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  • 1.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Threadgold, Emma
    Human Factors Group, School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Beaman, C. Philip
    School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    Human Factors Group, School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Human Factors Group, School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The negative footprint illusion is exacerbated by the numerosity of environment-friendly additions: unveiling the underpinning mechanisms2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 295-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of environmentally friendly items to conventional items sometimes leads people to believe that the carbon footprint of the entire set decreases rather than increases. This negative footprint illusion is supposedly underpinned by an averaging bias: people base environmental impact estimates not on the total impact of items but on their average. Here, we found that the illusion's magnitude increased with the addition of a greater number of "green" items when the number of conventional items remained constant (Studies 1 and 2), supporting the averaging-bias account. We challenged this account by testing what happens when the number of items in the conventional and "green" categories vary while holding the ratio between the two categories constant (Study 3). At odds with the averaging-bias account, the magnitude of the illusion increased as the category size increased, revealing a category-size bias, and raising questions about the interplay between these biases in the illusion.

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  • 2.
    Atienzar, Tania O.
    et al.
    Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Pilgrim, Lea K.
    School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire,Preston, UK.
    Sio, Ut Na
    Sheffield University Management School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Replicating and extending hemispheric asymmetries in auditory distraction: no metacognitive awareness for the left-ear disadvantage for changing-state sounds2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experiments investigating hemispheric asymmetries in auditory distraction, the spatial location of to-be-ignored sound was manipulated. Prior studies indicated a left-ear disadvantage for changing-state sequences during short-term serial recall but lacked a direct measure of the changing-state effect. Experiment 1 compared changing-state with steady-state sequences in a visual-verbal serial recall task, confirming that left-ear disruption resulted from the acoustically varying nature of the sound, emphasizing right hemisphere dominance for processing acoustic variation in unattended stimuli. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and explored participants' metacognitive awareness of auditory distractors' disruptive potential. While participants were aware that changing-state sequences were more disruptive than steady-state sequences, they lacked awareness of the left-ear disadvantage. The study suggests individuals have metacognitive awareness of the disruptive impact of changing-state over steady-state sound but not of the accompanying left-ear disadvantage, raising implications for theoretical accounts of auditory distraction.

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  • 3.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Marsja, Erik
    Disability Research Division, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Radiation Sciences and Radiology, UmeåUniversity, Umeå, Sweden; Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department for IntegrativeMedical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Effects of auditory and tactile distraction in adults with low and high ADHD symptoms2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) impact distraction by unexpected deviant sounds and vibrations. The hypothesis was that there would be a difference between individuals with low and high ADHD symptom severity in deviance distraction. In a cross-modal oddball task, we measured the impact of to-be-ignored deviating auditory and vibro-tactile stimuli in 45 adults who were 18 years or older, and self-reported ADHD symptoms using the screening tool of the adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS). Results did not show a difference between groups with low and high symptoms of ADHD in their propensity for distraction in any modality using both frequentist and Bayesian methods of analysis. The impact of the deviating sounds and vibrations on performance were similar between groups. However, the amount of missed trials, which possibly reflects mind wandering or attention away from the focal task, was higher in the high symptom group (0.5 % difference in missing data between groups). The findings indicate a difference in missed responses between groups, despite no differences in the likelihood of distraction being indicated between vibro-tactile and auditory modalities. Overall, the complexity of adult ADHD symptomatology, especially behavioral differences in attentional control is reflected in the results of this study.

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  • 4.
    Elliott, Emily M.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Bell, Raoul
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Gorin, Simon
    Faculté de Psychologie et des Sciences de l’Éducation, Developmental Cognitive Psychology, Université de Genève, Genève, Switzerland; Faculty of Psychology, UniDistance Suisse, Brig, Switzerland.
    Robinson, Nick
    Nick Robinson Computing Limited, Wilpshire, Blackburn, Lancashire, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire, UK.
    Auditory distraction can be studied online! A direct comparison between in-Person and online experimentation2022In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 307-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Referring to the well-replicated finding that the presence of to-be-ignored sound disrupts short-term memory for serially-presented visual items, the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is an important benchmark finding within cognitive psychology. The ISE has proven useful in evaluating the structure, function and development of short-term memory. This preregistered report focused on a methodological examination of the paradigm typically used to study the ISE and sought to determine whether the ISE can be reliably studied using the increasingly popular method of online testing. Comparing Psychology students tested online, in-person and participants from an online panel, results demonstrated successful reproduction of the key signature effects of auditory distraction (the changing-state effect and the steady-state effect), albeit smaller effects with the online panel. Our results confirmed the viability of online data collection for auditory distraction research and provided important insights for the accumulation and maintenance of high data quality in internet-based experimentation.

