at the mine and the refinery stages over a longer time period to establish changes in the level of corporate concentration and to put the situation in 2018 in perspective. The level of corporate concentration at the mine stage is low and does not raise concerns for market failures or a lack of competitiveness. Corporate concentration of refined cobalt depends on the Chinese government’s influence over Chinese production: if the state control over individual refineries is assumed to be strong, the corporate concentration is high. Mine stage supply security could be strengthened by improving the general political stability in the DRC to make the country more attractive for investors other than the present ones. Increased local beneficiation would strongly benefit Congo and reduce China’s influence. This is a long and complicated process and its success is not at all certain. At the refinery stage, the solution is much easier: reliability of supply could be improved by constructing refineries in countries outside China.

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  • 27.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mining’s contribution to national economies between 1996 and 20162019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 223-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several low- and middle-income countries rich in non-fuel mineral resources, mining makes significant contributions to national economic development as measured by the revised Mining Contribution Index (MCI-Wr). Ten countries among the 20 countries where mining contributes most (highest MCI-Wr score) have moved up one or two steps in the World Bank’s country classification between 1996 and 2016. In particular, African countries have benefitted. Socio-economic development indicators also show signs of progress for African mineral-rich countries. This paper provides an update and expansion of an earlier study within the framework of the United Nations University (UNU) World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) initiative Extractives for Development. Based on the detailed data available for the sector, such as production, export, prices, mineral rents, exploration expenditure and government revenues, an analysis is carried out of the current situation for 2016, and trends in mining’s contribution to economic development for the years 1996–2016. The contribution of minerals and mining to GDP and exports reached a maximum at the peak of the mining boom in 2011. Naturally, the figures for mining’s contribution had declined for most countries by 2016, but importantly the levels were still considerably higher than in 1996. The results of this survey contradict the widespread view that mineral resources create a dependency that might not be conducive to economic and social development. In addition, this paper presents an attempt to use already available socio-economic indicators for African mineral-rich countries to measure socio-economic developments. One preliminary conclusion of this survey is that mining countries perform better than oil-producing countries and non-mineral countries in Africa as measured by these indices of human development and governance.

  • 28.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Anton
    Råvarugruppen, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chinese control over African and global mining-past, present and future2020In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 33, no 1-2, SI, p. 153-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chinese companies are far from taking control over African or global mining. In 2018, they control less than 7% of the value of total African mine production. Chinese investments in African mining of non-fuel minerals between 1995 and 2018 have contributed to production growth but it has also increased Chinese control over African mineral and metal production. There is evidence pointing to a continued Chinese expansion in African minerals and metals but at a slower pace than in the past decade. Through a detailed analysis of every mine, fully or partially controlled by Chinese interest in Africa and all other parts of the world the paper also measures total Chinese control over global mine production to be around 3% of the total value.

  • 29.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Professor Marian Radetzki (1936-2022) in memoriam2023In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 187-188Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tegen, Andreas
    Raw Materials Group, SNL Mining & Metals.
    Global PGM mining during 40 years: a stable corporate landscape of oligopolistic control2016In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The platinum group mining industry is among the most concentrated of all metal mining industries. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index for palladium is 2413 in 2014, on the threshold to what is defined as “highly concentrated”. When considering that production is also concentrated in a few countries, more than 80 % of total world production is mined in South Africa and Russia, it is obvious that platinum group metals (PGMs) are labelled “critical” by many governments such as the EU, Japan and the USA (EU Commission 2014; National Research Council 2008; Prime Minister of Japan 2015). The development of the corporate structure for PGMs is analysed. Into the future, it looks as if the degree of concentration will decrease.

  • 31.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Halmstad University .
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Löf, Anton
    Raw Materials Group, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Raw materials management in iron and steelmaking firms2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adds new knowledge on how raw materials should be managed in iron and steelmaking firms. While previous research has contributed significantly to how firms should deal with functional challenges related to raw materials, the understanding of Raw Materials Management from a holistic perspective is largely lacking, and extant research does not provide qualified advice to firms on this matter. This study provides such knowledge by drawing on insights from Höganäs AB, a world leader in ferrous powder metallurgy, and their efforts to identify key aspects and principles of raw materials management. Our elaboration of a more holistic view on raw materials management builds on two elements. First, we depict five external uncertainties and three internal conditions that impact firm-level raw materials management. Second, we present six critical capabilities that underpin proficient firm-level raw materials management. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for both firms aiming to increase their raw materials proficiency and to future investigations into this important area.

