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  • 1.
    Cockell, Charles S.
    et al.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    McMahon, Sean
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Lim, Darlene S.S.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, USA.
    Rummel, John
    SETI Institute, Friday Harbor, USA.
    Stevens, Adam
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Hughes, Scott S.
    Dept. of Geosciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, USA.
    Nawotniak, Shannon E. Kobs
    Dept. of Geosciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, USA.
    Brady, Allyson L.
    School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Marteinsson, Viggo
    School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh, UK. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Harrison, Jesse
    Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Sample Collection and Return from Mars: Optimising Sample Collection Based on the Microbial Ecology of Terrestrial Volcanic Environments2019In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 215, no 7, article id 44Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With no large-scale granitic continental crust, all environments on Mars are fundamentally derived from basaltic sources or, in the case of environments such as ices, evaporitic, and sedimentary deposits, influenced by the composition of the volcanic crust. Therefore, the selection of samples on Mars by robots and humans for investigating habitability or testing for the presence of life should be guided by our understanding of the microbial ecology of volcanic terrains on the Earth. In this paper, we discuss the microbial ecology of volcanic rocks and hydrothermal systems on the Earth. We draw on microbiological investigations of volcanic environments accomplished both by microbiology-focused studies and Mars analog studies such as the NASA BASALT project. A synthesis of these data emphasises a number of common patterns that include: (1) the heterogeneous distribution of biomass and diversity in all studied materials, (2) physical, chemical, and biological factors that can cause heterogeneous microbial biomass and diversity from sub-millimetre scales to kilometre scales, (3) the difficulty of a priori prediction of which organisms will colonise given materials, and (4) the potential for samples that are habitable, but contain no evidence of a biota. From these observations, we suggest an idealised strategy for sample collection. It includes: (1) collection of multiple samples in any given material type (∼9 or more samples), (2) collection of a coherent sample of sufficient size (∼10 cm3∼10 cm3) that takes into account observed heterogeneities in microbial distribution in these materials on Earth, and (3) collection of multiple sample suites in the same material across large spatial scales. We suggest that a microbial ecology-driven strategy for investigating the habitability and presence of life on Mars is likely to yield the most promising sample set of the greatest use to the largest number of astrobiologists and planetary scientists.

  • 2.
    Gómez-Elvira, J.
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Armiens, C.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Castañer, L.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Domínguez, M.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Genzer, M.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Gómez, F.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Harri, A. M.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Jiménez, V.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Kahanpää, H.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Kowalski, L.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Lepinette, A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martín, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    McEwan, I.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Mora, L.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Moreno, J.
    EADS-CRISA.
    Navarro, S.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Pablo, M. A. De
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Peña, A.
    EADS-CRISA.
    Polkko, J.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Ramos, M.
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.
    Renno, N. O.
    Michigan University.
    Ricart, J.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    REMS: The environmental sensor suite for the Mars Science Laboratory rover2012In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 170, no 1-4, p. 583-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) will investigate environmental factors directly tied to current habitability at the Martian surface during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Three major habitability factors are addressed by REMS: the thermal environment, ultraviolet irradiation, and water cycling. The thermal environment is determined by a mixture of processes, chief amongst these being the meteorological. Accordingly, the REMS sensors have been designed to record air and ground temperatures, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as ultraviolet radiation in different bands. These sensors are distributed over the rover in four places: two booms located on the MSL Remote Sensing Mast, the ultraviolet sensor on the rover deck, and the pressure sensor inside the rover body. Typical daily REMS observations will collect 180 minutes of data from all sensors simultaneously (arranged in 5 minute hourly samples plus 60 additional minutes taken at times to be decided during the course of the mission). REMS will add significantly to the environmental record collected by prior missions through the range of simultaneous observations including water vapor; the ability to take measurements routinely through the night; the intended minimum of one Martian year of observations; and the first measurement of surface UV irradiation. In this paper, we describe the scientific potential of REMS measurements and describe in detail the sensors that constitute REMS and the calibration procedures. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 3.
    Korablev, O.
    et al.
    Space Research Institute (IKI)MoscowRussia.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR)GranadaSpain.
    Zorzano, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de AstrobiologíaINTA-CSICMadridSpain.
    The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) of Three Spectrometers for the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter2018In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 247, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) package is an element of the Russian contribution to the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission. ACS consists of three separate infrared spectrometers, sharing common mechanical, electrical, and thermal interfaces. This ensemble of spectrometers has been designed and developed in response to the Trace Gas Orbiter mission objectives that specifically address the requirement of high sensitivity instruments to enable the unambiguous detection of trace gases of potential geophysical or biological interest. For this reason, ACS embarks a set of instruments achieving simultaneously very high accuracy (ppt level), very high resolving power (>10,000) and large spectral coverage (0.7 to 17 μm—the visible to thermal infrared range). The near-infrared (NIR) channel is a versatile spectrometer covering the 0.7–1.6 μm spectral range with a resolving power of ∼20,000. NIR employs the combination of an echelle grating with an AOTF (Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter) as diffraction order selector. This channel will be mainly operated in solar occultation and nadir, and can also perform limb observations. The scientific goals of NIR are the measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and dayside or night side airglows. The mid-infrared (MIR) channel is a cross-dispersion echelle instrument dedicated to solar occultation measurements in the 2.2–4.4 μm range. MIR achieves a resolving power of >50,000. It has been designed to accomplish the most sensitive measurements ever of the trace gases present in the Martian atmosphere. The thermal-infrared channel (TIRVIM) is a 2-inch double pendulum Fourier-transform spectrometer encompassing the spectral range of 1.7–17 μm with apodized resolution varying from 0.2 to 1.3 cm−1. TIRVIM is primarily dedicated to profiling temperature from the surface up to ∼60 km and to monitor aerosol abundance in nadir. TIRVIM also has a limb and solar occultation capability. The technical concept of the instrument, its accommodation on the spacecraft, the optical designs as well as some of the calibrations, and the expected performances for its three channels are described.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, H.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Carlsson, Ella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gunell, H.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Futaana, Y.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Barabash, Stas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Lundin, R.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Fedorov, A.
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse.
    Soobiah, Y.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Imperial College.
    Coates, A.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Imperial College.
    Fränz, M.
    MPI für Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenberg-Lindau.
    Roussos, E.
    MPI für Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenberg-Lindau.
    Investigation of the influence of magnetic anomalies on ion distributions at Mars2006In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 126, no 1-4, p. 355-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from the Mars Express Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) we investigate the distribution of ion beams of planetary origin and search for an influence from Mars crustal magnetic anomalies. We have concentrated on ion beams observed inside the induced magnetosphere boundary (magnetic pile-up boundary). Some north-south asymmetry is seen in the data, but no longitudinal structure resembling that of the crustal anomalies. Comparing the occurrence rate of ion beams with magnetic field strength at 400 km altitude below the spacecraft (using statistical Mars Global Surveyor results) shows a decrease of the occurrence rate for modest (< 40 nT) magnetic fields. Higher magnetic field regions (above 40 nT at 400 km) are sampled so seldom that the statistics are poor but the data is consistent with some ion outflow events being closely associated with the stronger anomalies. This ion flow does not significantly affect the overall distribution of ion beams around Mars.

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