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  • 1.
    Freissinet, C.
    et al.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Glavin, D.P.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Miller, K.E.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    Eigenbrode, J.L.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Summons, R.E.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    Brunner, A.E.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Buch, A.
    Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés et les Matériaux, Ecole Centrale Paris.
    Szopa, C.
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Univ. Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Paris.
    Archer Jr., P.D.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Franz, H.B.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Atreya, S.K.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Brinckerhoff, E.B.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Cabane, M.
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Univ. Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Paris.
    Coll, P.
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Univ. Paris Diderot and CNRS.
    Conrad, P.G.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Marais, D.J. Des
    Exobiology Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Kalifornien.
    Dworkin, J.P.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Fairén, A.G.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    François, P.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Kashyap, S.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Kate, I.L. ten
    Earth Sciences Department, Utrecht University.
    Leshin, L.A.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science and School of Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
    Malespin, C.A.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 495-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument [Mahaffy et al., 2012] onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is designed to conduct inorganic and organic chemical analyses of the atmosphere and the surface regolith and rocks to help evaluate the past and present habitability potential of Mars at Gale Crater [Grotzinger et al., 2012]. Central to this task is the development of an inventory of any organic molecules present to elucidate processes associated with their origin, diagenesis, concentration and long-term preservation. This will guide the future search for biosignatures [Summons et al., 2011]. Here we report the definitive identification of chlorobenzene (150–300 parts per billion by weight (ppbw)) and C2 to C4 dichloroalkanes (up to 70 ppbw) with the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS), and detection of chlorobenzene in the direct evolved gas analysis (EGA) mode, in multiple portions of the fines from the Cumberland drill hole in the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay. When combined with GCMS and EGA data from multiple scooped and drilled samples, blank runs and supporting laboratory analog studies, the elevated levels of chlorobenzene and the dichloroalkanes cannot be solely explained by instrument background sources known to be present in SAM. We conclude that these chlorinated hydrocarbons are the reaction products of martian chlorine and organic carbon derived from martian sources (e.g. igneous, hydrothermal, atmospheric, or biological) or exogenous sources such as meteorites, comets or interplanetary dust particles.

  • 2.
    Guzewich, Scott D.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD.
    Newman, C. E.
    Aeolis Research, Pasadena, CA.
    Smith, M. D.
    NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD.
    Moores, J. E.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Smith, C. L.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Moore, C.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Richardson, M. I.
    Aeolis Research, Pasadena, CA.
    Kass, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Kleinböhl, A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Mischna, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Martín-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Battalio, M.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
    The Vertical Dust Profile over Gale Crater, Mars2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 122, no 12, p. 2779-2792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We create a vertically coarse, but complete, vertical profile of dust mixing ratio from the surface to the upper atmosphere over Gale Crater, Mars, using the frequent joint atmospheric observations of the orbiting Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. Using these data and an estimate of planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth from the MarsWRF general circulation model, we divide the vertical column into three regions. The first region is the Gale Crater PBL, the second is the MCS-sampled region, and the third is between these first two. We solve for a well-mixed dust mixing ratio within this third (middle) layer of atmosphere to complete the profile.

    We identify a unique seasonal cycle of dust within each atmospheric layer. Within the Gale PBL, dust mixing ratio maximizes near southern hemisphere summer solstice (Ls = 270°) and minimizes near winter solstice (Ls = 90-100°) with a smooth sinusoidal transition between them. However, the layer above Gale Crater and below the MCS-sampled region more closely follows the global opacity cycle and has a maximum in opacity near Ls = 240° and exhibits a local minimum (associated with the “solsticial pause” in dust storm activity) near Ls = 270°. With knowledge of the complete vertical dust profile, we can also assess the frequency of high-altitude dust layers over Gale. We determine that 36% of MCS profiles near Gale Crater contain an “absolute” high-altitude dust layer wherein the dust mixing ratio is the maximum in the entire vertical column.