  • 5.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden. Department of Industrial Development, IT, and Land Management, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Can the negative footprint illusion be eliminated by summative priming?2021In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 337-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People’s belief that one or more environmentally friendly items that are added to a set of conventional items can reduce the total environmental impact of these items (the negative footprint illusion) could lead to unwanted environmental consequences. An averaging bias seems to underpin this illusion: people make their estimates based on the average of the environmental impact produced by the items rather than the accumulated sum. We report four studies that used various priming manipulations to explore whether people’s preoccupation to think in terms of an average can be eliminated by fostering a summative mindset. The results demonstrate that participants avoid succumbing to the negative footprint illusion when the critical judgment task is preceded by tasks that engender a summation judgment. Our evidence indicates that the negative footprint illusion can be tempered when a primed concept (summation) is used adaptively on subsequent judgments, thereby correcting for bias in environmental judgments.

  • 6.
    Linklater, Rona D.
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Judge, Jennie
    School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Auditory distraction of vocal-motor behaviour by different components of song: testing an interference-by-process account2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 101-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process-oriented account of auditory distraction suggests that task-disruption is a consequence of the joint action of task- and sound-related processes. Here, four experiments put this view to the test by examining the extent to which to-be-ignored melodies (with or without lyrics) influence vocal-motor processing. Using song retrieval tasks (i.e., reproduction of melodies or lyrics from long-term memory), the results revealed a pattern of disruption that was consistent with an interference-by-process view: disruption depended jointly on the nature of the vocal-motor retrieval (e.g., melody retrieval via humming vs. spoken lyrics) and the characteristics of the sound (whether it contained lyrics and was familiar to the participants). Furthermore, the sound properties, influential in disrupting song reproduction, were not influential for disrupting visual-verbal short-term memory—a task that is arguably underpinned by non-semantic vocal-motor planning processes. Generally, these results cohere better with the process-oriented view, in comparison with competing accounts (e.g., interference-by-content).

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  • 7.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Bell, Raoul
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Röer, Jan P.
    Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.
    Hodgetts, Helen M.
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK.
    Emerging perspectives on distraction and task interruptions: metacognition, cognitive control and facilitation - part I2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern technology allows for the control of learning and work environments to an unprecedented degree. Therefore, the focus of research shifts from how learning and work performance are passively affected by environmental factors to how people actively shape their own learning and work experiences. This includes task-irrelevant stimuli and task interruptions. For instance, modern headphones allow one to switch between two modes: Active noise cancelling eliminates all background sounds while acoustic transparency allows certain signals to pass through the headphones, creating a customisable audio space. Modern devices also allow us to plan certain task interruptions (for example, by email alerts) in advance. This gives users unprecedented autonomy over their learning and work environments. However, increased control does not necessarily imply that these environments are free of distraction and interruptions. In fact, quite the opposite is true: Modern-day digital learning and work environments are full of distractions and interruptions. With users’ increased control over their learning and work environments, new research questions arise that emphasise the active role of the individual in shaping their own learning and work experiences:

    • Are people capable of distinguishing between harmful and helpful task-irrelevant stimuli and activities?
    • Can the harmful aspects of distractions and interruptions be brought under cognitive control?
    • Are distraction and task interruptions always harmful or are they sometimes helpful? 

    Within this Special Issue, we primarily focus on the following emerging trends in distraction and attention.

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  • 8.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Barker, Melissa E.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK. Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK.
    Litchfield, Damien
    Department of Psychology, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK.
    Degno, Federica
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The susceptibility of compound remote associate problems to disruption by irrelevant sound: a Window onto the component processes underpinning creative cognition?2021In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 33, no 6-7, p. 793-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy exists regarding the processes involved in creative thinking with the Remote Associates Test (RAT) and the Compound Remote Associates Test (CRAT). We report three experiments that aimed to shed light on the component processes underpinning CRAT performance by using the mere presence of task-irrelevant sound as a key theoretical tool. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that CRAT performance was impaired relative to a quiet condition by the presence of sequences of changing letters and tones, respectively. In both experiments a non-changing sound (a repeated letter or a repeated tone) produced no disruption relative to quiet. Experiment 3 established that additional disruption was engendered by having to ignore meaningful speech as compared to meaningless speech. These experiments demonstrate that both semantic activation and subvocalisation are important determinants of successful creative thinking with CRAT problems. We suggest that semantic activation underpins solution-generation processes whereas subvocalisation underpins solution-evaluation processes.

  • 9.
    Marsh, John Everett
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Human Factors Laboratory, School of Psychology and Computer Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Vachon, François
    École de Psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Marsja, Erik
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Röer, Jan P.
    Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.
    Richardson, Beth H.
    Human Factors Laboratory, School of Psychology and Computer Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Irrelevant changing-state vibrotactile stimuli disrupt verbal serial recall: implications for theories of interference in short-term memory2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 78-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What causes interference in short-term memory? We report the novel finding that immediate memory for visually-presented verbal items is sensitive to disruption from task-irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli. Specifically, short-term memory for a visual sequence is disrupted by a concurrently presented sequence of vibrations, but only when the vibrotactile sequence entails change (when the sequence “jumps” between the two hands). The impact on visual-verbal serial recall was similar in magnitude to that for auditory stimuli (Experiment 1). Performance of the missing item task, requiring recall of item-identity rather than item-order, was unaffected by changing-state vibrotactile stimuli (Experiment 2), as with changing-state auditory stimuli. Moreover, the predictability of the changing-state sequence did not modulate the magnitude of the effect, arguing against an attention-capture conceptualisation (Experiment 3). Results support the view that interference in short-term memory is produced by conflict between incompatible, amodal serial-ordering processes (interference-by-process) rather than interference between similar representational codes (interference-by-content).

