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  • 1.
    Al Maliki, Ali
    et al.
    Environment Research Centre, Ministry of Since and Technology, Jadriah, Baghdad.
    Al-lami, Ahmed Kadhim
    Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Jadriah, Baghdad.
    Hussain, H.M.
    Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Comparison between inductively coupled plasma and X-ray fluorescence performance for Pb analysis in environmental soil samples2017In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, no 12, article id 433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison of two conventional analytical techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for measuring Pb concentrations in soil samples was achieved using field and laboratory work. Seventy-three samples were collected from urban areas surrounding the large lead smelter at South Australia, as an indicator of the environment impact of smelter activity. Soil Pb concentrations were determined using hand-held XRF analyser under laboratory conditions. ICP-MS analysis on digested soils (using a microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion-extraction) was applied to validate p-XRF data. The analysis showed that Pb concentrations determined by XRF correlated with high linearity with Pb concentrations determined by ICP-MS measurements (R2 = 0.89). Statistical test (t test) was applied to the data of both methods applied without any significant difference between the two techniques. These results indicated that ICP-MS corroborated XRF for Pb soil measurements and suggests that XRF was a reliable and quick alternative to traditional analytical methods in studies of environmental health risk assessment, allowing for much larger sampling regimes in relatively shorter times and could be applied in the field.

  • 2.
    Bertrand, G.
    et al.
    Instituto de Geociências, CEPAS (Groundwater Research Center), University of São Paulo.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ala-Aho, P.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Rossi, P.M.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Environmental tracers and indicators bringing together groundwater, surface water and groundwater-dependent ecosystems: importance of scale in choosing relevant tools2014In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 813-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions cover a broad range of hydrogeological and biological processes and are controlled by natural and anthropogenic factors at various spatio-temporal scales, from watershed to hyporheic/hypolentic zone. Understanding these processes is vital in the protection of groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) increasingly required in water resources legislation across the world. The use of environmental tracers and indicators that are relevant simultaneously for groundwater, surface water and biocenoses-biotope interactions constitutes a powerful tool to succeed in the management task. However, tracer type must be chosen according to the scale of interest and tracer use thus requires a good conceptual understanding of the processes to be evaluated. This paper reviews various GW-SW interaction processes and their drivers and, based on available knowledge, systemises application of conservative tracers and semi-conservative and reactive environmental indicators at different spatial scales. Biocenoses-biotopes relationships are viewed as a possible transition tool between scales. Relation between principal application of the environmental tracers and indicators, examples and guidelines are further proposed for examining GW-SW interactions from a hydrogeological and biological point of view by demonstrating the usability of the tracers/indicators and providing recommendations for the scientific community and decision makers.

  • 3.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    GIS-based assessment of combined AHP and SAW methods for selecting suitable sites for landfill in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, no 5, article id 209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a landfill site is a difficult task because the process depends on many factors and restrictions. Landfill is an optimal solution for the disposal of solid waste in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, which is located in the northern part of Babylon Governorate. At the moment, there is no landfill site in that area that follows the scientific selection site criteria. For this reason, in this research, fifteen variables were considered (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types; agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archeological sites) using geographic information system (GIS) to find out the best suitable landfill site. In addition, two methods of multi-criteria decision-making were used to derive weights for criterion’s maps on GIS to obtain potential landfill sites. The first method is analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which was used to identify the weight for each criterion from the matrix of pairwise comparisons. The second method was the simple additive weighting (SAW) which is a simple method to solve the problem of the selection landfill sites. After comparison of the results obtained based on combining two final maps resulted from methods of AHP and SAW using GIS environment to determine the pixels percentage of matching and non-matching for two maps, two suitable candidate landfill sites were identified that satisfy the requirements with an area of 7.965–5.952 km2. Area of these sites can accommodate the solid waste generated from the Qadhaa up to 2030.