  • 3.
    Gõmez-Elvira, Javier
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Armiens, Carlos
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Carrasco, Isaias
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Genzer, Maria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gómez, Felipe
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Haberle, Robert M.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.
    Hamilton, Victoria E.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, Osku
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Soler, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, Jesús
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Mora, Luis
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Newman, Claire E.
    Ashima Research Inc.
    De Pablo, Miguel Ángel
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares.
    Peinado, Verõnica
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Polkko, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rafkin, Scot C Randell
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO.
    Ramos, Miguel A.
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares.
    Rennó, Nilton O.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Richardson, Mark E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena, CA.
    Rodríguez Manfredi, José Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Romeral Planellõ, Julio J.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Sebastián, Eduardo M.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    De La Torre Juárez, Manuel
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Torres, Josefina
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Urquí, Roser
    Ingeniería de Sistemas Para la Defensa de España, Madrid.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Verdasca, José
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Curiosity's rover environmental monitoring station: Overview of the first 100 sols2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 7, p. 1680-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first 100 Martian solar days (sols) of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) measured the seasonally evolving diurnal cycles of ultraviolet radiation, atmospheric pressure, air temperature, ground temperature, relative humidity, and wind within Gale Crater on Mars. As an introduction to several REMS-based articles in this issue, we provide an overview of the design and performance of the REMS sensors and discuss our approach to mitigating some of the difficulties we encountered following landing, including the loss of one of the two wind sensors. We discuss the REMS data set in the context of other Mars Science Laboratory instruments and observations and describe how an enhanced observing strategy greatly increased the amount of REMS data returned in the first 100 sols, providing complete coverage of the diurnal cycle every 4 to 6 sols. Finally, we provide a brief overview of key science results from the first 100 sols. We found Gale to be very dry, never reaching saturation relative humidities, subject to larger diurnal surface pressure variations than seen by any previous lander on Mars, air temperatures consistent with model predictions and abundant short timescale variability, and surface temperatures responsive to changes in surface properties and suggestive of subsurface layering. Key Points Introduction to the REMS results on MSL mission Overiview of the sensor information Overview of operational constraints

  • 4.
    Harri, A.-M.
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Genzer, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, O.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gomez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Polkko, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Savijärvi, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rennó, N.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Richardson, M.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Siili, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Paton, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Torre-Juarez, M. De La
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Mäkinen, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rafkin, S.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Mischna, M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Merikallio, S.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Haukka, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Komu, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Vazquez, L.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Complutense University of Madrid.
    Urqui, R.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 9, p. 2132-2147, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers.

  • 5.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Newman, C.E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Moores, John E.
    Center for Research in Earth and Space Science, York University, Toronto, York University, Toronto, York University/Earth and Space Science and Engineering, North York, Ontario, York University, North York, Ontario.
    Zorzano, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Cantor, Bruce
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Valentin-Serrano, Patricia
    CSIC-UGR - Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT), Granada, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Ullán, Aurora
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Convective vortices and dust devils at the MSL landing site: annual variability2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 121, no 8, p. 1514-1549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two hundred fifty-two transient drops in atmospheric pressure, likely caused by passing convective vortices, were detected by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station instrument during the first Martian year of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed mission. These events resembled the vortex signatures detected by the previous Mars landers Pathfinder and Phoenix; however, the MSL observations contained fewer pressure drops greater than 1.5 Pa and none greater than 3.0 Pa. Apparently, these vortices were generally not lifting dust as only one probable dust devil has been observed visually by MSL. The obvious explanation for this is the smaller number of strong vortices with large central pressure drops since according to Arvidson et al. [2014] ample dust seems to be present on the surface. The annual variation in the number of detected convective vortices followed approximately the variation in Dust Devil Activity (DDA) predicted by the MarsWRF numerical climate model. This result does not prove, however, that the amount of dust lifted by dust devils would depend linearly on DDA, as is assumed in several numerical models of the Martian atmosphere, since dust devils are only the most intense fraction of all convective vortices on Mars, and the amount of dust that can be lifted by a dust devil depends on its central pressure drop. Sol-to-sol variations in the number of vortices were usually small. However, on 1 Martian solar day a sudden increase in vortex activity, related to a dust storm front, was detected. 