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  • 10.
    Meng, Zhu
    et al.
    School of Education Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, People’s Republic of China; Faculty of Psychology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China.
    Yan, Guoli
    Faculty of Psychology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Liversedge, Simon P.
    School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Effects of irrelevant speech on semantic and phonological judgments of Chinese characters2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether background speech impairs lexical processing and how speech characteristics modulate such influence based on task type. Chinese character pairs were displayed to native Chinese readers under four auditory conditions: normal Chinese speech, phonotactically legal but meaningless speech, spectrally-rotated speech (i.e. meaningless sound with no accessible phonological form), or silence. Participants were tasked with determining whether the presented character pair shared the same meaning (semantic judgment), or the same initial phoneme (phonological judgment). Participants performed better and faster in the semantic than in the phonological judgment task. Phonological properties of meaningless speech prolonged participants’ reaction times in the phonological but not the semantic judgment task, whilst the semantic properties of speech only delayed reaction times in the semantic judgment task. The results indicate that background speech disrupts lexical processing, with the nature of the primary task affecting the extent of phonological and semantic disruption.

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  • 11.
    Rettie, Laura
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Potter, Robert F.
    The Media School, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
    Brewer, Gayle
    School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Degno, Federica
    Department of Psychology, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK.
    Vachon, François
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
    Hughes, Robert W.
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Warning—taboo words ahead! Avoiding attentional capture by spoken taboo distractors2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 61-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether the disruption of serial short-term memory (STM) by spoken taboo distractors is due to attentional diversion and unrelated to the underlying disruptive effect of sound on serial STM more generally, which we have argued is due to order cues arising from the automatic pre-categorical processing of acoustic changes in the sound conflicting with serial–order processing within the memory task (interference-by-process). We test whether the taboo-distractor effect is, unlike effects attributable to interference-by-process, amenable to top-down control. Experiment 1 replicated the taboo-distractor effect and showed that it is not merely a valence effect. However, promoting cognitive control by increasing focal task-load did not attenuate the effect. However, foreknowledge of the distractors did eliminate the taboo-distractor effect while having no effect on disruption by neutral words (Experiment 2). We conclude that the taboo-distractor effect results from a controllable attentional-diversion mechanism distinct from the effect of any acoustically-changing sound.

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  • 12.
    Sebalo, Ivan
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK; School of Psychology, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Morley, Andy M.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Richardson, Beth H.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Taylor, Paul J.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Conspiracy theories: why they are believed and how they can be challenged2023In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 383-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study aimed: (i) to identify personal characteristics associated with endorsing conspiracy theories; and (ii) to investigate methods for dispelling conspiracy beliefs. Participants were shown a single conspiracy theory and they also completed questionnaires about their reasoning skills, types of information processing (System 1 vs. System 2), endorsement of paranormal beliefs, locus of control and pattern perception. To challenge the endorsement of the conspiracy, participants read either: (i) neutral information; (ii) a critical analysis of the vignette; (iii) a critical analysis of the vignette with discussion of realistic consequences; or (iv) a critical analysis of the vignette with “feeling of control” priming. Only addressing the consequences of the conspiracy theory decreased its endorsement. Furthermore, only type of information processing and belief in paranormal phenomena, were associated with endorsement of the conspiracy. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and theories of conspiratorial ideation.

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  • 13.
    Sio, Ut Na
    et al.
    Institute of Work Psychology, Sheffield University of Management School, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues
    Centre for Mathematical Cognition, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Effects of task characteristics and task-switching on remote associates test problem solving2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creative problem solving is often viewed as a search process. However, little is known about the factors that impact this process. To address this question, we conducted two studies to examine whether task characteristics and task-switching influence performance on Remote Associates Test (RAT) problems - problems commonly used to measure creativity and study the creative search process. Consistent with prior research, we found that RAT problem-solving performance was positively associated with the relatedness between the answer and the problem. The association was strongest when the amount of competition within the initial search space was low. Moreover, this interaction was observed irrespective of the methods used to measure the task characteristics. By contrast, we did not replicate the positive effect of task-switching on RAT problem-solving accuracy found in previous studies. However, our findings suggest that task-switching may improve problem-solving speed and facilitate a broader search. Implications for future research are discussed.

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  • 14.
    Zhang, Qiyuan
    et al.
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Human Factors Excellence Research Group (HuFEx), Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Intelligence, Robotics and Human-Machine Systems, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Williams, Craig
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Human Factors Excellence Research Group (HuFEx), Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Morgan, Phillip L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Human Factors Excellence Research Group (HuFEx), Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Intelligence, Robotics and Human-Machine Systems, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Partial habituation to disruption by irrelevant emotive speech—evidence for duplex-mechanism account2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 42-60Article in journal (Refereed)
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