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  • 1.
    Chinnery, H. E.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Granular Carbon Dioxide and Water Ices of Varying Grain Sizes on Mars2020In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 125, no 4, article id e2019JE006097Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Chinnery, H. E.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Water and Carbon Dioxide Snow, With Reference to Mars2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 337-348Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Freissinet, C.
    et al.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; NASA Postdoctoral Program, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
    Glavin, D.P.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Miller, K.E.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    Eigenbrode, J.L.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Summons, R.E.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    Brunner, A.E.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science & Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA.
    Buch, A.
    Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés et Matériaux, Ecole Centrale Paris, Châtenay-Malabry, France.
    Szopa, C.
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, and CNRS, Paris, France.
    Archer Jr., P.D.
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Franz, H.B.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science & Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Atreya, S.K.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Brinckerhoff, E.B.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Cabane, M.
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, and CNRS, Paris, France.
    Coll, P.
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Paris VII–Denis Diderot University, and CNRS, Créteil, France.
    Conrad, P.G.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Des Marais, D.J.
    Exobiology Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA.
    Dworkin, J.P.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Fairén, A.G.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA; Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    François, P.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Kashyap, S.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science & Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    ten Kate, I.L.
    Earth Sciences Department, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Leshin, L.A.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and School of Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA.
    Malespin, C.A.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; Goddard Earth Sciences and Technologies and Research, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, Maryland, USA.
    Martin, M.G.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of America, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
    Martín-Torres, F.J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    McAdam, A.C.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Ming, D.W.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Navarro-González, R.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City, Mexico.
    Pavlov, A.A.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Prats, B.D.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Squyres, S.W.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
    Steele, A.
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
    Stern, J.C.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
    Sumner, D.Y.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
    Sutter, B.
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 495-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument [Mahaffy et al., 2012] onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is designed to conduct inorganic and organic chemical analyses of the atmosphere and the surface regolith and rocks to help evaluate the past and present habitability potential of Mars at Gale Crater [Grotzinger et al., 2012]. Central to this task is the development of an inventory of any organic molecules present to elucidate processes associated with their origin, diagenesis, concentration and long-term preservation. This will guide the future search for biosignatures [Summons et al., 2011]. Here we report the definitive identification of chlorobenzene (150–300 parts per billion by weight (ppbw)) and C2 to C4 dichloroalkanes (up to 70 ppbw) with the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS), and detection of chlorobenzene in the direct evolved gas analysis (EGA) mode, in multiple portions of the fines from the Cumberland drill hole in the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay. When combined with GCMS and EGA data from multiple scooped and drilled samples, blank runs and supporting laboratory analog studies, the elevated levels of chlorobenzene and the dichloroalkanes cannot be solely explained by instrument background sources known to be present in SAM. We conclude that these chlorinated hydrocarbons are the reaction products of martian chlorine and organic carbon derived from martian sources (e.g. igneous, hydrothermal, atmospheric, or biological) or exogenous sources such as meteorites, comets or interplanetary dust particles.

  • 4.
    G. Trainer, Melissa
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Wong, Michael H.
    Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    McConnochie, Timothy H.
    University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    Franz, Heather B.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Atreya, Sushil K.
    Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, USA.
    Lefèvre, Franck
    LATMOS, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UVSQ, Paris, France.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Malespin, Charles A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Manning, Heidi L.K.
    College of Arts and Sciences, Misericordia University, Dallas, PA, USA.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC‐UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Martínez, Germán M.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, USA. Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA.
    Navarro‐González, Rafael
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico.
    Retortillo, Álvaro Vicente
    Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Webster, Christopher R.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA‐CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Seasonal Variations in Atmospheric Composition as Measured in Gale Crater, Mars2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 11, p. 3000-3024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover measures the chemical composition of major atmospheric species (CO2, N240Ar, O2, and CO) through a dedicated atmospheric inlet. We report here measurements of volume mixing ratios in Gale Crater using the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer, obtained over a period of nearly 5 years (3 Mars years) from landing. The observation period spans the northern summer of MY 31 and solar longitude (LS) of 175° through spring of MY 34, LS = 12°. This work expands upon prior reports of the mixing ratios measured by SAM QMS in the first 105 sols of the mission. The SAM QMS atmospheric measurements were taken periodically, with a cumulative coverage of four or five experiments per season on Mars. Major observations include the seasonal cycle of CO2, N2, and Ar, which lags approximately 20–40° of LS behind the pressure cycle driven by CO2 condensation and sublimation from the winter poles. This seasonal cycle indicates that transport occurs on faster timescales than mixing. The mixing ratio of O2 shows significant seasonal and interannual variability, suggesting an unknown atmospheric or surface process at work. The O2 measurements are compared to several parameters, including dust optical depth and trace CH4 measurements by Curiosity. We derive annual mean volume mixing ratios for the atmosphere in Gale Crater: CO2 = 0.951 (±0.003), N2 = 0.0259 (±0.0006), 40Ar = 0.0194 (±0.0004), O2 = 1.61 (±0.09) x 103, and CO = 5.8 (±0.8) x 104.

