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  • 1.
    Bauer, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Conrad, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Geochemistry of tungsten and molybdenum during freshwater transport and estuarine mixing2018In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 93, p. 36-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geochemistry of tungsten (W) in the environment is poorly studied. Tungsten usually occurs in low concentrations in natural waters and is not very mobile. For this study, we analyzed W together with molybdenum (Mo) in the dissolved and particulate fractions of two boreal estuaries during different seasons. Additionally, we sampled first-order streams that drain different landscape types and the receiving northern Baltic Sea. Furthermore, surface sediment from the estuaries was analyzed to obtain a comprehensive overview of the distribution of W and Mo in a boreal environment.

    Both elements showed different distribution patterns during different seasons. While they decreased in the dissolved fraction during spring discharge, in winter, their concentrations were elevated. Molybdenum exhibited non-conservative behavior along the salinity gradient in winter, which was probably caused by its release from underlying sediments. In the particulate fraction, we found opposite behaviors for Mo and W, with higher particulate W and lower particulate Mo during spring discharge.

    Molybdenum and W underwent fractionation from land to sea, indicating the different mobilities of these oxyanions. The Mo/W ratio in the dissolved fraction was mainly determined by the Mo concentration, as the W concentration varied only in a narrow range from first-order streams to the Bothnian Bay. In the particulate fraction, the Mo/W ratio appeared to be affected by scavenging processes and showed only small variations.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Holmström, Henning
    Envipro Miljöteknik AB, Linköping.
    Geochemistry of the infiltrating water in the vadose zone of a remediated tailings impoundment, Kristineberg, northern Sweden2003In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 659-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the remediated tailings Impoundment 1 at Kristineberg, Northern Sweden, installations of tension lysimeters were performed in the protective cover (10, 50, and 100 cm), in the oxidised tailings (150 cm), in the unoxidised secondarily enriched tailings (200 cm) and in the unoxidised tailings (260 cm). The lysimeters in the till protective cover contained relatively low concentrations of most elements. After infiltration through the sealing layer, consisting of 0.3 m compacted clayey till, pH decreased and conductivity, together with the concentrations of several major and trace elements, increased significantly. In the lysimeters installed in the tailings at depths of 150 and 200 cm average pH decreased to 3.4 at 150 cm and 3.2 at 200 and average conductivity increased to 2.9 mS/cm. Elements such as Al, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni,Pb, S, Si and Zn had the highest concentrations in the lysimeter at 200 cm depth. Examples of concentration averages for this lysimeter are Cd 600 μg/L, Fe 1500 mg/L, Mn 11 mg/L, Ni 1.06 μg/L, S 1800 mg/L, and Zn 190 mg/L. Between the depths of 200 and 260 cm the concentration of most elements decreased. The increase between the lysimeters at the depths of 150 and 200 cm can be explained by remobilization of secondarily retained oxidation products as well as from the continued oxidation. The decrease between the second and the third lysimeters is interpreted as co-precipitation with different Fe oxyhydroxides as well as adsorption onto secondarily formed minerals and primary mineral surfaces. Calculations of saturation indices indicate that several different hydroxides might precipitate at this level. This retainment takes place mainly due to the increase in pH. The pH increases from 3.2 up to 4-4.4 in this depth interval. Between the deepest lysimeter and the groundwater table, the element concentrations probably decrease even further. pH increases to 5-6.5 in the groundwater. Most of the pre-remediation oxidation products that are secondarily retained above or below the oxidation front and are released by the small amount of infiltrating water together with the present oxidation products are retained again during continued transport downwards. If the depth to the groundwater table is large enough, most of the metals released by the infiltrating water and the diffusing O2 do not reach the groundwater.

  • 3.
    Chlot, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Husson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effects on nutrient regime in two recipients of nitrogen-rich mine effluents in northern Sweden2013In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 31, p. 12-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of the limiting nutrient(s) for production of phytoplankton and macrophytes was explored in two contrasting freshwater systems receiving N- and P-rich mine effluents from the Boliden and Kiruna mine sites, northern Sweden. For both sites, total N (TN), total P (TP) and TN:TP mass ratios in water, sediment and macrophytes were used to examine (1) spatial variations within the systems, (2) differences between the systems and (3) seasonal variations. The TN concentration from the discharge point at the Kiruna site was about seven times higher than at the Boliden discharge point, while the TP concentration was 10 times lower than in the discharge point at the Boliden site. The majority of the studied lakes showed elevated biomass of phytoplankton, with maximum values found in Lake Bruträsket (Boliden). Mining activities have affected the nutrient regime of the two recipients by contributing to elevated TN and TP concentrations and TN:TP mass ratios as well as elevated production of phytoplankton and macrophytes compared to the reference sites. Depending on the NH4 concentration in the effluent at the Boliden site, water column TN:TP mass ratios shifted from being >22, indicating P-deficiency, to between 9 and 22, indicating a transition from N- to P-deficiency (co-limitation). However, water column TN:TP mass ratios at the Kiruna site always indicated P-deficiency, while TN:TP mass ratios of macrophytes indicate that both sites may vary from N- to P-limitation. The study suggests that for the design of efficient monitoring programmes and remediation measures, it is important to consider the major N and P species in water, phytoplankton, sediment and macrophytes.