  • 32.
    Hodge, R. Anthony
    et al.
    Robert M. Buchan Department of Mining, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada; Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Anton
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Semkowich, Paul
    Robert M. Buchan Department of Mining, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    The global mining industry: corporate profile, complexity, and change2022In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 35, no 3-4, p. 587-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuation and increasing importance of mining is inevitable as society embraces both the transition to a low-carbon economy and application of circular economy concepts. However, across many parts of society, there is an ongoing sense that those who are carrying many of the costs and risks related to mining particularly over the long term (often host communities and countries) are not seeing a level of benefit that seems fair. In contrast, there is frustration within the industry that mining is not being given due credit for the importance of its role in contemporary society by those who would criticize industry practices. Over the past several decades, dozens of initiatives aimed at strengthening mining's social and environmental performance have been mounted from both within and outside the industry. These generally depend on a "leadership-trickle-down" change model. While progress has been achieved, the society-industry trust deficit continues. The global mining community comprises a corporate core and a complex range of other surrounding interests. We suggest that some key questions regarding the nature of this community and its appetite and capacity for change have not been explored thus impeding the effectiveness of change management. We offer (1) an estimate of the number of companies that lie at the core of the global mining community: some 25,000 operating in about 140 countries (using data from the mid-2010s); (2) a profile of these companies as an initial step towards understanding the "culture" of the global mining community; and (3) a listing of additional complexities and observations important to bringing global-wide improvement to mining's social and environmental performance. We argue that building on work to date, a fresh approach is required. We are calling for a dialog to reflect on the ideas presented here, refine them as appropriate, and develop the needed strategies and action plans. Such a process must build from a comprehensive understanding of the global mining community and its culture. It must be collaborative in nature and involve not only the range of mining companies but also with surrounding interests and governments. If this is not done, the change that is needed to align actions of all mining actors with social values will not occur and the trust deficit will remain.

  • 33.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Are shocks to copper consumption persistent?2013In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks to copper consumption for 37 countries over the period 1967-2010 are transitory or persistent. A variety of time-series unit root tests is first employed. This is followed by several generations of panel data unit root tests. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account while performing those tests. In addition, cross-sectional dependence is detected and effectively controlled when applying some new generations of panel unit root tests. Copper consumption is found to follow a non-stationary process for about 86% of the countries. There is also overwhelming evidence of similar process when panel unit root tests are applied. Generally, shocks to copper consumption are found to be persistent.

  • 34.
    Liedholm Johnsson, Eva
    et al.
    Section of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    State ownership and control of minerals and mines in Sweden and Finland2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Sweden and Finland both have experienced an exploration and mining boom, in particular, when comparing with the situation 10 years ago. The mining companies are once again highly profitable. A tax or royalty on produced mineral resources has been debated in both countries. The issue of ownership of minerals covered by the Mineral Acts is, however, not clear in any of the countries. Whether or not the State is regarded as the owner of minerals which are regulated by the Mining Acts, the State, however, does have a decisive influence on the exploration and extraction of mineral assets in Sweden and Finland. Ownership may also refer to holding of shares in a company exploring for or mining metals. In a broader context, the role of the State might be traced in mineral policies or strategies, which have been issued recently in several EU member states, Finland and Sweden included. This article, comparative in its nature, aims to investigate and analyse how the State in Sweden and Finland adjusts mineral rights and control of mining companies, and with a historical survey and a short international overview as a basis, the authors present a few observations on the role of the State for the countries’ future mineral strategies. In this article, the role of the State in Sweden and Finland is discussed in a historical context as to ownership of mineral resources, regulatory rules and control of mining and ownership of State-mining and/or exploration companies. The article shows that different roads have been chosen historically depending on the current view of State ownership in society. This also means that mineral strategies must be continuously updated, and actively incorporating the historical experiences. We believe that the role of the State, as an owner or controller of the two countries’ mineral resources and as regulator of exploration and mining activities, must be dealt with more thoroughly in both countries’ mineral strategies. We also believe that Sweden and Finland, sharing an overall positive experience from State ownership and control in all the ways discussed in this article, also must share and communicate this to other countries and international organisations: firstly, in the EU and the European Commission and secondly, outside the EU and Europe and within the UN and the African Union.