  • 5.
    Gebhardt, C.
    et al.
    National Space Science and Technology Center, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE.
    Abuelgasim, A.
    Department of Geography and Urban Sustainability, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE. National Space Science and Technology Center, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE.
    Fonseca, Ricardo M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Martín-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC‐INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain. School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Fully Interactive and Refined Resolution Simulations of the Martian Dust Cycle by the MarsWRF Model2020In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 125, no 9, article id e2019JE006253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MarsWRF model is set up with fully interactive dust at 5° × 5° and 2° × 2 resolution. The latter allows for a better representation of topography and other surface properties. An infinite reservoir of surface dust is assumed for both resolutions. For 5° × 5°, surface dust lifting by wind stress takes place over broad areas, occurring in about 20% of the model’s grid cells. For 2° × 2°, it is more spatially restricted, occurring in less than 5% of the grid cells, and somewhat reminiscent of the corridors Acidalia‐Chryse, Utopia‐Isidis, and Arcadia‐West of Tharsis. The onset times of major dust storms ‐ large regional storms or global dust storm events (GDEs) ‐ do not exhibit much inter‐annual variability, typically occurring at around Ls 260°. However, their magnitude does show significant inter‐annual variability ‐ with only small regional storms in some years, large regional storms in others, and some years with GDEs ‐ owing to the interaction between major dust lifting regions at low latitudes. The latter is consistent with observed GDEs having several active dust lifting centers. The model’s dust distribution is found to better agree with observation‐based albedo and dust cover index maps for the 2° × 2° run. For the latter, there is also significant surface dust lifting by wind stress in the aphelion season that is largely confined to the Hellas basin. It has a recurring time pattern of 2‐7 sols, possibly resulting from the interaction between mid‐latitude baroclinic systems and local downslope flows.

  • 6.
    Gebhardt, C.
    et al.
    United Arab Emirates University, National Space Science and Technology Center, Al Ain, UAE.
    Abuelgasim, A.
    United Arab Emirates University, Department of Geography and Urban Sustainability, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Al Ain, UAE. United Arab Emirates University, National Space Science and Technology Center, Al Ain, UAE.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Characterizing Dust‐Radiation Feedback and Refining the Horizontal Resolution of the MarsWRF Model down to 0.5 Degree2021In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 126, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, three simulations by the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) model are compared: two 10 Martian Year (MY) 2° × 2° simulations with (i) fully radiatively‐active dust and (ii) a prescribed dust scenario, and a (iii) 1 MY 0.5° × 0.5° simulation with prescribed dust as in (ii). From comparing (i) and (ii), we found that the impact of dust‐radiation feedback is individually different for any region. The most striking evidence are major dust lifting activities to the south of Chryse Planitia (S‐CP) seen in (i) but not in (ii). By contrast, dust lifting and deposition on the southern slopes and inside the Hellas Basin are similar in both simulations. The latter, in turn, points towards a similar near‐surface atmospheric circulation. In (iii), the total global amount of wind stress lifted dust is by a factor of ∼8 higher than in (ii), with S‐CP being a major lifting region as in (i). Nonetheless, the surface dust lifting by wind stress in (iii) may be also reduced regionally, as seen at the peak of Elysium Mons because of its unique topography. The zonal mean circulation in (i) is generally of a comparable strength to that in (ii), with exceptions in global dust storm years, when it is clearly stronger in (i), in line with a dustier atmosphere. The differences in the zonal mean circulation between (ii) and (iii) are mostly at lower altitudes, and may arise due to differences in the representation of the topography.