  • 4. Chlot, Sara
    et al.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nitrogen uptake and cycling in Phragmites australis in a lake-receiving nutrient-rich mine water: a 15 N tracer study2015In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 6027-6038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uptake and cycling of nitrogen (N) in the littoral zone of a lake-receiving nutrient-rich mine water located in Boliden, northern Sweden, was investigated. Stable isotope tracer solutions of 15N as NH4 + (NAM mesocosm) or NO3 − (NOX mesocosm) were added to mesocosms enclosing plants of common reed (Phragmites australis). The 15N abundance in various plant parts was measured at pre-defined time intervals over an experimental period of 22 days. During the course of the experiment, plant parts from the NAM mesocosms were significantly more enriched in 15N than plant parts from the NOX mesocosms. On day 13, Δδ15N values of the fine roots from the NAM mesocosms had reached +8220 ‰, while the maximum Δδ15N value in NOX roots was considerably lower at +4430 ‰. Using 15N values in macrophyte tissues present at the end of the experiment enabled calculations of uptake rates and % of tracer N recovered in the plant (%tracerNrecov). Maximum tracer uptake rates were higher for the NAM mesocosms (1.4 µg g−1 min−1 or 48 mg N m−2 d−1) compared to the NOX mesocosms (0.23 µg g−1 min−1 or 8.5 mg N m−2 d−1). Calculations of %tracerNrecov indicated that 1–8 and 25–44 % of added N was assimilated by plants in the NOX and NAM mesocosms, respectively. Hence, P. australis was more effective in assimilating NH4 +, and a larger portion of the tracer N accumulated in the roots compared to the other plant parts. Consequently, macrophyte N removal is most effective for cold-climate aquatic systems receiving mine water dominated by NH4 +. For permanent removal of N, the whole plant (including the roots) should be harvested.

  • 5.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effect of the alkaline industrial residues fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud on mine tailings oxidation when used as covering material2014In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 319-334, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential to use the alkaline residue products fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud originating from paper mills as dry cover materials to seal tailings has been investigated. Metals concentration in lime mud and fly ash had the lowest and highest contents, respectively. The tailings (less than 1% sulfur content, primarily pyrite) were disposed about 50 years ago and originated from the former Rönnskär mine site in Sweden. The results of chemical composition analysis shows that the raw unoxidized tailings are active towards oxidation, while the components of the adjacent oxidized tailings are not. To quantify the release of metals from the tailings and to evaluate the effect of a sealing layer on oxidation and weathering of the tailings, batch leaching tests were conducted in which leachate from alkaline residue materials was fed to the tailings. The results show that a higher concentration of most trace elements is leached from the unoxidized tailings than from the oxidized tailings. Except As and Cr, the rest of analyzed metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb) became immobilized in response to the increased pH as a consequence of the amendment. The three tested alkaline amendments show a similar potential for preventing the release of metals (with the exception of As and Cr) from the tailings. Under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, microbial activity was found to be of minor importance. XRD analysis of the field samples revealed that it was feasible to use alkaline residue products in covering tailings, and that it was advantageous to use ash as a cover material more than dregs.

  • 6.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nason, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Degradation of digested sewage sludge residue under anaerobic conditions for mine tailings remediation2014In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 3643-3654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that 85 % of total organic matter (TOM) in digested sewage sludge (biosolids) used as a sealing layer material over sulfide tailings at the Kristineberg Mine, northern Sweden had been degraded 8 years after application, resulting in a TOM reduction from 78 % to 14 %. To achieve a better understanding of the field observations, laboratory studies were performed to evaluate biodegradation rates of the TOM under anaerobic conditions. Results reveal that the original biosolid consisted of ca. 60 % TOM (48.0 % lignin and 11.8 % carbohydrates) that had not been fully degraded. The incubation experiments proved that 27.8 % TOM in the biosolid was further degraded anaerobically at 20-22 C during the 230 d incubation period, and that a plateau to the biodegradation rate was approached. Based on model results, the degradation constant was found to be 0.0125 (day-1). The calculated theoretical gas formation potential was ca. 50 % higher than the modeled results based on the average degradation rate. Cumulated H2S equated to 0.65 µmoL*g-1 of biosolid at 230 d. However, the large sulfurous compounds reservoir (1.76 g SO42- kg-1 biosolid) together with anaerobic conditions, can generate high concentrations of this gas over a long-term perspective. Due to the rate of biodegradability identified via anaerobic processes, the function of the biosolid to serve as an effective barrier to inhibit oxygen migration to underlying tailings, may decrease over time. However, a lack of readily degradable organic fractions in the biosolid and a large fraction of organic matter that was recalcitrant to degradation suggests a longer degradation duration, which would prolong the biosolid material’s function and integrity.