  • 35.
    Lishchuk, Viktor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The mechanisms of decision-making when applying geometallurgical approach to the mining industry2021In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is believed that most of the production problems in modern mining industry could be solved solely by applying technical tools such as better machinery, more accurate models or more advanced technology. Geometallurgy was initially introduced as a tool aimed to improve production performance by integrating geological and process information into a predictive model. However, the actual benefits of geometallurgy cannot be achieved without considering actors involved and strategic decisions made by the management in addition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a framework of decision-making in which technical and managerial aspects of the geometallurgy are fully integrated. This framework is aimed to be used for improving predictability of the geometallurgical programmes.

  • 36.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Analysis and projection of global iron ore trade: a panel data gravity model approach2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an empirical model of global trade in iron ore is developed and applied. The empirical specification is based on the trade gravity theory in which the trade is determined by the income of the trading countries, the distance between the countries, and other characteristics of the countries. The model is specified allowing for country-specific effects. The estimation is performed with panel data for global bilateral iron ore trade flows from 1980 to 2016 including 121 countries and almost 14,000 observations. The results indicate a strong support of the gravity model hypotheses. On average, the trade value is projected to increase by approximately 5% per year up until 2035. The trade potential of iron ore is estimated to 410 million USD per year. Applied to forecasting and policy analysis, the results represent another worthwhile source of information providing an alternative view of the global trade in iron ore that can be helpful for decision-makers.

  • 37.
    Lööw, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Understanding technology in mining and its effect on the work environment2022In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 143-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its starting point in the fact that many mines have managed to improve its work environment, with regards to, for example, accident occurrence, while at the same time having stopped seeing improvements in these areas even in the wake of technology interventions. Technology projects in the mining industry continue to make claims on further improvements to the work environment, and make wider claims still, but have not addressed underlying causes that lead to underperformance of technology in terms of work environment improvements. This paper suggests that when we look closer at the situation, we find a complex situation in which negative and positive effects on the work environment follow the implementation of new technology. The analysis conducted in the paper further suggests that this has to do with mining environments having reached a level where historically major risks have been addressed; remaining risks, which are still significant, are of such a nature that their singular treatment — attempting to address these risks through isolated action such as new technology — engenders risks elsewhere. At the same time, the mining industry is of such a character that technological sophistications will fail to ultimately address the fundamental underlying causes of technology’s underperformance; technology by itself will never be enough. In part, this is due to constraints stemming from the characteristics of the mining industry, resulting in lower and slower technological progress for instance. The paper, thus, proposes a shift in focus with regards to technology, from technology itself to the processes surrounding the development, implementation, and use of technology in the mining industry. The paper, then, outlines some requirements for such a process.

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  • 38.
    Moritz, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The local employment impacts of mining: an econometric analysis of job multipliers in northern Sweden2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which mining contributes to job opportunities in the region where it takes place has become increasingly important for the industry’s relations to the local community. The employment impacts of mining are however far from straightforward to assess. Considering these uncertainties about real-life job impacts, it is vital that there are sound assessments of these employment effects. The purpose of this paper is to apply a novel econometric approach to assess mining-induced job multipliers in the empirical context of northern Sweden. This analysis employs data on the number of employees in selected non-mining sectors and in the mining sector, respectively, and covering the relatively recent mining boom period (2003-2013). We also highlight differences across the two main mining counties in northern Sweden. The results show a positive statistical relationship between increases in the number of employees in the mining sector and changes in the number of employees in other sectors. The private services sector is particularly affected, while the industrial sector also benefits in the specific case of mining municipalities. The results also indicate relatively large inter-county differences, in turn highlighting the importance of addressing the context-specific circumstances when estimating the employment effects of mining.