  • 7.
    Guzewich, Scott D.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD.
    Newman, C. E.
    Aeolis Research, Pasadena, CA.
    Smith, M. D.
    NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD.
    Moores, J. E.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Smith, C. L.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Moore, C.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Richardson, M. I.
    Aeolis Research, Pasadena, CA.
    Kass, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Kleinböhl, A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Mischna, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Martín-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Battalio, M.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
    The Vertical Dust Profile over Gale Crater, Mars2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 122, no 12, p. 2779-2792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We create a vertically coarse, but complete, vertical profile of dust mixing ratio from the surface to the upper atmosphere over Gale Crater, Mars, using the frequent joint atmospheric observations of the orbiting Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. Using these data and an estimate of planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth from the MarsWRF general circulation model, we divide the vertical column into three regions. The first region is the Gale Crater PBL, the second is the MCS-sampled region, and the third is between these first two. We solve for a well-mixed dust mixing ratio within this third (middle) layer of atmosphere to complete the profile.

    We identify a unique seasonal cycle of dust within each atmospheric layer. Within the Gale PBL, dust mixing ratio maximizes near southern hemisphere summer solstice (Ls = 270°) and minimizes near winter solstice (Ls = 90-100°) with a smooth sinusoidal transition between them. However, the layer above Gale Crater and below the MCS-sampled region more closely follows the global opacity cycle and has a maximum in opacity near Ls = 240° and exhibits a local minimum (associated with the “solsticial pause” in dust storm activity) near Ls = 270°. With knowledge of the complete vertical dust profile, we can also assess the frequency of high-altitude dust layers over Gale. We determine that 36% of MCS profiles near Gale Crater contain an “absolute” high-altitude dust layer wherein the dust mixing ratio is the maximum in the entire vertical column.

  • 8.
    Gõmez-Elvira, Javier
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Armiens, Carlos
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Carrasco, Isaias
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Genzer, Maria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gómez, Felipe
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Haberle, Robert M.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.
    Hamilton, Victoria E.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, Osku
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Soler, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, Jesús
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Mora, Luis
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Newman, Claire E.
    Ashima Research Inc.
    De Pablo, Miguel Ángel
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares.
    Peinado, Verõnica
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Polkko, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rafkin, Scot C Randell
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO.
    Ramos, Miguel A.
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares.
    Rennó, Nilton O.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Richardson, Mark E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena, CA.
    Rodríguez Manfredi, José Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Romeral Planellõ, Julio J.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Sebastián, Eduardo M.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    De La Torre Juárez, Manuel
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Torres, Josefina
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Urquí, Roser
    Ingeniería de Sistemas Para la Defensa de España, Madrid.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Verdasca, José
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Curiosity's rover environmental monitoring station: Overview of the first 100 sols2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 7, p. 1680-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first 100 Martian solar days (sols) of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) measured the seasonally evolving diurnal cycles of ultraviolet radiation, atmospheric pressure, air temperature, ground temperature, relative humidity, and wind within Gale Crater on Mars. As an introduction to several REMS-based articles in this issue, we provide an overview of the design and performance of the REMS sensors and discuss our approach to mitigating some of the difficulties we encountered following landing, including the loss of one of the two wind sensors. We discuss the REMS data set in the context of other Mars Science Laboratory instruments and observations and describe how an enhanced observing strategy greatly increased the amount of REMS data returned in the first 100 sols, providing complete coverage of the diurnal cycle every 4 to 6 sols. Finally, we provide a brief overview of key science results from the first 100 sols. We found Gale to be very dry, never reaching saturation relative humidities, subject to larger diurnal surface pressure variations than seen by any previous lander on Mars, air temperatures consistent with model predictions and abundant short timescale variability, and surface temperatures responsive to changes in surface properties and suggestive of subsurface layering. Key Points Introduction to the REMS results on MSL mission Overiview of the sensor information Overview of operational constraints