  • 7.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    et al.
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nguyen-Thanh, Lan
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
    Lab-scale performance of selected expandable clays under HLW repository conditions2013In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2569-2579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smectite clay has been proposed for embedding canisters with highly radioactive waste in deep repositories because of its isolating capacity. Montmorillonite-rich bentonite is a premier buffer candidate for many national organizations that are responsible for disposal of such waste. Experience from the use of drilling mud at large depths indicates that other smectite clay minerals are more stable chemically and saponite is one of them. The physical properties of smectitic mixed-layer minerals like Friedland clay are known to be less sensitive to high salt contents and such clay may also be a buffer candidate. Montmorillonite-rich MX-80 clay, Greek saponite with a minor amount of palygorskite, and Friedland clay were investigated in hydrothermal tests with dense samples confined in oedometers with 95 °C temperature at one end, which was made of copper, and 35 °C at the other, for 8 weeks. A 1 % CaCl 2 solution was circulated through a filter at the cold end. At the end of the tests, the samples were sliced into three parts, which were tested with respect to expandability, hydraulic conductivity, and chemical composition. The tests showed that while the saponite was hardly changed at all and did not take up any copper, MX-80 underwent substantial changes in physical performance and adsorbed significant amounts of copper. The Friedland clay sample was intermediate in both respects

  • 8.
    Knutsson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geothermal study to explain man-made permafrost in tailings with raised surface2018In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 77, no 7, article id 288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deposition of mine tailings in a cold climate requires precautions as temporary sub-zero temperatures can imply considerable consequences to the storage due to creation of permafrost. The risk of creating man-made permafrost lenses due to tailings deposition exists even in regions with no natural permafrost, as material being frozen during winter might not fully thaw by the following summer. When such frozen layers thaw during later longer warmer periods, excess pore water pressure and large settlements might develop. Such implications close to the dam structure have to be avoided and therefore the risk of generating permafrost should be reduced. This paper describes a geothermal model for one-dimensional heat conduction analysis. The model is able to simulate the temperature profile in tailings where the surface elevation is constantly increased due to deposition. At the tailings surface, the boundary condition is the air temperature changing over time during the year. Air temperatures, tailings deposition schedule and tailings properties are given as input to the model and can easily be changed and applied to specific facilities. The model can be used for tailings facilities in cold regions, where the effects of tailings deposition on the temperature regime are of interest. Findings can improve tailings management by explaining man-made permafrost generation. The model can also aid in setting up appropriate deposition schedules and to prevent generation of permafrost layers.

  • 9.
    Moradi, M.
    et al.
    Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Oskooi, B.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Pushkarev, P.
    Department of Geophysical Methods of the Earth Crust Exploration, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    Smirnov, Maxim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Esmaeili Oghaz, H.
    Natural Iranian Gas Storage Company for Nasr-Abad Area, Tehran, Iran.
    Cooperative inversion of magnetotelluric and seismic data on Shurab diapirs in Central Iran2019In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 78, no 11, article id 341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using diapirs as liquid or gas storage structures has increased because salt formations are considered to be extremely impermeable and non-reactive. The process of delineating the diapirs' structures ends in lots of challenges due to their geological complexity. Therefore, the integration of different geophysical methods seems to be necessary to cover different physical characteristics of the diapirs. Shurab diapirs located at the NW of Kashan in Qom basin of Central Iran have been considered as candidates for the first natural gas storages in Iran. A previous 2D seismic survey across the diapir No. 4 of Shurab could not resolve the diapir structure properly and some ambiguities left unresolved. The main goal of this paper is to resolve the structure of diapir No. 4 by employing a cooperative inversion of the seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data and a comparison with the joint inversion of transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes of the MT data. Both inversion schemes show the salt and sedimentary sequences of the stratigraphy of the Qom basin. The sequences of formations from the surface to depth are classified as upper red formation (URF), Qom formation (QF) and lower red formation (LRF). The results also show that the salt body has originated from the LRF. It is worthwhile to mention that the results from the cooperative inversion provide more details especially on the flanks and overhangs of the diapir No. 4. In addition, we have come to the conclusion that the right lateral strike-slip fault system is the most responsible phenomenon for the development of the diapirs in the survey area and the Sen-Sen fault plays a basic role as an elevator to pushing the salt up. The results are in good agreements with the resistivity and density logs of the boreholes. Moreover, the information from the geology, the cooperative inversion results on diapir No. 4, and the coincidence of the path of the Sen-Sen fault with the outcrops of the diapirs No. 1, 3 and 4 obviously provide that the tectonic scenario of the existence for diapir No. 4 could be appointed to the diapirs No. 1 and 3 equally. Another probable consequence would be the under surface continuation of the salt bodies all along the Sen-Sen fault, the verification of which requires regional MT surveys in a regular grid.