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  • 39.
    Poelzer, Gregory
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Linde, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Jagers, Sverker C.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Digging in the dark: reviewing international literature to address impending policy challenges for Swedish and Finnish mining2021In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industries of Sweden and Finland currently face several policy issues around investment, stakeholder involvement, and sustainability. Since the two countries garnered significant attention during the mining boom, research from a social sciences perspective grew significantly. One approach to understanding how these issues in Sweden and Finland compare to international examples is through an analysis of the policy development framework. Looking at three factors—institutions, actors, and process—gives a broad overview of the imminent challenges in both Sweden and Finland and potential lessons from existing research that point to similar problems and their solutions. As the mining operations continue to sit at the center of different values, capable policy is required.

  • 40.
    Priester, Michael
    et al.
    Projekt-Consult GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dolega, Peter
    Öko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt, Germany.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Täby, Sweden.
    Mineral grades: an important indicator for environmental impact of mineral exploitation2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 49-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have collected and analysed grade information for nine metals: copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, PGM, tin, and zinc. Based on this analysis, we have developed a proposal of “grade classes”, i.e., what could be considered low-grade, average-grade, and high-grade deposits for all these metals. We discuss the implications of possible developments into the future of the grades of ores, from which these metals are extracted. A focus on high-grade deposits will naturally reduce the environmental impact of mining. For six metals (copper, gold, iron, nickel, PGM, and zinc), we have further analysed the volumes available for the 10% cohort of projects and operating mines with the highest grades. Three metals (iron, PGM, and zinc) show considerable volumes, between 15 and 20% of total metal content in resources in this high-grade percentile. Copper and gold have between 5 and 10% while nickel has only 1.7% in the highest 10% grade percentile.

  • 41.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Review of David Humphreys, The Remaking of the Mining Industry: Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2015, 256 pages, ISBN 978-1-137-44200-02015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 129-130Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The perseverance of the ongoing metal and mineral boom2013In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 25, no 2-3, p. 83-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    To John Tilton, a personal note2020In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 33, no 1-2, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text provides my praise for my oldest professional friend, John Tilton, as it has developed over more than 40 years through global interaction.

  • 44.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Stakeholder management theory meets CSR practice in Swedish mining2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CSR needs to be implemented into every level of an organization to have a meaningful impact, and management systems are proven useful for CSR practice. Benefits of integrating all CSR aspects into a sustainability management system are often claimed. Stakeholder theory can advance CSR practice. This case study explores how a company reacts to and appropriates stakeholder theory through interviews and workshops with the top management of corporate responsibility. This is an empirical addition to the dominant conceptual contributions to stakeholder management framed within the concept of management system thinking. The focus is on identification of stakeholders and the estimation of “who and what really counts”. This study support conceptual papers and suggest Mitchell and colleagues’ model for the initial step of SMS. It shows that theory easily can be practised and that it works well. The company highlighted the discussions where it had to look at stakeholders from different perspectives.

  • 45.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Extractive Industries: The Management of Resources as a Driver of Sustainable Development2021In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 167-168Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tony Addison and Alan Roe (ed.), WIDER studies in development economics. Oxford University press, 2018, ISBN: 9780198817369

  • 46.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    et al.
    University of Lapland, Postbox 122, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Eerola, Toni
    Geological Survey of Finland, PL 96, 02151 Espoo, Finland.
    Poelzer, Gregory A
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Social aspects of business risk in the mineral industry—political, reputational, and local acceptability risks facing mineral exploration and mining2023In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 321-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineral exploration is an industry of uncertainties. Only 0,1% of exploration projects become mines, as the volume, content, and quality of a deposit all must be economically justifiable to find funding in the global financial market. However, the business risk of mineral exploration is not limited to geotechnical and financial risks, as social aspects are now considered the biggest risk facing the industry. Here, we identify three social aspects of business risk that may challenge the industry: political, reputational, and local acceptability. Political risk arises when sectoral authorities and the related legislation come into conflict, such as mineral versus environmental legislation. Reputational risk lies in the relationship between a company’s past and current operations in combination with the legitimacy of the entire industry. Local acceptability risk parallels the social license to operate, with poor corporate conduct, competition with other livelihoods, intrusion into culturally sensitive areas, and local values critical of mining all potentially evoking resistance. Companies must be aware not only of the nuances of each social aspect but also of the interplay between them to understand the full scale and scope of the business risks associated with exploration.