  • 9.
    Haberle, R. M.
    et al.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Gõmez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Juárez, M. De La Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Harri, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Hollingsworth, J. L.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Kahanpää, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Kahre, M. A.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Lemmon, M.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.
    Mischna, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Moores, J. E.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rafkin, S. C R
    Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Rennõ, N.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Richardson, M. I.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Vasavada, A. R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Zorzano-Mier, M. P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Preliminary interpretation of the REMS pressure data from the first 100 sols of the MSL mission2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 440-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a preliminary interpretation of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) pressure data from the first 100 Martian solar days (sols) of the Mars Science Laboratory mission. The pressure sensor is performing well and has revealed the existence of phenomena undetected by previous missions that include possible gravity waves excited by evening downslope flows, relatively dust-free convective vortices analogous in structure to dust devils, and signatures indicative of the circulation induced by Gale Crater and its central mound. Other more familiar phenomena are also present including the thermal tides, generated by daily insolation variations, and the CO2 cycle, driven by the condensation and sublimation of CO2 in the polar regions. The amplitude of the thermal tides is several times larger than those seen by other landers primarily because Curiosity is located where eastward and westward tidal modes constructively interfere and also because the crater circulation amplifies the tides to some extent. During the first 100 sols tidal amplitudes generally decline, which we attribute to the waning influence of the Kelvin wave. Toward the end of the 100 sol period, tidal amplitudes abruptly increased in response to a nearby regional dust storm that did not expand to global scales. Tidal phases changed abruptly during the onset of this storm suggesting a change in the interaction between eastward and westward modes. When compared to Viking Lander 2 data, the REMS daily average pressures show no evidence yet for the 1-20 Pa increase expected from the possible loss of CO 2 from the south polar residual cap. Key Points REMS pressure sensor is operating nominally New phenomena have been discovered Familiar phenomena have been detected ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  • 10.
    Hamilton, Victoria E.
    et al.
    Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Sebastián, Eduardo
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    de la Torre Juárez, Manuel
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Ramos, Miguel
    Departamento de Física y Matemática, University of Alcalá.
    Armiens, Carlos
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Arvidson, Raymond E.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis.
    Carrasco, Isaías
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Christensen, Philip R.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    De Pablo, Miguel A.
    Departamento de Geología, Geografía y Medio Ambiente, University of Alcalá.
    Goetz, Walter
    Max-Planck-Institut für Solar System Research.
    Gõmez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.
    Madsen, Morten B.
    Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Martínez-Frías, Jesús
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria.
    Molina, Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Departamento de Física y Matemática, University of Alcalá.
    Palucis, Marisa C.
    Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles.
    Rafkin, Scot C R
    Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute.
    Richardson, Mark I.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Yingst, R. Aileen
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Observations and preliminary science results from the first 100 sols of MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station ground temperature sensor measurements at Gale Crater2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 745-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe preliminary results from the first 100 sols of ground temperature measurements along the Mars Science Laboratory's traverse from Bradbury Landing to Rocknest in Gale. The ground temperature data show long-term increases in mean temperature that are consistent with seasonal evolution. Deviations from expected temperature trends within the diurnal cycle are observed and may be attributed to rover and environmental effects. Fits to measured diurnal temperature amplitudes using a thermal model suggest that the observed surfaces have thermal inertias in the range of 265-375?J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, which are within the range of values determined from orbital measurements and are consistent with the inertias predicted from the observed particle sizes on the uppermost surface near the rover. Ground temperatures at Gale Crater appear to warm earlier and cool later than predicted by the model, suggesting that there are multiple unaccounted for physical conditions or processes in our models. Where the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) descent engines removed a mobile layer of dust and fine sediments from over rockier material, the diurnal temperature profile is closer to that expected for a homogeneous surface, suggesting that the mobile materials on the uppermost surface may be partially responsible for the mismatch between observed temperatures and those predicted for materials having a single thermal inertia. Models of local stratigraphy also implicate thermophysical heterogeneity at the uppermost surface as a potential contributor to the observed diurnal temperature cycle. Key Points Diurnal ground temperatures vary with location Diurnal temperature curves are not well matched by a homogeneous thermal model GTS data are consistent with a varied stratigraphy and thermophysical properties.