  • 4.
    Herzog, Simon D.
    et al.
    Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Conrad, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Persson, Per
    Centre for Environmental and Climate Research & Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Department of Biology/Aquatic Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Spring flood induced shifts in Fe speciation and fate at increased salinity2019In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 109, article id 104385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers have traditionally been viewed as negligible sources of iron (Fe) to marine waters, as most Fe gets lost during estuarine mixing. However, recent findings demonstrate that Fe from boreal rivers display a higher resistance towards salinity-induced aggregation, presumably due to stabilizing interactions with organic matter. Previous studies have shown that Fe (oxy)hydroxides are selectively removed by aggregation processes, and that organic Fe complexes are less affected by increasing salinity. It has been further proposed that Fe speciation varies in response to seasonal differences in hydrology. In this study X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine the temporal variation in Fe speciation and the connection to Fe stability in response to increasing salinity in two boreal rivers (Kalix and Råne River), with the purpose to better understand the fate of riverine Fe export. Sampling was done from winter pre-flood, over the spring flood, to post-flood conditions (early April until mid June). In addition, parallel analyses for Fe speciation and isotope composition (δ56Fe relative to IRMM-14) were made on river samples, as well as salinity-induced aggregates and the fraction remaining in suspension, with the main objective to test if δ56Fe reflect the speciation of Fe.

    The contribution of organically complexed Fe increased during spring flood compared to the pre- and post-flood, as did Fe transport capacity. However, since Fe (oxy)hydroxides were dominating throughout the sampling period, the seasonal variability was small. Interestingly, salinity-induced aggregation experiments revealed that Fe (oxy)hydroxides, which dominated aggregates, displayed lower δ56Fe than in the river samples Fe, while organic Fe complexes in suspension had higher δ56Fe values. The seasonal variability in Fe isotope signature could not be simply linked to Fe speciation, but was probably also influenced by variation in source areas of Fe and processes along the flow-path that alter both Fe speciation and isotopic composition.

  • 5.
    Holmström, Henning
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Oxygen penetration and subsequent reactions in flooded sulphidic mine tailings: a study at Stekenjokk, northern Sweden1999In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 747-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of O2 penetration and pore water geochemistry of the flooded tailings at Stekenjokk has been performed. The results show that there is a diffusion of elements from the tailings pore water to the overlying water. The presence of elements such as Ca, Mg, S, Si, Ba and Sr are likely the result of diffusion of older process water trapped in the tailings. Oxygen concentrations in the tailings measured with microelectrodes show that there is O2 available down to 16 to 17 mm depth in the tailings. Pore water analyses show that there are subsurface maxima for the elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Co and Cd at depths of 0.25 to 2.75 cm. The highest concentrations of almost all elements were found where previously oxidised material was deposited before the flooding. Lower pH is measured in the uppermost part of the tailings compared with the pond water and the tailings pore water at depth. Oxidation of sulphides in the uppermost part of the tailings is probably occurring. A decrease in oxidation rate can be expected in the future due to deposition of organic material at the tailings surface. Flooding seems to be an efficient remediation method at Stekenjokk.

  • 6.
    Ingri, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pontér, Christer
    Öhlander, Björn
    Löfvendahl, Runo
    Boström, Kurt
    Environmental monitoring with river suspended matter: case study in the River Dalälven, central Sweden1993In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 8, no Suppl. 2, p. 125-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal concentrations are presented for suspended sediment from the River Dalälven, central Sweden. The river is contaminated by acid mine drainage and data from the most polluted tributary, Garpenbergsån, are also presented. Element/Al ratios in the suspended phase showed that K, Mg and Ti were mainly hosted in detrital particles together with a large fraction of Si. Between 50 and 60% of the load of Fe, Ca and Na were in non-detrital form. Less than 10% of the total load of suspended Mn and P were in a detrital form. The sediment in the River Dalälven is polluted by As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. These elements, except Pb, showed an even stronger enrichment in the suspended phase. This indicated that between one third and one half of the suspended load was recirculated to the water column during sedimentation. Arsenic, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn showed linear correlations with non-detrital Fe, close to the inflow of the polluted stream Garpenbergsån. Deposition of non-detrital Fe, Na, Cr, Cu and Ni in the sedimentation basins close to the river mouth reduced the suspended discharge of these elements to the Baltic Sea. However, the basins acted as sources for non-detrital suspended As, Hg, Pb, and Zn during the studied period. The calculated net export, in a non-detrital form, for these elements was 141, 3.7, 1100 and 7000 kg, respectively as measured between May and October.

  • 7.
    Ingri, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Torssander, P.
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University.
    Andersson, P. S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Laboratory for Isotope Geology.
    Mörth, C. -M.
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University.
    Kusakabe, M.
    Institute for the Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University.
    Hydrogeochemistry of sulfur isotopes in the Kalix River catchment, northern Sweden1997In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 483-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 34S-to-32S ratio in dissolved SO4 has been studied in the Kalix River, Northern Sweden, and its catchment. Weekly sampling over 17 months revealed temporal variations from +5.3‰ up to +7.4‰ in the δ34S values in the river. Snow and rain samples showed lower δ34S values (average +5.6‰ and +5.0‰, respectively). The atmosphere is the major source for S in surface waters in the catchment, and the heavier δ34S values in the river are a result of SO4 reduction within the catchment. Most of the temporal variations in the δ34S value in the river are caused by a mixing of water from the mountain areas (relatively light δ34S) and the woodland. The δ34S value is relatively heavy in the woodland tributaries because of bacterial SO4 reduction in peatland areas influenced by groundwater. The highest δ34S values were measured during the spring flood, in June and in November. These heavy δ34S values are related to different types of water with diverse origins. The heavy δ34S values coinciding with the early spring flood originate from peatland areas in the woodland. Relatively heavy δ34S values (up to +14.4‰) were registered in mire water. Smaller variations of the δ34S value during summer and early autumn most likely were caused by the input of ground-mire water during heavy rains. A correlation between increased TOC concentrations and increased δ34S values was observed. The heavy δ34S values in June and November probably originate from SO4 reduction in bottom water and sediments in lakes within the catchment. Bottom water, enriched in 34S---SO4, was transported in the river during the spring and autumn overturn.