  • 6.
    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.
    et al.
    Wyle Science, Technology and Engineering, Houston, Texas.
    Cucinotta, Francis A.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Nounu, Hatem N.
    Wyle Science, Technology and Engineering, Houston, Texas.
    Zeitlin, Cary
    Southwest Research Institute, Durham, New Hampshire.
    Hassler, Donald M.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Rafkin, Scot C.R.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Ehresmann, Bent
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Brinza, David E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Böttcher, Stephan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Böhm, Eckart
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Burmeister, Soenke
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Guo, Jingnan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Koehler, Jan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Martin, Cesar
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Reitz, Guenther
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne.
    Posner, Arik
    NASA Headquarters, Washington.
    Gómez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Comparison of Martian surface ionizing radiation measurements from MSL-RAD with Badhwar-O'Neill 2011/HZETRN model calculations2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 1311-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dose rate measurements from Mars Science Laboratory-radiation assessment detector (MSL-RAD) for 300 sols on Mars are compared to simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill 2011 galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation is used. Daily atmospheric pressure is measured at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station. Particles impinging on top of the Martian atmosphere reach RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere that depend on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD “E” detector (used for dosimetry) by the rest of the instrument. Simulation of average dose rate is in good agreement with RAD measurements for the first 200 sols and reproduces the observed variation of surface dose rate with changing heliospheric conditions and atmospheric pressure. Model results agree less well between sols 200 and 300 due to subtleties in the changing heliospheric conditions. It also suggests that the average contributions of albedo particles (charge number Z < 3) from Martian regolith comprise about 10% and 42% of the average daily point dose and dose equivalent, respectively. Neutron contributions to tissue-averaged effective doses will be reduced compared to point dose equivalent estimates because a large portion of the neutron point dose is due to low-energy neutrons with energies

  • 7.
    Litvak, M.L.
    et al.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Mitrofanov, I.G.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Sanin, A.B.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Lisov, D.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Behar, A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Kalifornien.
    Boynton, W.V.
    University of Arizona.
    DeFlores, L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Kalifornien.
    Fedosov, F.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Golovin, D.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Hardgrove, C.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Harshman, K.
    University of Arizona.
    Jun, I.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Kalifornien.
    Kozyrev, A.S.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Kuzmin, R.O.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Malakhov, A.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Milliken, R.
    Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
    Mischna, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Kalifornien.
    Moersch, J.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Mokrousov, M.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Nikiforov, S.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Shvetsov, V.N.
    Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna.
    Stack, K.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Starr, R.
    Catholic University of America, Washington D. C..
    Tate, C.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Tret'yakov, V.I.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Local variations of bulk hydrogen and chlorine-equivalent neutron absorption content measured at the contact between the Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake units in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, using the DAN instrument onboard Curiosity2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 1259-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data gathered with the Dynamic Albedo of Neutron (DAN) instrument onboard rover Curiosity were analyzed for variations in subsurface neutron flux and tested for possible correlation with local geological context. A special DAN observation campaign was executed, in which 18 adjacent DAN active measurements were acquired every 0.75–1.0 m to search for the variations of subsurface hydrogen content along a 15 m traverse across geologic contacts between the Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake members of the Yellowknife Bay formation. It was found that several subunits in Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake could be characterized with different depth distributions of water-equivalent hydrogen (WEH) and different chlorine-equivalent abundance responsible for the distribution of neutron absorption elements. The variations of the average WEH at the top 60 cm of the subsurface are estimated at up to 2–3%. Chlorine-equivalent neutron absorption abundances ranged within 0.8–1.5%. The largest difference in WEH and chlorine-equivalent neutron absorption distribution is found between Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake.

  • 8.
    Navarro‐González, Rafael
    et al.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Navarro, Karina F.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS UMR 7583, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Créteil, France.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA.
    Stern, Jennifer C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Archer Jr, P. Douglas
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Buch, Arnaud
    Ecole Centrale Paris, Châtenay‐Malabry, France.
    Cabane, Michel
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Conrad, Pamela G
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Franz, Heather B.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Glavin, Daniel P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Hogancamp, Joanna V.
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Malespin, Charles A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC‐UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Ming, Douglas W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Morris, Richard V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Prats, Benny
    NASA/eINFORMe, Inc., Goddard Space Flight Center, Planetary Environments Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Raulin, François
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS UMR 7583, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Créteil, France.
    Rodríguez‐Manfredi, José Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (INTA‐CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Szopa, Cyril
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA‐CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Atreya, Sushil
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Trainer, Melissa G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Abiotic Input of Fixed Nitrogen by Bolide Impacts to Gale Crater During the Hesperian: Insights From the Mars Science Laboratory2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 1, p. 94-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) from volcanic emissions is suggested to warm the Martian surface when carbon dioxide (CO2) levels dropped from the Noachian (4100 to 3700 Myr) to the Hesperian (3700 to 3000 Myr). Its presence is expected to shift the conversion of molecular nitrogen (N2) into different forms of fixed nitrogen (N). Here we present experimental data and theoretical calculations that investigate the efficiency of nitrogen fixation by bolide impacts in CO2‐N2 atmospheres with or without H2. Surprisingly, nitric oxide (NO) was produced more efficiently in 20% H2 in spite of being a reducing agent and not likely to increase the rate of nitrogen oxidation. Nevertheless, its presence led to a faster cooling of the shock wave raising the freeze‐out temperature of NO resulting in an enhanced yield. We estimate that the nitrogen fixation rate by bolide impacts varied from 7 × 10−4 to 2 × 10−3 g N·Myr−1·cm−2 and could imply fluvial concentration to explain the nitrogen (1.4 ± 0.7 g N·Myr−1·cm−2) detected as nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate (NO3−) by Curiosity at Yellowknife Bay. One possible explanation is that the nitrogen detected in the lacustrine sediments at Gale was deposited entirely on the crater's surface and was subsequently dissolved and transported by superficial and ground waters to the lake during favorable wet climatic conditions. The nitrogen content sharply decreases in younger sediments of the Murray formation suggesting a decline of H2 in the atmosphere and the rise of oxidizing conditions causing a shortage in the supply to putative microbial life.