  • 11.
    Harri, A.-M.
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Genzer, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, O.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gomez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Polkko, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Savijärvi, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rennó, N.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Richardson, M.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Siili, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Paton, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    De La Torre-Juarez, M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Mäkinen, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rafkin, S.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Mischna, M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Merikallio, S.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Haukka, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Komu, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Vazquez, L.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Complutense University of Madrid.
    Urqui, R.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 9, p. 2132-2147, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers.

  • 12.
    Harri, A.-M.
    et al.
    Division of Earth Observation, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, FI-00101 Finland.
    Genzer, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kemppinen, O.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kahanpää, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gomez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, Spain.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA AMES Research Center, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Polkko, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Savijärvi, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kauhanen, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Atlaskin, E.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Richardson, M.
    Ashima Research Inc., Pasadena, California, USA.
    Siili, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Paton, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    de La Torre Juarez, M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research Inc., Pasadena, California, USA.
    Rafkin, S.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
    Lemmon, M. T.
    Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.
    Mischna, M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Merikallio, S.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Haukka, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, Spain.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, Spain.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, Spain.
    Urqui, R.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, Spain.
    Lapinette, A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, Spain.
    Scodary, A.
    Ashima Research Inc., Pasadena, California, USA.
    Mäkinen, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vazquez, L.
    University of Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
    Rennõ, N.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Pressure observations by the Curiosity rover: Initial results2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    REMS-P, the pressure measurement subsystem of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Environmental Measurement Station (REMS), is performing accurate observations of the Martian atmospheric surface pressure. It has demonstrated high data quality and good temporal coverage, carrying out the first in situ pressure observations in the Martian equatorial regions. We describe the REMS-P initial results by MSL mission sol 100 including the instrument performance and data quality and illustrate some initial interpretations of the observed features. The observations show both expected and new phenomena at various spatial and temporal scales, e.g., the gradually increasing pressure due to the advancing Martian season signals from the diurnal tides as well as various local atmospheric phenomena and thermal vortices. Among the unexpected new phenomena discovered in the pressure data are a small regular pressure drop at every sol and pressure oscillations occurring in the early evening. We look forward to continued high-quality observations by REMS-P, extending the data set to reveal characteristics of seasonal variations and improved insights into regional and local phenomena. Key Points The performance and data quality of the REMS / MSL pressure observations. MSL pressure observations exhibit local phenomena of the Gale crater area. Small pressure oscillations possibly linked to gravity waves. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  • 13.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Newman, C.E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Moores, John E.
    Center for Research in Earth and Space Science, York University, Toronto, York University, Toronto, York University/Earth and Space Science and Engineering, North York, Ontario, York University, North York, Ontario.
    Zorzano, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Cantor, Bruce
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Valentin-Serrano, Patricia
    CSIC-UGR - Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT), Granada, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Ullán, Aurora
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Convective vortices and dust devils at the MSL landing site: annual variability2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 121, no 8, p. 1514-1549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two hundred fifty-two transient drops in atmospheric pressure, likely caused by passing convective vortices, were detected by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station instrument during the first Martian year of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed mission. These events resembled the vortex signatures detected by the previous Mars landers Pathfinder and Phoenix; however, the MSL observations contained fewer pressure drops greater than 1.5 Pa and none greater than 3.0 Pa. Apparently, these vortices were generally not lifting dust as only one probable dust devil has been observed visually by MSL. The obvious explanation for this is the smaller number of strong vortices with large central pressure drops since according to Arvidson et al. [2014] ample dust seems to be present on the surface. The annual variation in the number of detected convective vortices followed approximately the variation in Dust Devil Activity (DDA) predicted by the MarsWRF numerical climate model. This result does not prove, however, that the amount of dust lifted by dust devils would depend linearly on DDA, as is assumed in several numerical models of the Martian atmosphere, since dust devils are only the most intense fraction of all convective vortices on Mars, and the amount of dust that can be lifted by a dust devil depends on its central pressure drop. Sol-to-sol variations in the number of vortices were usually small. However, on 1 Martian solar day a sudden increase in vortex activity, related to a dust storm front, was detected. 