  • 8.
    Kaasalainen, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Institute of Earth Sciences, Science Institute, University of Iceland.
    Stefánsson, Andri
    Institute of Earth Sciences, Science Institute, University of Iceland.
    Druschel, Gregory K.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis.
    Geochemistry and speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in natural geothermal water, Iceland2017In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 87, p. 146-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geochemistry of Fe(II) and Fe(III) was studied in natural geothermal waters in Iceland. Samples of surface and spring water and sub-boiling geothermal well water were collected and analyzed for Fe(II), Fe(III) and Fetotal concentrations. The samples had discharge temperatures in the range 27–99 °C, pH between 2.46 and 9.77 and total dissolved solids 155–1090 mg/L. The concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(III) were determined in the <0.2 μm filtered and acidified fraction using a field-deployed ion chromatography spectrophotometry (IC-Vis) method within minutes to a few hours of sampling in order to prevent post-sampling changes. The concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(III) were <0.1–130 μmoL/L and <0.2–42 μmoL/L, respectively. In-situ dialysis coupled with Fe(II) and Fe(III) determinations suggest that in some cases a significant fraction of Fe passing the standard <0.2 μm filtration method may be present in colloidal/particulate form. Therefore, such filter size may not truly represent the dissolved fraction of Fe but also nano-sized particles. The Fe(II) and Fe(III) speciation and Fetotal concentrations are largely influenced by the water pH, which in turn reflects the water type formed through various processes. In water having pH of ∼7–9, the total Fe concentrations were <2 μmoL/L with Fe(III) predominating. With decreasing pH, the total Fe concentrations increased with Fe(II) becoming increasingly important and predominating at pH < 3. In particular in waters having pH ∼6 and above, iron redox equilibrium may be approached with Fe(II) and Fe(III) possibly being controlled by equilibrium with respect to Fe minerals. In many acid waters, the Fe(II) and Fe(III) distribution may not have reached equilibrium and be controlled by the source(s), reaction kinetics or microbial reactions

  • 9.
    Kaasalainen, Hanna
    et al.
    Nordic Volcanological Center, University of Iceland, Institute of Earth Sciences.
    Stefánsson, Andri
    Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland.
    Giroud, Niels
    Nagra.
    Arnórsson, Stefán
    Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland.
    The geochemistry of trace elements in geothermal fluids, Iceland2015In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 62, p. 207-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trace element geochemistry was studied in geothermal fluids in Iceland. The major and trace element compositions of hot springs, sub-boiling, and two-phase (liquid and vapor) wells from 10 geothermal areas were used to reconstruct the fluid composition in the aquifers at depth. Aquifer fluid temperatures ranged from 4 to 300 °C, pH values between 4.5 and 9.3, and fluids typically contained total dissolved solids

  • 10.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Antelo, Juan
    Technological Research Institute, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Komárek, Michael
    Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    In situ chemical stabilization of trace element-contaminated soil: Field demonstrations and barriers to transition from laboratory to the field : A review2019In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 100, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical stabilization, or immobilization, of trace elements (metals and metalloids; TE) in contaminated soil has been studied for decades. A vast number of scientific publications are available on the method performance in laboratory settings, reporting that the application of various soil amendments to contaminated soil reduces TE mobility, bioavailability and toxicity. The most commonly used soil amendments include organic matter, iron oxides, phosphates, ashes, and lately biochar, alone or in combination with each other and/or lime. Most of the implemented field studies show a certain degree of improvement in soil and/or vegetation status following amendment. Regardless the positive performance of the technique in the laboratory, field validations and demonstrations remain scarce. The establishment of a field experiment often involves permits from authorities and agreements with site owners, both of which are considerably more time-consuming than laboratory tests. Due to conservative institutional structures, public authorities have been slow to adopt alternative remediation technologies, especially when the total TE concentration in soil remains the same and all of the associated risks are not yet convincingly described. For this reason, researchers should also focus on enhancing public knowledge of alternative remediation techniques so that future projects which aim to demonstrate the effectiveness of in situ immobilization techniques under natural conditions will be supported.

  • 11.
    Land, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Per S.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Ba/Sr, Ca/Sr and 87 Sr/86Sr ratios in soil water and groundwater: implications for relative contributions to stream water discharge2000In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barium/Sr and Ca/Sr ratios have been used to model the relative importance of different sources of stream water. Major and trace element concentrations together with 87Sr/86Sr ratios were measured in precipitation, soil water, groundwater and stream water in a small (9.4 km2) catchment in northern Sweden. The study catchment is drained by a first order stream and mainly covered with podzolized Quaternary till of granitic composition. It is underlain by a 1.8 Ga granite. A model with mixing equations used in an iterative mode was developed in order to separate the stream water into 3 subsurface components: soil water, shallow groundwater, and deep groundwater. Contributions from precipitation are thus not included in the model. This source may be significant for the stream water generation, but it does not interfere with the calculations of the relative contributions from the subsurface components. The results show that the deep groundwater constitutes between 5 and 20% of the subsurface water discharge into the stream water. The highest values of the deep groundwater fraction occur during base flow. Soil water dominates during snowmelt seasons, whereas during base flow it is the least important fraction. Soil water accounts for 10–100% of the subsurface water discharge into the stream water. Shallow groundwater accounts for up to 80% of the subsurface water discharge with the lowest values at peak discharge during snowmelt seasons and the highest values during base flow. The validity of the model was tested by comparing the measured 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the stream water with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios predicted by the model. There was a systematic difference between the measured and modelled 87Sr/86Sr ratios which suggests that the fraction of soil water is overestimated by the model, especially during spring flood. As a consequence of this overestimation of soil water the amount of shallow groundwater is probably underestimated during this period. However, it is concluded that the differences between measured and predicted values are relatively small, and that element ratios are potentially effective tracers for different subsurface water flowpaths in catchments.