  • 10.
    Nason, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Using sewage sludge as a sealing layer to remediate sulphidic mine tailings: a pilot-scale experiment, northern Sweden2013In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 3093-3105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the Kristineberg mine, northern Sweden, sulphidic mine tailings were remediated in an 8-year pilot-scale experiment using sewage sludge to evaluate its applicability as a sealing layer in a composite dry cover. Sediment, leachate water, and pore gas geochemistry were collected in the aim of determining if the sludge was an effective barrier material to mitigate acid rock drainage (ARD) formation. The sludge was an effective barrier to oxygen influx as it formed both a physical obstruction and functioned as an organic reactive barrier to prevent oxygen to the underlying tailings. Sulphide oxidation and consequential ARD formation did not occur. Sludge-borne trace elements accumulated in a reductive, alkaline environment in the underlying tailings, resulting in an effluent drainage geochemistry of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn below 10 μg/L, high alkalinity (810 mg/L) and low sulphate (38 mg/L). In contrast, the uncovered reference tailings received a 0.35-m deep oxidation front and typical ARD, with dissolved concentrations of Cd, Zn and sulphate, 20.8 μg/L, 16,100 μg/L and 1,390 mg/L, respectively. Organic matter degradation in the sludge may be a limiting factor to the function of the sealing layer over time as 85 % loss of the organic fraction occurred over the 8-year experimental period due to aerobic and anaerobic degradation. Though the cover may function in the short to medium term (100 years), it is unlikely to meet the demands of a long-term remedial solution

  • 11.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Weston, Richard
    Division of Production and Mechanical Engineering, University of Lund.
    Superior techniques for disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW)2015In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 73, no 9, p. 5219-5231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has recently worked out a concept, KBS-3V, for disposal of highly radioactive waste in the form of spent reactor fuel and asked for the Government's approval and licensing. It implies blasting of tunnels at about 400 m depth and boring of large-diameter canister deposition holes extending vertically from the tunnel floor. The rock stresses will be critically high in the construction phase and lead to failure by spalling when the heat pulse from the canisters evolves. The canisters will be surrounded by dense expansive "buffer" clay for minimizing groundwater flow around and along them but the long-term performance of either of them is not adequately proven and the placement impractical and risky. Four major changes of the concept would make it satisfactory. One involves reorientation of the deposition holes from vertical to 45° inclination in two directions for reducing the risk of rock failure. A second is to prepare ready-made stiff units of "supercontainers" with highly compacted blocks of clay tightly surrounding the canisters for simpler and safer installation of clay blocks and canisters. A third is to surround the supercontainers by clay mud that provides the dense buffer with water from start and supports the surrounding rock when the thermal pulse begins to raise the rock stresses. A fourth is to replace the proposed smectite-rich buffer by clay with higher chemical stability and lower but sufficient expandability. A possible fifth change can be to manufacture homogeneous copper canisters of HIPOW type, which would radically reduce the risk of contamination of groundwater by released radionuclides.

  • 12.
    Villain, Lucile
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sundström, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Perttu, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of the effectiveness of backfilling and sealing at an open-pit mine using ground penetrating radar and geoelectrical surveys, Kimheden, northern Sweden2014In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 73, no 8, p. 4495-4509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At Kimheden, a small copper mine in northern Sweden, reclamation of the two open pits was investigated using ground penetrating radar and geoelectrical multiple-gradient array measurements. The pits had been backfilled with waste rock, with a dry cover being applied on top in 1996 in order to reduce the influx of oxygen to the sulphidic mine waste and the subsequent production of acid mine drainage. The dry cover consists of a sealing layer of clayey till and a protective layer of unsorted till. As geochemical sampling in the drainage from the pits had previously revealed the continued release of contaminating oxidation products, the purpose of the geophysical survey undertaken in 2010 was to identify deficiencies in the cover or other pathways for oxygen to reach the waste rock. The radar images did not reveal any damage in the sealing layer but risks of deterioration of the cover in the long term were identified with both the radar and geoelectrical data. The radar localised regions of thinner protective layer where the sealing layer could be exposed to frost action. The geoelectrical measurements indicated the existence of seepage through the dry cover that presented a risk of erosion of the sealing layer. 2-D inversion of geoelectrical data also imaged some pathways of groundwater around the main pit. The results from the geophysical investigations were used together with other site data in order to show that both deficiencies in the cover and superficial fractures in the pit walls may explain an ongoing influx of oxygen to the mine waste.

