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  • 1.
    Booth, Frederick
    et al.
    Department of Accounting, Finance & Economics, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Potts, Courtney
    School of Psychology, Ulster University, Coleraine, United Kingdom.
    Bond, Raymond
    School of Computing, Ulster University, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Mulvenna, Maurice
    School of Computing, Ulster University, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Nursing and Medical Technology.
    Dhanapala, Indika
    Nimbus Research Centre, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.
    Vakaloudis, Alex
    Nimbus Research Centre, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.
    Cahill, Brian
    Nimbus Research Centre, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.
    Kuosmanen, Lauri
    Department of Nursing Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Ennis, Edel
    School of Psychology, Ulster University, Coleraine, United Kingdom.
    A Mental Health and Well-Being Chatbot: User Event Log Analysis2023In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 11, article id e43052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Conversational user interfaces, or chatbots, are becoming more popular in the realm of digital health and well-being. While many studies focus on measuring the cause or effect of a digital intervention on people’s health and well-being (outcomes), there is a need to understand how users really engage and use a digital intervention in the real world.

    Objective: In this study, we examine the user logs of a mental well-being chatbot called ChatPal, which is based on the concept of positive psychology. The aim of this research is to analyze the log data from the chatbot to provide insight into usage patterns, the different types of users using clustering, and associations between the usage of the app’s features.

    Methods: Log data from ChatPal was analyzed to explore usage. A number of user characteristics including user tenure, unique days, mood logs recorded, conversations accessed, and total number of interactions were used with k-means clustering to identify user archetypes. Association rule mining was used to explore links between conversations.

    Results: ChatPal log data revealed 579 individuals older than 18 years used the app with most users being female (n=387, 67%). User interactions peaked around breakfast, lunchtime, and early evening. Clustering revealed 3 groups including “abandoning users” (n=473), “sporadic users” (n=93), and “frequent transient users” (n=13). Each cluster had distinct usage characteristics, and the features were significantly different (P<.001) across each group. While all conversations within the chatbot were accessed at least once by users, the “treat yourself like a friend” conversation was the most popular, which was accessed by 29% (n=168) of users. However, only 11.7% (n=68) of users repeated this exercise more than once. Analysis of transitions between conversations revealed strong links between “treat yourself like a friend,” “soothing touch,” and “thoughts diary” among others. Association rule mining confirmed these 3 conversations as having the strongest linkages and suggested other associations between the co-use of chatbot features.

    Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the types of people using the ChatPal chatbot, patterns of use, and associations between the usage of the app’s features, which can be used to further develop the app by considering the features most accessed by users.

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  • 2.
    Düking, Peter
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Fuss, Franz Konstantin
    Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Holmberg, H. -C
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sperlich, Billy
    University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Recommendations for Assessment of the Reliability, Sensitivity, and Validity of Data Provided by Wearable Sensors Designed for Monitoring Physical Activity2018In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 6, no 4, article id e102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is becoming increasingly popular to monitor parameters related to training, recovery, and health with wearable sensor technology (wearables), scientific evaluation of the reliability, sensitivity, and validity of such data is limited and, where available, has involved a wide variety of approaches. To improve the trustworthiness of data collected by wearables and facilitate comparisons, we have outlined recommendations for standardized evaluation. We discuss the wearable devices themselves, as well as experimental and statistical considerations. Adherence to these recommendations should be beneficial not only for the individual, but also for regulatory organizations and insurance companies.