  • 12.
    Land, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Past and present weathering rates in northern Sweden1999In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 761-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past and present chemical weathering rates in granitic till have been estimated. The Kalix River watershed in northern Sweden was used as a study area in which 17 evenly distributed soil profiles were investigated. The two estimations are based on elemental depletion trends in soil profiles and input/output budgets for the elements in the watershed, respectively. In the calculations of the past weathering rate it was assumed that zircon is resistant, and thus Zr was considered to be immobile during weathering. The long-term average chemical erosion rate since the area was deglaciated 8700 a ago, expressed as the sum of major element oxides (SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O), was estimated to be 5.8 g·m−2·a−1. In terms of base cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) depletion this corresponds to 0.36 keq·ha−2·a−1. All elements analysed have been depleted from the E-horizon, and the most affected elements are P with an average mass loss of 86% (as P2O5), La 81%, Co 78%, Cu 77% and Ni 76%. The present-day weathering rate was calculated as the difference between outputs and inputs in the Kalix River watershed. The input was considered as the contribution from precipitation, while the output was calculated as the sum of (1) the river-transported dissolved fraction, (2) the river-transported suspended non-detrital fraction (chemically precipitated Fe- and Mn-oxy-hydroxides and matter sorbed on these particles), and (3) the biotic nutrient net uptake. River-transported outputs were measured for an annual cycle starting in September 1991 and ending in August 1992. The present-day chemical erosion rate of the till was estimated to be 6.3 g·m−2·a−1 (sum of major element oxides), or a base cation flux of 1.42 keq·ha−2·a−1. Part of this present-day rate is related to carbonate weathering in the Caledonian mountain range which makes it difficult to compare the present weathering rate with the historical weathering rate. After correction for carbonate weathering the resulting present-day weathering rate of granitic till in terms of base cation flux was estimated to be 0.65–0.75 keq·ha−2·a−1. This result indicates that the present cation flux has increased by a factor of 1.8–2.1 compared to the long-term average. However, given the uncertainties introduced by the carbonates in the Caledonian mountain range it is not possible to prove any significant difference between the mean post-glacial and the present-day weathering rate with the methods used in this study.

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Lino
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tracing nitrogen cycling in mining waters using stable nitrogen isotope analysis2017In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 84, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how we used stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in ammonium and nitrate to identify and quantify nitrogen transformation and nitrogen sources at the LKAB mining site in northern Sweden. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis worked as an excellent tool for tracing nitrogen cycling in rapidly moving process waters. The isotope analysis was performed on the mining process waters at seven different key points along the water flow and we identified nitrification, ammonia volatilisation, and ammonium adsorption as nitrogen transformation processes. The source of nitrogen is historically explained as undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives. We used nitrate nitrogen and oxygen isotopes to quantify four nitrogen sources in the accumulated water in the mine as well as three sources in an above ground process water reservoir. The nitrate isotope data showed that most of the nitrate (70–80%) in the accumulated water underground originated from a sampling point located close to the surface and only a minor fraction (5–20%) originated directly from undetonated explosives (direct dissolution of NH4NO3 and nitrification of NH4). Nitrate from natural groundwater formed roughly 12% of mine water nitrate. In the above ground process water reservoir isotope data indicated another source of nitrogen coming from undetonated explosives.

  • 14.
    Pekka, Larisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Mokrotovarova, Olga
    Murmansk Areal Department for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring.
    Riabtseva, Margarita
    Federal State Institution Murmansk Territorial Fund for geological Information, Apatity.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Geochemistry of the Kola River, northwestern Russia2004In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 1975-1995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kola River in the northern part of the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia, flows into the Barents Sea via the Kola Bay. The river is a unique place for reproduction of salmon and an important source of drinking water for more than 500,000 people in Murmansk and the surrounding municipalities. To evaluate the environmental status of the Kola River water, sampling of the dissolved (<0.22 μm) and suspended (>0.22 μm) phases was performed at 12 sites along the Kola River and its tributaries during 2001 and 2002. Major (Ca, K, Mg, Na, S, Si, HCO3 and Cl) and trace (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn) elements, total and particulate organic C (TOC and POC), N and P were analysed. Comparison with the boreal pristine Kalix River, Northern Sweden, shows that, except for Na, Cl, Al, Cu and Ni, which exceed the concentrations in the Kalix River by as much as 2–3 times, the levels of other major and trace elements are close to or even below the levels in the Kalix River. However, the results also demonstrate that pollutants from the three major sources: (1) the Cu–Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, (2) the open-pit Fe mine and ore concentration plant in Olenegorsk, and (3) the Varlamov, the Medveziy and the Zemlanoy creeks, draining the area of the large agricultural enterprises in the lower part of the watershed, have a major influence on the water quality of the Kola River.

