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  • 1.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Prikryl, Richard
    Institute of Geochemistry, Charles University, Prague.
    Weishauptová, Zuzana
    Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague.
    Xiaodong, Liu
    East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, Jiangxi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Role of clay microstructure in expandable buffer clay2012Inngår i: Journal of Purity, Utility Reaction and Environment, ISSN 2232-1179, Vol. 1, nr 6, s. 267-292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smectite-rich clay is a major engineered barrier (buffer) in repositories for heat-producing highly radioactive waste. It has the form of densely compacted blocks of clay granules and is only partly water saturated from start. The initial porewater is redistributed by the thermal gradient acting in the buffer and additional water is taken up to give ultimately complete saturation. The compaction of blocks gives a stochastic distribution of dense and less dense clay grains of different size and the initially heterogeneous microstructure is partly preserved in the fully hydrated buffer. Thus, local softer zones combine to create channel flow under hydraulic gradients and they can be permanent by precipitation of cementing agents caused by salt in the porewater and by partial dissolution of the smectite particles. A fundamental question is how one can characterize the channels and quantify their hydraulic performance. This has been answered by using different techniques in the present study, including optical and electron-optical microscopy and gas adsorption. Interpretation of oedometer tests with freshly prepared and hydrothermally treated smectite samples has revealed that permeation of dense buffer clay primarily takes place through a network of channels that represent up a few percent of the entire cross section. Hydrothermal treatment in the early period of maturation of the buffer widens flow paths and increase the bulk conductivity, and precipitation of cementing silicious compounds causes stiffening and prevents expanded voids to close.

  • 2.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rain water harvesting and supplemental irrigation at northern Sinjar mountain, Iraq2012Inngår i: Journal of Purity, Utility Reaction and Environment, ISSN 2232-1179, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 121-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing water shortages and the problem is becoming more serious with time. Despite this fact, none of the farmers had used Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) technique yet. The main aim of this research is to contribute to solving the problem of water shortage of Iraq by finding effective results in terms of saving significant runoff water for irrigation purposes. Macro RWH was applied at Northern Sinjar Mountain in Iraq, where macro is indicator for large catchment area. Runoff volume was determined by applying the watershed modeling system (WMS) for six selected basins with total area of 614.19km2 for the study period of (1990-2009). The volume of harvested water ranged (0.6-42.4) × 106 m3 for all six basins together for the study period. A linear programming technique was adopted to optimize the irrigated area for three scenarios of irrigation, 1/ supplemental irrigation (SI) 100%, 2/ deficit irrigation (DI) 50%, 3/ deficit irrigation (DI) 25% of full irrigation requirements. The results of calculation of irrigated area ranged between 14.5-3663.7 for SI 100%, 33.0-39827.1 for DI 50%, and 20.1-7314.0 for DI 25% hectares respectively. These results reflect useful value of RWH and its influence to increase the irrigated area in the studied region.

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