  • 3.
    Düking, Peter
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Giessing, Laura
    Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Frenkel, Marie Ottilie
    Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Koehler, Karsten
    Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sperlich, Billy
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Wrist-worn wearables for monitoring heart rate and energy expenditure while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity: Validation study2020In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e16716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity reduces the incidences of noncommunicable diseases, obesity, and mortality, but an inactive lifestyle is becoming increasingly common. Innovative approaches to monitor and promote physical activity are warranted. While individual monitoring of physical activity aids in the design of effective interventions to enhance physical activity, a basic prerequisite is that the monitoring devices exhibit high validity. Objective: Our goal was to assess the validity of monitoring heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity with 4 popular wrist-worn wearables (Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa). Methods: While wearing the 4 different wearables, 25 individuals performed 5 minutes each of sitting, walking, and running at different velocities (ie, 1.1 m/s, 1.9 m/s, 2.7 m/s, 3.6 m/s, and 4.1 m/s), as well as intermittent sprints. HR and EE were compared to common criterion measures: Polar-H7 chest belt for HR and indirect calorimetry for EE. Results: While monitoring HR at different exercise intensities, the standardized typical errors of the estimates were 0.09-0.62, 0.13-0.88, 0.62-1.24, and 0.47-1.94 for the Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, respectively. Depending on exercise intensity, the corresponding coefficients of variation were 0.9%-4.3%, 2.2%-6.7%, 2.9%-9.2%, and 4.1%-19.1%, respectively, for the 4 wearables. While monitoring EE at different exercise intensities, the standardized typical errors of the estimates were 0.34-1.84, 0.32-1.33, 0.46-4.86, and 0.41-1.65 for the Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, respectively. Depending on exercise intensity, the corresponding coefficients of variation were 13.5%-27.1%, 16.3%-28.0%, 15.9%-34.5%, and 8.0%-32.3%, respectively. Conclusions: The Apple Watch Series 4 provides the highest validity (ie, smallest error rates) when measuring HR while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity, followed by the Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, in that order. The Apple Watch Series 4 and Polar Vantage V are suitable for valid HR measurements at the intensities tested, but HR data provided by the Garmin Fenix 5 and Fitbit Versa should be interpreted with caution due to higher error rates at certain intensities. None of the 4 wrist-worn wearables should be employed to monitor EE at the intensities and durations tested. 

  • 4.
    Ek, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, The Innovative Use of Mobile Phones to Promote Physical Activity and Nutrition Across the Lifespan Research Group, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden. Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sandborg, Johanna
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, The Innovative Use of Mobile Phones to Promote Physical Activity and Nutrition Across the Lifespan Research Group, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Delisle Nyström, Christine
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, The Innovative Use of Mobile Phones to Promote Physical Activity and Nutrition Across the Lifespan Research Group, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, The Innovative Use of Mobile Phones to Promote Physical Activity and Nutrition Across the Lifespan Research Group, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Physical Activity and Mobile Phone Apps in the Preschool Age: Perceptions of Teachers and Parents2019In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e12512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Physical activity (PA) is already beneficial at the preschool age. In many countries, young children spend most of their days in the preschool setting, making it a common arena for PA interventions. Mobile health tools are becoming increasingly popular to promote PA in different populations; however, little is known about the interest for and how the preschool setting could incorporate such a tool.

    OBJECTIVE:

    This study aimed to examine how teachers and parents perceive PA in preschool-aged children in general and their perceptions of how a mobile phone app could be used to promote PA in the preschool setting.

    METHODS:

    Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 teachers (93%, [14/15] women, mean age 43.5 years, 47%, [7/15] with a university degree and 10 parents [91%, 9/10] women, mean age 38.9 years, all with a university degree) recruited from 2 urban preschools in central Sweden. The interviews were recorded, fully transcribed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis by means of an inductive approach.

    RESULTS:

    The analysis revealed 4 themes: (1) children are physically active by nature, (2) the environment as a facilitator or a barrier, (3) prerequisites of the adult world, and (4) an app in the preschool setting-challenges and possibilities. Parents and teachers perceived preschoolers as being spontaneously physically active; however, high-intensity PA was perceived as low. The PA was specifically performed during the day in the preschool. Identified facilitators of PA were access to safe and engaging outdoor environments such as forests, spacious indoor areas, and adult involvement. Adult involvement was considered especially important for children preferring sedentary activities. Identified barriers for PA were restricted indoor and outdoor space, rules for indoor activities, and lack of adult involvement because of time constraints. The teachers perceived that they had limited skills and experiences using apps in general, although they also acknowledged the increasing role of technological tools in the curriculum. Thus, the teachers expressed an interest for an app designed as a support tool for them, especially for situations when PA was limited because of perceived barriers. They suggested the app to include accessible information regarding the health benefits of PA in children linked to a library of activities for different settings and seasons. Parents suggested interactive app features including problem-solving tasks and music and dance, but not video clips as they made children passive.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Vigorous PA was perceived as low in preschool-aged children. Future tailoring of interventions in the preschool setting should work around barriers and support facilitators to PA, especially PA of high intensity. In such work, an app could serve as a source of inspiration for PA in different ages, settings, and seasons and thus reduce environmental and structural inequalities in the preschool setting.