  • 15.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    et al.
    Avdelningen för oorganisk kemi, Umeå universitet.
    Carlsson, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Avdelningen för oorganisk kemi, Umeå universitet.
    Aqueous geochemistry in the Udden pit lake, northern Sweden2003In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Udden pit lake in northern Sweden was studied from June 1998 to February 1999 in order to increase knowledge of the geochemistry in lakes created as a result of decommissioning open pit mines. The vertical water profile in the lake was sampled on 4 different occasions, in June, August, September and February. Water samples were analysed for total concentrations of Fe, As, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Al, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Mn, S, Cl, N and P. Temperature, concentration of dissolved O (sub 2) , conductivity, pH, and redox potential were measured in situ at different depths. Four layers could be observed in the lake during summer, and 3 layers during winter. A thermocline was observed during summer at a depth of 5 m and on all 4 occasions a halocline was observed at a depth of approximately 20 m, and a redoxcline at approximately 35 m. Oxygen concentration decreased dramatically at a depth of 20 m. pH increased downwards in the lake from 4.8 at the surface to 6.4 at the bottom of the lake. Geochemical processes occurring in the lake, the origins of the layers, the metal concentrations and the anion concentrations are discussed in this article

  • 16.
    Rodríguez, Nathalie Pérez
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nason, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Copper and iron isotope fractionation in mine tailings at the Laver and Kristineberg mines, northern Sweden2013In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 32, p. 204-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that Cu and Fe isotopes are fractionated by dissolution and precipitation reactions driven by changing redox conditions. In this study, Cu isotope composition (65Cu/63Cu ratios) was studied in profiles through sulfide-bearing tailings at the former Cu mine at Laver and in a pilot-scale test cell at the Kristineberg mine, both in northern Sweden. The profile at Kristineberg was also analysed for Fe isotope composition (56Fe/54Fe ratios). At both sites sulfide oxidation resulted in an enrichment of the lighter Cu isotope in the oxidised zone of the tailings compared to the original isotope ratio, probably due to preferential losses of the heavier Cu isotope into the liquid phase during oxidation of sulfides. In a zone with secondary enrichment of Cu, located just below the oxidation front at Laver, δ65Cu (compared to ERM-AE633) was as low as -4.35 ± 0.02‰, which can be compared to the original value of 1.31 ± 0.03‰ in the unoxidised tailings. Precipitation of covellite in the secondary Cu enrichment zone explains this fractionation. The Fe isotopic composition in the Kristineberg profile is similar in the oxidised zone and in the unoxidised zone, with average δ56Fe values (relative to the IRMM-014) of -0.58± 0.06‰ and -0.49 ± 0.05‰, respectively. At the well-defined oxidation front, δ56Fe was less negative, -0.24 ± 0.01 ‰. Processes such as Fe(II)-Fe(III) equilibrium and precipitation of Fe-(oxy)hydroxides at the oxidation front are assumed to cause this Fe isotope fractionation. This field study provides additional support for the importance of redox processes for the isotopic composition of Cu and Fe in natural systems.

  • 17.
    Salifu, Musah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hällström, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Billström, Kjell
    Department of Geological Sciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Frescativagen 40, Box 50007, 104 05, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dold, Bernhard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes: A tracer for geochemical processes in mineralogically-complex mine wastes2018In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 99, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpretation of geochemical data based primarily on elemental concentrations often lead to ambiguous results due to multiple potential sources including mineral weathering, atmospheric input, biological cycling, mineral precipitation and exchange processes. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio is however not fractionated by these processes. In this study, Sr isotope (87Sr/86Sr) ratios have been coupled with chemical data of Sr and Rb-bearing minerals, tailings and leachates (water-soluble) to gain insight into the geochemical processes occurring within the Yxsjöberg Cu-W mine tailings, Sweden. The tailings have been exposed to oxidizing conditions resulting in three geochemical zones namely (i) oxidized, (ii) transition and (iii) unoxidized zones. Leachates from the oxidized zone are acidic (pH = 3.6–4.5) and contain elevated concentrations of metals (e.g. Fe, Cu and Zn) and SO4. The low pH has also led to subsequent weathering of most silicates, releasing Al, Ca, Mg and Na into solution. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the tailings ranges from 0.84787 to 1.26640 in the oxidized zone, 0.92660–1.06788 in the transition zone, whilst the unoxidized zone has values between 0.76452 and 1.05169. For the leachates, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio ranges from 2.44479 to 5.87552 in the oxidized zone, 1.37404–1.68844 in the transition zone and 1.03697–2.16340 in the unoxidized zone. Mixing (between mineral weathering and atmospheric sources) was identified as the major process regulating the Sr composition of the tailings and leachates. The highly radiogenic signatures of the leachates in the oxidized zone suggests weathering of biotite, K-feldspar and muscovite. Despite the very radiogenic signatures in the oxidized zone, increments in Ca/K ratios, Be, Ce, Tl, Al, Fe and SO4 concentrations in the water-soluble phase were recorded in its lower parts which suggests the dissolution of amphibole, pyroxene, plagioclase, fluorite, gypsum, Al and Fe –(oxy) hydroxides as well as cation exchange by clay minerals. Presence of clay minerals has led to the partial retainment of radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr resulting in increased 87Sr/86Sr in the solid tailings material at these depths. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the water-soluble phase in the transition zone is similar to that of helvine and could indicate its dissolution. In the upper part of the oxidized zone, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios and trends of Be, Ca, SO4, Tl and Zn in the water-soluble phase suggest the dissolution of gypsum which precipitated from a leachate with the isotopic signature of helvine. In the lower part of the unoxidized zone, elevated concentrations of W were recorded suggesting scheelite weathering. But the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are higher than that expected from dissolution of scheelite and indicates additional processes. Possible sources include biotite weathering and groundwater. This study reveals that when interpreting geochemical processes in mine waste environments, 87Sr/86Sr should be considered in addition to chemical constituents, as this isotopic tracer offers better insights into discriminating between different solute sources.