  • 9.
    Rafkin, Scot C.R.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Zeitlin, Cary
    Southwest Research Institute, Durham, New Hampshire.
    Ehresmann, Bent
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Hassler, Don
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Guo, Jingnan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Köhler, Jan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Gomez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Brinza, David E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Weigle, Gerald
    Big Head Endian, Burden, Kansas, USA.
    Böttcher, Stephan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Böhm, Eckart
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Burmeister, Söenke
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Martin, Cesar
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Reitz, Guenther
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne.
    Cucinotta, Francis A.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Kim, Myung-Hee
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas.
    Grinspoon, David
    Library of Congress, Washington, District of Columbia.
    Bullock, Mark A.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Posner, Arik
    NASA Headquarters, Washington.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Diurnal variations of energetic particle radiation at the surface of Mars as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 1345-1358, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Radiation Assessment Detector onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is detecting the energetic particle radiation at the surface of Mars. Data collected over the first 350 Martian days of the nominal surface mission show a pronounced diurnal cycle in both the total dose rate and the neutral particle count rate. The diurnal variations detected by the Radiation Assessment Detector were neither anticipated nor previously considered in the literature. These cyclic variations in dose rate and count rate are shown to be the result of changes in atmospheric column mass driven by the atmospheric thermal tide that is characterized through pressure measurements obtained by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station, also onboard the rover. In addition to bulk changes in the radiation environment, changes in atmospheric shielding forced by the thermal tide are shown to disproportionately affect heavy ions compared to H and He nuclei.

  • 10.
    Rennó, Nilton O.
    et al.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Bos, Brent J.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt.
    Catling, David C.
    dDepartment of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Clark, Benton C.
    Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO.
    Drube, Line
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Fisher, David Andrew
    Geological Survey of Canada, University of Ottawa.
    Goetz, Walter
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research.
    Hviid, Stubbe Faurschou
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Keller, Horst Uwe
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research.
    Kok, Jasper
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI .
    Kounaves, Samuel P.
    Department of Chemistry, Tufts University, Medford, MA .
    Leer, Kristoffer
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Markiewicz, Wojciech J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research.
    Marshall, John R.
    Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA .
    Mehta, Manish
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Smith, Miles P.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA .
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC, INTA, Carretera de Torrejón a Ajalvir.
    Smith, Peter H.
    Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ .
    Stoker, Carol R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA .
    Young, Suzanne M.M.
    Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH .
    Possible physical and thermodynamical evidence for liquid water at the Phoenix landing site2009In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 114, no 10, article id E00E03Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the Phoenix mission is to determine if Mars' polar region can support life. Since liquid water is a basic ingredient for life, as we know it, an important goal of the mission is to determine if liquid water exists at the landing site. It is believed that a layer of Martian soil preserves ice by forming a barrier against high temperatures and sublimation, but that exposed ice sublimates without the formation of the liquid phase. Here we show possible independent physical and thermodynamical evidence that besides ice, liquid saline water exists in areas disturbed by the Phoenix Lander. Moreover, we show that the thermodynamics of freeze-thaw cycles can lead to the formation of saline solutions with freezing temperatures lower than current summer ground temperatures on the Phoenix landing site on Mars' Arctic. Thus, we hypothesize that liquid saline water might occur where ground ice exists near the Martian surface. The ideas and results presented in this article provide significant new insights into the behavior of water on Mars.

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