  • 14.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    et al.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Attree, N.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Bradwell, T.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Hardness and Yield Strength of CO 2 Ice Under Martian Temperature Conditions2020In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 125, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.
    et al.
    Wyle Science, Technology and Engineering, Houston, Texas.
    Cucinotta, Francis A.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Nounu, Hatem N.
    Wyle Science, Technology and Engineering, Houston, Texas.
    Zeitlin, Cary
    Southwest Research Institute, Durham, New Hampshire.
    Hassler, Donald M.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Rafkin, Scot C.R.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Ehresmann, Bent
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Brinza, David E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Böttcher, Stephan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Böhm, Eckart
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Burmeister, Soenke
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Guo, Jingnan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Koehler, Jan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Martin, Cesar
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Reitz, Guenther
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne.
    Posner, Arik
    NASA Headquarters, Washington.
    Gómez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Comparison of Martian surface ionizing radiation measurements from MSL-RAD with Badhwar-O'Neill 2011/HZETRN model calculations2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 1311-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dose rate measurements from Mars Science Laboratory-radiation assessment detector (MSL-RAD) for 300 sols on Mars are compared to simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill 2011 galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation is used. Daily atmospheric pressure is measured at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station. Particles impinging on top of the Martian atmosphere reach RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere that depend on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD “E” detector (used for dosimetry) by the rest of the instrument. Simulation of average dose rate is in good agreement with RAD measurements for the first 200 sols and reproduces the observed variation of surface dose rate with changing heliospheric conditions and atmospheric pressure. Model results agree less well between sols 200 and 300 due to subtleties in the changing heliospheric conditions. It also suggests that the average contributions of albedo particles (charge number Z < 3) from Martian regolith comprise about 10% and 42% of the average daily point dose and dose equivalent, respectively. Neutron contributions to tissue-averaged effective doses will be reduced compared to point dose equivalent estimates because a large portion of the neutron point dose is due to low-energy neutrons with energies

  • 16.
    Litvak, M.L.
    et al.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Mitrofanov, I.G.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Sanin, A.B.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Lisov, D.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Behar, A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Boynton, W.V.
    University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
    DeFlores, L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Fedosov, F.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Golovin, D.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Hardgrove, C.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.
    Harshman, K.
    University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
    Jun, I.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Kozyrev, A.S.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Kuzmin, R.O.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia; Vernadsky Institute for Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow, Russia.
    Malakhov, A.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Milliken, R.
    Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
    Mischna, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Moersch, J.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.
    Mokrousov, M.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Nikiforov, S.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Shvetsov, V.N.
    Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia.
    Stack, K.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States.
    Starr, R.
    Catholic University of America, Washington D. C., Washington, USA.
    Tate, C.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.
    Tret'yakov, V.I.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Vostrukhin, A.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Local variations of bulk hydrogen and chlorine-equivalent neutron absorption content measured at the contact between the Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake units in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, using the DAN instrument onboard Curiosity2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 1259-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data gathered with the Dynamic Albedo of Neutron (DAN) instrument onboard rover Curiosity were analyzed for variations in subsurface neutron flux and tested for possible correlation with local geological context. A special DAN observation campaign was executed, in which 18 adjacent DAN active measurements were acquired every 0.75–1.0 m to search for the variations of subsurface hydrogen content along a 15 m traverse across geologic contacts between the Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake members of the Yellowknife Bay formation. It was found that several subunits in Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake could be characterized with different depth distributions of water-equivalent hydrogen (WEH) and different chlorine-equivalent abundance responsible for the distribution of neutron absorption elements. The variations of the average WEH at the top 60 cm of the subsurface are estimated at up to 2–3%. Chlorine-equivalent neutron absorption abundances ranged within 0.8–1.5%. The largest difference in WEH and chlorine-equivalent neutron absorption distribution is found between Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake.