  • 18.
    Salifu, Musah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stable sulphur and oxygen isotopes as indicators of sulphide oxidation reaction pathways and historical environmental conditions in a Cu–W–F skarn tailings piles, south-central Sweden2019In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 110, article id 104426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved remediation strategies or predictive modelling of acid mine drainage (AMD) sites, require detailed understanding of the sulphide oxidation reaction pathways, as well as pollutant-source characterisation. In this study, ore minerals, solids and water-soluble fractions of an oxidising Cu–W–F skarn tailings in Yxsjöberg, Sweden, were chemically and isotopically (δ34S and δ18O) characterised to reveal sulphate (SO42−) sources, sulphide oxidation reaction pathways and historical environmental conditions in the tailings. δ34S was additionally used to trace the weathering of danalite [(Fe,Mn,Zn)4Be3(SiO4)3S], a rare and unstable sulphur-bearing silicate mineral containing high concentrations of beryllium (Be) and zinc (Zn). Eighteen subsamples from a drill core of the tailings were subjected to batch leaching tests to obtain water-soluble fractions, which reflected both existing pore-waters and easily-soluble secondary minerals. The tailings were categorised into three geochemical zones: (i) oxidised zone (OZ), (ii) transition zone (TZ) and (iii) unoxidised zone (UZ), based on prevailing pH, elemental concentrations and colour. The upper OZ (UOZ) showed a sharp depletion of sulphur (S) and relatively higher δ18OSO4 values (−3.0 to +0.1‰) whereas the underlying lower OZ (LOZ) showed S accumulation and lower δ18OSO4 values (−4.6 to −4.2‰). The higher δ18OSO4 suggested the role of atmospheric oxygen, O2 (as oxidant), contribution of evaporated rainwaters and/or evaporation in the upper zones of the tailings. The lower δ18OSO4 values were indicative of ferric iron (Fe3+) as oxidant and the possible incorporation of 16O into SO42− during its formation, most probably from snow melt or depleted rainwater. The δ34SSO4 values in the OZ (+2.3 to +2.4‰) suggested SO42− from pyrrhotite oxidation in the UOZ which has been subsequently mobilised to the LOZ. Low δ34S fractionation (+0.2 to +1.9‰) between SO42− in the OZ and pyrrhotite, as well as the low δ18OSO4 values in the LOZ suggested the complete oxidation of pyrrhotite by Fe3+, signalling that previously, a low pH (<3) prevailed in the tailings. Mineralogical observations confirmed that pyrrhotite was completely oxidised in the UOZ, with the formation of hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) coatings. The observed current high δ18OSO4 and pH (3.9–4.5) values in the UOZ were attributed to decreased oxidation rate and silicate buffering, limiting the availability of aqueous Fe3+ and subsequent formation of HFOs. The δ34SSO4 signatures of the water-soluble SO42− in the TZ and UUZ suggested the dissolution of gypsum which precipitated from a leachate from the weathering of danalite in the UOZ. In the middle UZ, the δ34SSO4 (−0.8 to +0.6‰) and δ18OSO4 (−1.8 to −1.0‰) signatures corresponded to SO42− from a mixture of pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite oxidation by O2 at the LOZ (i.e. oxidation front). Negative δ34S fractionation values (−3.0 to −1.6‰) between these minerals and the water-soluble SO42− were attributed to the potential formation of intermediate S species, due to the partial oxidation of the sulphides. Consequently, the S accumulation in the LOZ could be due to the likely formation of the intermediate S species and secondary pyrite identified in this zone. The lower UZ coincided with the groundwater table and registered consistent negative δ34SSO4 (−2.6 to −1.8‰) and δ18OSO4 (−7.6 to −4.4‰) values. These signatures were hypothesised to be controlled by SO42− from the mineralisation of organic S in peat underneath the tailings and/or H2S oxidation, with possible contribution from sulphide oxidation in the tailings. This study highlights the usefulness of δ34S and δ18O as tracers of geochemical processes and environmental conditions that have existed in the tailings.

  • 19.
    Stefánsson, Andri
    et al.
    Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland.
    Gunnarsson, Ingvi
    Reykjavík Energy.
    Kaasalainen, Hanna
    Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland.
    Arnórsson, Stefán
    Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland.
    Chromium geochemistry and speciation in natural waters, Iceland2015In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 62, p. 200-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural waters in Iceland were collected and analyzed for chromium concentration and speciation (CrIII, CrVI and CrTOT). The water sampled included non-thermal surface and spring water, surface geothermal water, and single and two-phase geothermal well discharges with sampling temperatures of 0-178°C, pH of 2.0-9.5, and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 35-4030ppm. The total Cr concentration was between 4 the measured CrIII concentration was low, generally 8 associated with decreasing importance of mineral surface complexation. Hence, CrVI becomes an increasingly dominant form of dissolved Cr at pH above 7-8. Many groundwater drinking supplies associated with mafic rocks are characterized by moderately alkaline pH resulting in CrVI concentrations of a few ppb.