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  • 47.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Klyuchnikova, Elena
    Institute of the Industrial Ecology Problems of the North, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk region.
    Korchak, Elena
    Luzin Institute of Economic Problems, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk region.
    Nygaard, Vigdis
    Northern Research Institute (NORUT), Alta.
    Poelzer, Gregory A.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Social impacts of the “glocal” mining business: case studies from Northern Europe2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining is a global business with international networks of production and consumption, but mineral deposits are place specific and the impacts of mining projects are mostly experienced locally. Hence, mining is an example of a glocal phenomenon par excellence: global processes are realized in local communities and environments. This paper discusses the social impacts of mining in eight communities situated in Northern Europe. The data consist of 85 semi-structured interviews conducted in 2013 and 2014. Using a qualitative approach and starting from the bottom-up, the analyses identified three impact frames that combined individual experiences and meanings expressed in the interviews. The first impact frame focuses on environmental justice. Environmental impacts are corporeal, cognitive, and emotional, as they affect the real life of people living in the vicinity of the mine. The main finding is that environmental “bads” are experienced locally in the North, whereas the economic “goods” go to mining companies and consumers in the “South.” The second impact frame looks at the loss of livelihoods and the cultural way of life. Mining is seen as a threat, especially to reindeer herding and nature-based practices. In the areas where mining is a new industry, the activity is seen as antithetical to those small-scale activities of a local economy. The third impact frame centers on experiences and concerns about the dependency of a community on a single industry. When the fortunes of local communities are dependent on international business and the fluctuations of global markets, the residents feel that they have no power to influence the developments and can thus only adapt.

  • 48.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Stefan Berger and Peter Alexander (Eds.): Making sense of mining history-themes and agendas, routledge studies in modern history. New York, 2020, ISBN: 978-0-367-19868-82023In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 36, p. 543-544Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Linus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Managing the 1970s energy crises in a state-owned mining company: strategies pursued by the Swedish iron ore producer LKAB2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the strategies adopted by the Swedish state-owned iron ore mining producer LKAB in response to the 1970s energy crises, i.e., soaring energy input expenses in combination with stagnating demand for iron ore. The analysis builds on a unique empirical material, e.g., minutes from board meetings, over an extended time period. This permits in-depth analyses of the two main strategies pursued by LKAB at the time: (a) securing energy supplies (as well as output sales) through upstream investments in uranium and coal mining; and (b) engaging in own R&D to enable energy-saving measures and product development. While the LKAB experiences tend to support the notion that investments supporting broader societal goals, although at the expense of firm productivity, may be likely in the presence of strong state government involvement, they also show that state-owned mineral enterprises can be highly innovative and competitive following investments in internal R&D. Specifically, LKAB’s R&D contributed to significant product development and energy savings, the latter occurring both in the company’s own pelletizing process as well as in the processes of key customers (i.e., the steel companies). The paper concludes by highlighting a number of important lessons for contemporary energy transitions in the process industries.

  • 50.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Metal markets and recycling policies: impacts and challenges2020In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 33, no 1-2, p. 257-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased understanding of the existing markets for recycled (secondary) metals, including interactions with virgin material production, is essential for public decision-making processes concerning the implementation and evaluation of different categories of recycling policies. In this paper, we review the existing literature with the purpose of discussing (1) the impacts of various recycling policies on metal markets in which aggregate demand can be met by both primary and secondary production, and (2) a number of challenges that policy-makers need to confront in choosing between various types of recycling policies and policy designs. A simple partial equilibrium model is used as a pedagogical tool for shedding light on the impacts of tradable recycling credits, virgin material taxes, and recycling subsidies. In a second step, the paper identifies and discusses a few key challenges that policy-makers will need to address in recycling policy-making. These challenges include improving the functioning of secondary material markets by addressing various non-environmental market inefficiencies; identifying and designing (second-best) policy mixes due to the presence of incomplete monitoring and enforcement of waste disposal behavior, and regulating environmental impacts through price- or quantity-based policies. Throughout the analysis, we consult the empirical literature on the functioning of scrap metal markets (e.g., steel, copper, and aluminum).

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