  • 17.
    Navarro‐González, Rafael
    et al.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Navarro, Karina F.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS UMR 7583, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Créteil, France.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA.
    Stern, Jennifer C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Archer Jr, P. Douglas
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Buch, Arnaud
    Ecole Centrale Paris, Châtenay‐Malabry, France.
    Cabane, Michel
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Conrad, Pamela G
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Franz, Heather B.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Glavin, Daniel P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Hogancamp, Joanna V.
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Malespin, Charles A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Ming, Douglas W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Morris, Richard V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Prats, Benny
    NASA/eINFORMe, Inc., Goddard Space Flight Center, Planetary Environments Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Raulin, François
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS UMR 7583, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Créteil, France.
    Rodríguez‐Manfredi, José Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Szopa, Cyril
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Atreya, Sushil
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Trainer, Melissa G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Abiotic Input of Fixed Nitrogen by Bolide Impacts to Gale Crater During the Hesperian: Insights From the Mars Science Laboratory2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 1, p. 94-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) from volcanic emissions is suggested to warm the Martian surface when carbon dioxide (CO2) levels dropped from the Noachian (4100 to 3700 Myr) to the Hesperian (3700 to 3000 Myr). Its presence is expected to shift the conversion of molecular nitrogen (N2) into different forms of fixed nitrogen (N). Here we present experimental data and theoretical calculations that investigate the efficiency of nitrogen fixation by bolide impacts in CO2‐N2 atmospheres with or without H2. Surprisingly, nitric oxide (NO) was produced more efficiently in 20% H2 in spite of being a reducing agent and not likely to increase the rate of nitrogen oxidation. Nevertheless, its presence led to a faster cooling of the shock wave raising the freeze‐out temperature of NO resulting in an enhanced yield. We estimate that the nitrogen fixation rate by bolide impacts varied from 7 × 10−4 to 2 × 10−3 g N·Myr−1·cm−2 and could imply fluvial concentration to explain the nitrogen (1.4 ± 0.7 g N·Myr−1·cm−2) detected as nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate (NO3−) by Curiosity at Yellowknife Bay. One possible explanation is that the nitrogen detected in the lacustrine sediments at Gale was deposited entirely on the crater's surface and was subsequently dissolved and transported by superficial and ground waters to the lake during favorable wet climatic conditions. The nitrogen content sharply decreases in younger sediments of the Murray formation suggesting a decline of H2 in the atmosphere and the rise of oxidizing conditions causing a shortage in the supply to putative microbial life.

  • 18.
    Rafkin, Scot C.R.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Zeitlin, Cary
    Southwest Research Institute, Durham, New Hampshire.
    Ehresmann, Bent
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Hassler, Don
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Guo, Jingnan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Köhler, Jan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Gomez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Brinza, David E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Weigle, Gerald
    Big Head Endian, Burden, Kansas, USA.
    Böttcher, Stephan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Böhm, Eckart
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Burmeister, Söenke
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Martin, Cesar
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Reitz, Guenther
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne.
    Cucinotta, Francis A.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Kim, Myung-Hee
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas.
    Grinspoon, David
    Library of Congress, Washington, District of Columbia.
    Bullock, Mark A.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Posner, Arik
    NASA Headquarters, Washington.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Diurnal variations of energetic particle radiation at the surface of Mars as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 1345-1358, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Radiation Assessment Detector onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is detecting the energetic particle radiation at the surface of Mars. Data collected over the first 350 Martian days of the nominal surface mission show a pronounced diurnal cycle in both the total dose rate and the neutral particle count rate. The diurnal variations detected by the Radiation Assessment Detector were neither anticipated nor previously considered in the literature. These cyclic variations in dose rate and count rate are shown to be the result of changes in atmospheric column mass driven by the atmospheric thermal tide that is characterized through pressure measurements obtained by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station, also onboard the rover. In addition to bulk changes in the radiation environment, changes in atmospheric shielding forced by the thermal tide are shown to disproportionately affect heavy ions compared to H and He nuclei.