  • 20.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Marsz, Aleksandra
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mench, Michel
    Bordeaux University, UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Immobilization of Cu and As in two contaminated soils with zero-valent iron: Long-term performance and mechanisms2016In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 67, p. 144-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilization of trace elements in contaminated soils by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is a promising remediation method, but questions about its long-term performance remain unanswered. To quantify immobilization and predict possible contaminant remobilization on long timescales detailed knowledge about immobilization mechanisms is needed. This study aimed at assessing the long-term effect of ZVI amendments on dissolved copper and arsenic in contaminated soils, at exploring the immobilization mechanism(s), and at setting up a geochemical model able to estimate dissolved copper and arsenic under different scenarios. Samples from untreated and ZVI-treated plots in two field experiments where ZVI had been added 6 and 15 years ago were investigated by a combination of batch experiments, geochemical modeling and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Dissolved copper and arsenic concentrations were described by a multisurface geochemical model with surface complexation reactions, verified by EXAFS. The ZVI remained “reactive” after 6-15 years, i.e. the dissolved concentrations of copper and arsenic were lower in the ZVI-treated than in the untreated soils. There was a shift in copper speciation from organic matter complexes in the untreated soil to surface complexes with iron (hydr)oxides in the ZVI-treated soil. The pH value was important for copper immobilization and ZVI did not have a stabilizing effect if pH was lower than about 6. Immobilization of arsenic was slightly pH-dependent and sensitive to the competition with phosphate. If phosphate was ignored in the modeling, the dissolution of arsenate was greatly underestimated

  • 21.
    Widerlund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Shcherbakova, Elena
    Carlsson, Erik
    Friedrich-Schiller Univärsität, Jena.
    Holmström, Henning
    Envipro Miljöteknik AB, Linköping.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Laboratory study of calcite-gypsum sludge-water interactions in a flooded tailings impoundment at the Kristineberg Zn-Cu mine, northern Sweden2005In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 973-987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to liming of acid mine drainage, a calcite–gypsum sludge with high concentrations of Zn (24,400 ± 6900 μg g−1), Cu (2840 ± 680 μg g−1) and Cd (59 ± 20 μg g−1) has formed in a flooded tailings impoundment at the Kristineberg mine site. The potential metal release from the sludge during resuspension events and in a long-term perspective was investigated by performing a shake flask test and sequential extraction of the sludge. The sequentially extracted carbonate and oxide fractions together contained 97% of the total amount of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sludge. The association of these metals with carbonates and oxides appears to result from sorption and/or coprecipitation reactions at the surfaces of calcite and Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides forming in the impoundment. If stream water is diverted into the flooded impoundment, dissolution of calcite, gypsum and presumably also Al oxyhydroxides can be expected during resuspension events. In the shake flask test (performed at a pH of 7–9), remobilisation of Zn, Cu, Cd and Co from the sludge resulted in dissolved concentrations of these metals that were significantly lower than those predicted to result from dissolution of the carbonate fraction of the sludge. This may suggest that cationic Zn, Cu, Cd and Co remobilised from dissolving calcite, gypsum and Al oxyhydroxides were readsorbed onto Fe oxyhydroxides remaining stable under oxic conditions. In a long-term perspective (102 a), 97% of the Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn content of the sludge potentially is available for release by dissolution of calcite and reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides if the sludge is subject to a soil environment with lower dissolved Ca concentrations, pH and redox than in the impoundment.

  • 22.
    Widerlund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Shcherbakova, Elena
    Forsberg, Jerry
    Holmström, Henning
    Envipro Miljöteknik AB, Linköping.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Laboratory simulation of flocculation processes in a flooded tailings impoundment at the Kristineberg Zn-Cu mine, northern Sweden2004In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1537-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory mixing experiment was performed to simulate the flocculation processes that can be expected when natural stream water mixes with the saline water in flooded tailings impoundments. Mixing plots where dissolved (<0.22 μm) Ca, Mg, Na, K, S and Si were plotted vs. a conservative mixing index revealed a conservative mixing behaviour for these elements. Similar plots for dissolved Fe, Mn, Al and total organic C (TOC) showed that dissolved Fe and Al flocculated within 24 h after the mixing of the waters. Dissolved Mn was removed from solution 13-98 days after mixing, presumably due to the oxidation of Mn2+. Removal of TOC could not be detected in the mixing bottles. However, the flocculants that settled in the mixing bottles (1.7-3.4 mg flocs L-1 of stream water) contained 18 wt% C and 14-19 wt% acid-leacheable Fe. Organic C and Fe oxyhydroxides thus appear to form substantial fractions of the flocculants. If stream water is diverted through tailings ponds as part of a remediation programme, flocculation processes are likely to contribute to natural sedimentation in the pond. However, the relative contribution from flocculated particulate matter may be significant only when the stream-water transport of suspended matter into the impoundment is low (<10-15 mg L-1). Trace metal uptake in the flocculants that settled in the mixing bottles resulted in removal of Cd (0.024-0.028 μg L-1), Co (0.15-0.17 μg L-1), Cu (1.8-3.5 μg L-1) and Zn (15-29 μg L-1) from the dissolved phase. Relative to the dissolved trace metal concentrations in the tailings pond water used in the experiment (Cd=0.435-0.438 μg L-1; Co=0.738-0.763 μg L-1; Cu=3.16-5.05 μg L-1; Zn=26.6-32.6 μg L-1), the trace metal uptake exceeded 50% of these concentrations only for Cu and Zn.

  • 23.
    Wortberg, Katharina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Conrad, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Per S.
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Strontium isotopes: A tracer for river suspended iron aggregates2017In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 79, p. 85-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kalix River shows distinct temporal variations in the Sr-isotope ratio in filtered water (0.726–0.732). During base flow in winter the 87Sr/86Sr ratio is on average 0.730. When discharge increases and peaks during spring flood the 87Sr/86Sr ratio shows the most radiogenic (0.732) values. The temporal variations in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Kalix River can be explained by mixing of water from the woodlands and the mountain areas.