  • 5.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Söderström, Emmie
    Department of Health, Medical and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ek, Anna
    Department of Clinical Science Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Alexandrou, Christina
    Department of Health, Medical and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Department of Clinical Science Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Maddison, Ralph
    Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Health, Medical and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    User Perception of a Smartphone App to Promote Physical Activity through Active Transportation: An Inductive Qualitative Content Analysis within the Smart City Active Mobile Phone Intervention (SCAMPI) Study2020In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 8, no 8, article id e19380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical inactivity is globally recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity, particularly the incidence of non-communicable diseases, and mortality. Engaging in active transportation (AT) is a viable approach toward increasing physical activity (PA) on a daily basis. Mobile (mHealth) interventions enable promoting AT to a larger population. The Smart City Active Mobile Phone Intervention (SCAMPI) study is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a smartphone application (app)’s ability to motivate participants to increase their PA by engaging in AT.

    Objective: This qualitative study examines the acceptance and usability of the SCAMPI app from the participants’ perspectives.

    Methods: Seventeen residents of Stockholm county (13 women; age range 25-61 years), who had completed the three-month, app-based behavioral change program in the SCAMPI randomized controlled trial during 2018 agreed to participate in a semi-structured telephone-based interview. These 17 participants were well representative of the whole intervention group (n = 127) in terms of baseline characteristics such as age, sex, and area of residence. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The content analysis revealed two themes and four subcategories. The first theme “Main motivators: monitoring and messages” highlighted that monitoring AT and being able to set weekly goals using the app were the primary motivators reported among study participants. The second theme “Acceptable but modifiable” reflects that the app was well accepted and effectively encouraged many participants to use more AT. Nevertheless, there were functions in the app that require modification. For example, while the automated travel tracking feature was appreciated, participants found it time-consuming and unreliable at times.

    Conclusions: This study contributes novel insight into healthy adults’ experiences of using a mobile app to promote the use of AT. The results showed that the app was well-accepted and that self-monitoring and goal setting were the main motivators to engage in more AT. The automated tracking of AT was appreciated; however, it was also reported to be energy- and time-consuming when it failed to work. Thus, this feature should be improved going forward.

  • 6.
    Sandborg, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden. Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsen, Erica
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden..
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Söderström, Emmie
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Maddison, Ralph
    nstitute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Melbourne, Australia.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden. Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Melbourne, Australia.
    Participants’ Engagement and Satisfaction With a Smartphone App Intended to Support Healthy Weight Gain, Diet, and Physical Activity During Pregnancy: Qualitative Study Within the HealthyMoms Trial2021In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 9, no 3, article id e26159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is common and associated with negative health outcomes for both mother and child. Mobile health–delivered lifestyle interventions offer the potential to mitigate excessive GWG. The effectiveness of a smartphone app (HealthyMoms) was recently evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. To explore the users’ experiences of using the app, a qualitative study within the HealthyMoms trial was performed.

    Objective:This qualitative study explored participants’ engagement and satisfaction with the 6-month usage of the HealthyMoms app.

    Methods:A total of 19 women (mean age: 31.7, SD 4.4 years; mean BMI: 24.6, SD 3.4 kg/m2; university degree attainment: 13/19, 68%; primiparous: 11/19, 58%) who received the HealthyMoms app in a randomized controlled trial completed semistructured exit interviews. The interviews were audiorecorded and fully transcribed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach.

    Results:Thematic analysis revealed a main theme and 2 subthemes. The main theme, “One could suit many: a multifunctional tool to strengthen women’s health during pregnancy,” and the 2 subthemes, “Factors within and beyond the app influence app engagement” and “Trust, knowledge, and awareness: aspects that can motivate healthy habits,” illustrated that a trustworthy and appreciated health and pregnancy app that is easy to use can inspire a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy. The first subtheme discussed how factors within the app (eg, regular updates and feedback) were perceived to motivate both healthy habits and app engagement. Additionally, factors beyond the app were described to both motivate (eg, interest, motivation, and curiosity) and limit (eg, pregnancy-related complications, lack of time) app engagement. The second subtheme reflected important aspects, such as high trustworthiness of the app, increased knowledge, and awareness from using the app, which motivated participants to improve or maintain healthy habits during pregnancy.

    Conclusions:The HealthyMoms app was considered a valuable and trustworthy tool to mitigate excessive GWG, with useful features and relevant information to initiate and maintain healthy habits during pregnancy.

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