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  • 1. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) in landfill research1998In: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA), a new statistical approach in terms of landfill research, was performed at the evaluation of data sets from three investigations. The interrelationships among variables as well as variation between observations could be examined. Causal relations between experimental factors and response variables have been identified using scatterpott interpretation. The ease of using MVDA at data evaluation is proved. MVDA techniques as follows were applied: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares modelling (PLS) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

  • 2.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    et al.
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Evaluation of acid extraction methods used for the metal content analysis of bottom ash and slag from electric arc vitrification2003In: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 223-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation was to find the most reliable acid extraction method for the determination of the total metal content in a waste sample. Samples of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator and slag generated by electric arc vitrification of the bottom ash were investigated. Acid extraction methods were applied using the reagents nitric acid, aqua regia, hydrofluoric acid and a combination of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. Another experimental variation was whether the sample was milled prior to extraction or not. Extractants were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The data were evaluated statistically including both Welch's equality test and partial least square analysis. The main conclusion was that bottom ash was most completely decomposed by milling followed by treatment with aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. For slag, this method was only superior with respect to the extraction of Pb and Cd. Another observation was that electric arc vitrification causes the removal of Zn, Cd and Pb which was probably due to evaporation.

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