  • 13.
    Zeballos, Ariana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Instituto de Geología y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz .
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Blanco, Maria
    Instituto de Geología y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz.
    Machaca, Vladimir
    Instituto de Geología y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz.
    Characterization of some nonmetallic resources in Bolivia: an overview of their potentiality and their application in specialized formulations2017In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, no 22, article id 754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bolivia has several nonmetallic occurrences widespread in the country. Unfortunately, they are poorly studied and slightly characterized. In the present work, several nonmetallic occurrences located in La Paz, Oruro, Potosí and Santa Cruz were studied. The results of the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the materials will be presented, in order to approach their applicability in specialized industrial formulations. A preliminary test of the final products besides an overview of their potentiality will be exposed and a current view of the commercialization as well.

  • 14.
    Zeballos, Ariana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Blanco, Mario
    IGEMA, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz.
    Machaca, Vladimir
    IGEMA, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz.
    Geological, mineralogical and chemical characterization of Devonian kaolinite-bearing sediments for further applications in the ceramic (tiles) industry in La Paz, Bolivia2016In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 75, no 7, article id 546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clay minerals are widely distributed in Bolivia; among them, illitic clays are most common in the Altiplano where they are mined for use in the ceramic industry that has been growing in the last few years. In addition to illitic sediments, kaolinitic sediments have been recently discovered in sedimentary units in the Bolivian Altiplano. Residual ball clay occurrences in Devonian sedimentary units were studied as part of this work. Geological mapping and geophysical studies (ERT and GPR) were done for better understanding the origin of the deposits and were part of a preliminary study of the mineral potential to define the relationship with the host rock. Chemical and mineralogical techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma analyses were performed in samples from the studied area to verify the presence of kaolinite. Atterberg limits and behaviour of the raw material in ceramic specimens supported by chemical analyses show that this material is suitable for manufacturing tile ceramics. This study provides fundamental knowledge for deposit exploitation and future generation of an alternative source of employment for the inhabitants of Micaya

  • 15.
    Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang.
    Long, Jinghua
    Research Institute of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing).
    Wei, Zhongyi
    College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vertical distribution and historical loss estimation of heavy metals in an abandoned tailings pond at HTM copper mine, northeastern China2016In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 75, no 22, article id 1462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the tailings pond of the Hongtou Mountain (HTM) copper mine in northeastern China, four sampling points were set at intervals of 80 m along the discharge direction of the tailings slurry to investigate the vertical distribution characteristics of heavy metals in shallow layer (0–5 m) tailings. In addition, 18 sampling points were set by a grid method (50 m × 50 m) to estimate the historical loss amount of contaminants from the surface layer (0–1.2 m) of the HTM tailings pond. Tailings samples were taken at every 0.2 m, and the pH value, the total content and acid-soluble fraction of heavy metals and chemical compositions were determined following the standard methods. The results showed that the pH values of tailings ranged from 3.01 to 8.11, which increased with depths from 0 to 2.2 m, and varied between pH values of 7.0 and 7.5 in 2.2–5 m. Cu, Zn, Cd and S were the major contaminants in the tailings. The total Cu content was higher at the downstream sampling points near the dam. Zn and Cd were higher at the upstream sampling points near the discharge. Three distinct zones (oxidised zone, cemented layer and unoxidised zone) were found in the HTM tailings pond. The depth of the oxidised zone was 0.4 m, and the elements in the oxidised tailings were obviously lower due to the sulphides oxidation and acid mine drainage. Cu was enriched in the cemented layer, and the Cu content reached values between 1200 and 3000 mg/kg, which were 1.5–3 times higher than the average value. Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe were also slightly elevated in the cemented layer. Below the groundwater table, the acid-soluble fraction of Cu, Zn and Cd was relatively stable at a lower level and showed insignificant variations, as the cemented layer and groundwater could efficiently prevent the oxidation process. The amount of Cu, Zn and Cd leaving the tailings pond with drainage water was 8.08, 21.60 and 72.93%, respectively, of the amount released from oxidation. Most of the Cu released from oxidation was retained in the cemented layer. The total mass of S, Zn and Cd released from the tailings to surrounding ecosystems was estimated approximately 762.75 t, 6997.5 and 86.06 kg, respectively, in the last 20 years.

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