  • 19.
    Rennó, Nilton O.
    et al.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Bos, Brent J.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt.
    Catling, David C.
    dDepartment of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Clark, Benton C.
    Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO.
    Drube, Line
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Fisher, David Andrew
    Geological Survey of Canada, University of Ottawa.
    Goetz, Walter
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research.
    Hviid, Stubbe Faurschou
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Keller, Horst Uwe
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research.
    Kok, Jasper
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI .
    Kounaves, Samuel P.
    Department of Chemistry, Tufts University, Medford, MA .
    Leer, Kristoffer
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Markiewicz, Wojciech J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research.
    Marshall, John R.
    Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA .
    Mehta, Manish
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Smith, Miles P.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA .
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC, INTA, Carretera de Torrejón a Ajalvir.
    Smith, Peter H.
    Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ .
    Stoker, Carol R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA .
    Young, Suzanne M.M.
    Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH .
    Possible physical and thermodynamical evidence for liquid water at the Phoenix landing site2009In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 114, no 10, article id E00E03Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the Phoenix mission is to determine if Mars' polar region can support life. Since liquid water is a basic ingredient for life, as we know it, an important goal of the mission is to determine if liquid water exists at the landing site. It is believed that a layer of Martian soil preserves ice by forming a barrier against high temperatures and sublimation, but that exposed ice sublimates without the formation of the liquid phase. Here we show possible independent physical and thermodynamical evidence that besides ice, liquid saline water exists in areas disturbed by the Phoenix Lander. Moreover, we show that the thermodynamics of freeze-thaw cycles can lead to the formation of saline solutions with freezing temperatures lower than current summer ground temperatures on the Phoenix landing site on Mars' Arctic. Thus, we hypothesize that liquid saline water might occur where ground ice exists near the Martian surface. The ideas and results presented in this article provide significant new insights into the behavior of water on Mars.

  • 20.
    Xiao, Haifeng
    et al.
    Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Stark, Alexander
    Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Berlin, Germany.
    Schmidt, Frédéric
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, GEOPS, Orsay, France; Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), Paris, France.
    Hao, Jingyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Steinbrügge, Gregor
    Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Wagner, Nicholas L.
    Department of Geosciences, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA.
    Su, Shu
    Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Cheng, Yuan
    College of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Oberst, Jürgen
    Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Spatio-Temporal Level Variations of the Martian Seasonal North Polar Cap From Co-Registration of MOLA Profiles2022In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 127, no 10, article id e2021JE007158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal deposition and sublimation of CO2 constitute a major element in Martian volatile cycles. We reprocess the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data and apply co-registration procedures to obtain spatio-temporal variations in levels of the Seasonal North Polar Cap (SNPC). The maximum level over the Residual North Polar Cap (RNPC) is 1.3 m, approximately half of that at the south pole (2.5 m). However, the maximum level in the dune fields at Olympia Undae can be up to 3.8 m. Furthermore, off-season decreases up to 3 m during the northern winter at Olympia Undae are observed. These are likely due to metamorphism effects accentuated by the reduced snowfall at this period. Meanwhile, off-season increases of up to 2 m during the northern spring are noted, the cause of which remains to be explored. The volume of the SNPC peaks at the end of northern winter and is estimated to be approximately 9.6 × 1012 m3, which is 2% more than that of the Seasonal South Polar Cap. The bulk density of the SNPC can go through phased decreases in accordance with phased accumulation at northern high-latitudes. These findings can put important constraints on the Martian volatile cycling models.

  • 21.
    Xiao, Haifeng
    et al.
    Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Stark, Alexander
    Institute of Planetary Research German Aerospace Center (DLR), Berlin, Germany.
    Schmidt, Frédéric
    CNRS, GEOPS, Université Paris‐Saclay, Orsay, France; Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), Paris, France.
    Hao, Jingyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Su, Shu
    Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Steinbrügge, Gregor
    Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.
    Oberst, Jürgen
    Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Spatio‐temporal level variations of the Martian Seasonal South Polar Cap from co‐registration of MOLA profiles2022In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 127, no 7, article id e2022JE007196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal deposition and sublimation of CO2 represents a major element in the Martian volatile cycle. Here, co-registration strategies are applied to Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) profiles to obtain spatio-temporal variations in snow/ice level of the Seasonal South Polar Cap (SSPC), in grid elements of 0.5° in latitude from 60°S to 87°S and 10° in longitude. The maximum snow/ice level in the range of 2 m to 2.5 m is observed over the Residual South Polar Cap. Peak level at the Residual South Polar Cap in Martian Year 25 (MY25) are found to be typically ∼0.5 m higher than those in MY24. The total volume is estimated to peak at approximately 9.4× 1012 m3. In addition, a map of average bulk density of the SSPC during its recession is derived. It implies much more snowfall-like precipitation at the Residual South Polar Cap and its surroundings than elsewhere on Mars.

1 - 21 of 21
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