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  • 1.
    Almer, J
    et al.
    Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne.
    Odén, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Håkansson, G
    Bodycote Värmebehandling AB.
    Microstructure and thermal stability of arc-evaporated Cr-C-N coatings2004In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 84, no 7, p. 611-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of C incorporation in the microstructure and thermal stability of arc-evaporated Cr-C-N coatings is explored via reactive growth in a mixed C2H4-N2 environment. C is found to react more readily than N at both the Cr cathode and the coating surfaces, so that a C2H4-to-N2 flow ratio of only 1% yields a C-to-N ratio of approximately 10% within the coatings. The as-deposited microstructures consist primarily of the δ-Cr(C, N) phase and possess high compressive residual stresses, which decrease with increasing C content. Post-deposition annealing up to 700°C results in depletion of lattice defects, and concomitant reductions in stress and coating hardness, together with phase transformations which suggest metastable phase formation during growth. Apparent activation energies for this lattice defect are found to be in the range expected for bulk diffusion of N and C (2.4-2.8 eV). The results suggest that inclusion of small amounts of C in this system offers the ability to reduce internal stresses while maintaining defect-related hardness increases, permitting growth of thicker and thus more wear-resistant coatings.

  • 2.
    Bangert, U.
    et al.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Barnes, R.
    Lunar & Planetary Lab., Arizona University, Tucson.
    Hounsome, L.S.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Jones, R.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Blumenau, A.T.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Natural Science, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Shaw, M.J.
    School of Natural Science, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Electron energy loss spectroscopic studies of brown diamonds2006In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 86, no 29-31, p. 4757-4779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate both experimentally and theoretically, low-loss electron energy losses in brown type IIa monocrystalline diamonds both before and after high-temperature, high-pressure anneals which remove the brown colouration. We find additional losses within and near the band edge for brown diamond which are significantly reduced after treatment. The additional losses are not associated with dislocations. Graphitic inclusions are detected by EELS as well as TEM studies for some brown diamonds before treatment. These lead to pronounced subgap absorption. However, all brown diamonds exhibit additional losses which are due to point defects lying in the regions between dislocations. First principles theoretical modelling shows that common dislocations are not responsible for the brown colouration but a -bonded vacancy disk lying on {111} planes gives broad bands lying in the diamond band gap, possesses an optical absorption spectrum similar to that of brown diamond, and leads to additional electron energy losses in the band edge region. These and similar defects are suggested to be responsible for the brown colouration. Mechanisms are proposed for their formation and removal.

  • 3.
    Chernogorova, Olga P.
    et al.
    Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, Moscow.
    Drozdova, Ekaterina I.
    Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, Moscow.
    Ushakova, Iraida N.
    Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, Moscow.
    Bulychev, S.I.
    Moscow State Industrial University, Moscow.
    Ekimov, E.A.
    Vereshchagin Institute for High Pressure Physics HPPI RAS, Troitsk, Moscow.
    Benavides, Vicente
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Soldatov, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Indentation behaviour of superelastic hard carbon2016In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 96, no 32-34, p. 3451-3460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superelastic hard carbon particles widely varying in structure andproperties have been studied by instrumented microindentationtechnique. The carbon particles up to 200 μm in size were producedby fullerene collapse upon high-pressure high-temperature treatmentof metal–fullerene powder mixture with simultaneous sintering ofmetal matrix composite materials (CM) reinforced by the particles.The structure and properties of the carbon particles were controlledby changing synthesis parameters and the state (composition andstructure) of the parent fullerite crystals. The specific features of theinstrumented indentation behaviour of the particles were studied asa function of their hardness. Mechanical properties of the particlestested at loads of up to 1970 mN exhibit an indentation size effect,which becomes more pronounced with increasing hardness of thecarbon particles. Upon holding at a constant load, the fullerenederivedcarbon particles undergo unrecoverable deformation, and theindentation creep CIT increases with increasing particle hardness. Anincrease in hardness of the reinforcing carbon particles substantiallyimproves the wear resistance of the CM and decreases their frictioncoefficient.

  • 4.
    Etz, Corina
    et al.
    Center for Computational Materials Science, Vienna University of Technology.
    Vernes, Andras
    Vienna University of Technology, Center for Computational Materials Science, Vienna University of Technology.
    Weinberger, Peter
    Vienna University of Technology, Center for Computational Materials Science, Vienna University of Technology.
    ROTMOKE: An assessment of macroscopic models for bcc Ni/Ni(100)2008In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 88, no 18-20, p. 2765-2775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab-initio Kerr angles for a multilayer system were calculated by means of Luttinger's formalism within the spin-polarized relativistic screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method by including all multiple reflections and optical interferences via the 2 2 matrix technique. Two further macroscopic models are suggested for a multilayer system; i.e., the two-media approach and the three-media approach. The Kerr angles obtained using the two-media approach show that 75 % of the Kerr rotation angles arise from surface contributions when compared to the 2 2 matrix approach. Furthermore, by comparing the three-media approach to the 2 2 matrix technique it is found that almost 25 % of the Kerr rotation angles are due to interfaces between the atomic layers

  • 5. Talreja, Ramesh
    On multi-scale approaches to composites and heterogeneous solids with damage2010In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 90, no 31-32, p. 4333-4348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The explosive increase in computational power and the paradigm of computer-based engineering practice have prompted analyses that claim to carry knowledge of material physics at small scales to the performance observed at the structural level. This hierarchical multi-scale approach has logical appeal and some mathematical formulation to support it for heterogeneous solids. However, when such solids suffer damage in the form of multiple cracks, the length scale hierarchy is no longer fixed or simple. Connecting multiple scales is then a challenge that needs addressing for given material systems, such as composite laminates, accounting for the pertinent damage. This paper describes damage in fiber-reinforced composites, illustrating the characteristic length scales of damage and their relationship with the fixed scales of heterogeneities. Hierarchical versus top-down approaches are discussed and a case is made for the so-called synergistic approach that combines continuum damage mechanics and micro-damage mechanics

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