    During high water discharge in May the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are more radiogenic in the suspended phase (1 kDa - 70 μm) compared to the truly dissolved phase (<1 kDa). The difference in 87Sr/86Sr ratio between the two phases (Δ 87Sr/86Sr) is linearly correlated with the suspended iron concentration. During spring flood Sr and Fe derived from an additional source, reach the river. Deep groundwater has a more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio than the Kalix River during spring flood and thus, represents a possible source for the suspended Fe and the associated Sr. Strontium can be coprecipitated with and adsorbed to different types of Fe aggregates. We propose that the Sr-isotope ratio in the suspended phase reflects the isotopic composition of the water at the interface between anoxic groundwater and oxic stream water in the riparian zone, where the Fe aggregates are formed. These particles dominate the suspended phase in the river and the mixing with mountain waters, poor in Fe, produces the difference in the isotopic signature.

    The different signatures in suspended and truly dissolved fraction indicate that these aggregates are relatively stable during stream-river transport. As such the 87Sr/86Sr can be used to trace the origin of the non-detrital suspended phase.

  • 24. Zwahlen, Carmen
    et al.
    Wogelius, Roy
    University of Manchester.
    Hollis, Cathy
    University of Manchester.
    Holland, Greg
    University of Manchester.
    Reaction path modelling illustrating the fluid history of a natural CO2-H2S reservoir2019In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 109, article id 104391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing interest in geologic co-sequestration of CO2 and H2S, the long-term consequences of the chemical interactions involved in this process remain largely unknown on a reservoir scale. A Mississippian aged CO2-H2S reservoir in LaBarge Field, Wyoming, USA is an ideal study site to investigate mineral and fluid reactions related to gaseous H2S and CO2. We conducted two reaction path models based on mineralogical, fluid, gas, and stable isotope compositional data to discern the role of CO2 influx upon the generation of H2S through thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR). We discriminate between two models-one in which TSR is triggered by temperature at a given burial depth and one where TSR is triggered by ingress of CO2. The reaction path model based upon burial-controlled TSR and later CO2 influx is consistent with mineralogical observations and stable isotope measurements from drill cores. The models show that CO2 influx leads to calcite precipitation which is only limited by the calcium concentration in the fluid. This modelling approach is useful in constraining the timing of fluid flux in the reservoir and gives further insight into the mineralogical consequences of the gas, water, and rock interactions occurring in the reservoir. In terms of geologic co-sequestration this implies that the addition of CO2 into a reducing carbonate system can result in calcite precipitation, instead of anhydrite as previously thought. Furthermore, it is only limited by the availability of Ca2+ and will therefore not diminish the amount of H2S in the system.

  • 25.
    Ödman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ruth, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ponter, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Validation of a field filtration technique for characterization of suspended particulate matter from freshwater: Part I. Major elements1999In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 301-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field filtration method for the concentration and separation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from freshwater systems for subsequent determination of major elements (Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na, K, P, Ti and S) is validated with respect to precision and bias. The validation comprises the whole procedure including filtration, sample digestion and instrumental analysis. The method includes two digestion procedures (microwave acid digestion and alkali fusion) in combination with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Total concentrations of the elements have been determined in suspended particulate matter from lake and river water with low levels of suspended solids (

  • 26.
    Ödman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ruth, Thomas
    Analytica AB, Box 511, SE-183 25 Täby.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ponter, Christer
    Analytica AB.
    Validation of a field filtration technique for characterization of suspended particulate matter from freshwater: Part II. Minor, trace and ultra trace elements2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 2112-2134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field filtration method for the concentration and separation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from freshwater systems and the subsequent determination of minor, trace and ultra trace elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Zn and Zr) is validated with respect to detection limits, precision and bias. The validation comprises the whole procedure including filtration, sample digestion and instrumental analysis. The method includes two digestion procedures (microwave acid digestion and alkali fusion) in combination with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). Total concentrations of these 27 trace and minor elements have been determined in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from lake and river water with low levels of suspended solids (

  • 27.
    Öhlander, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Pontér, Christer
    Lead isotopes as tracers of lead pollution from various sources: an example from northern Sweden1993In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 8, no Suppl. 2, p. 67-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface sediments in the central Bothnian Bay are contaminated with antropogenic Pb. Preindustrial sources of the Pb pollution are anthropogenic atmospheric Pb, where the main Pb source is combustion of gasoline, and ore from the Laisvall mine which is processed in the smelter Rönnskärsverken. Because the Pb isotope composition of these possible sources are known, an attempt was made to trace the origin of the antropogenic Pb by studying the Pb isotope composition of sediments. The results show unequivocally that Laisvall Pb is not the source of the pollution. The enrichment of Pb in surface sediments is caused by atmospheric deposition of Pb additives from gasoline. Lead emitted from Rönnskärsverken is deposited relatively close to the smelter, and has not reached central Bothnian Bay in traceable amounts.

  • 28. Öhlander, Björn
    et al.
    Land, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Mobility of rare earth elements during weathering of till in northern Sweden1996In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 11, no 1-2, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous, volume-controlled sampling from the surface down to a depth of 130 cm was conducted at two stations on weathered till (typic haplocryods). All the samples were analysed for major and trace elements including the rare earth elements (REE). Eight thousand seven hundred years of weathering since the glacial ice left the area, has resulted in a strong depletion of REE in the E-horizon. This loss decreases as atomic number increases, so that 80-85% of the La and 54-60% of the Yb have been lost. Europium has been lost to a greater degree than have the neighbouring elements. Possible explanations for the release of REE are: weathering of common silicates such as hornblende and epidote (and plagioclase in the case of Eu); weathering of apatite; weathering of rare but REE-rich minerals such as allanite and monazite; and release of REE adsorbed on clay minerals. Further studies on various size fractions and minerals are needed to quantify the importance of the various possible mechanisms of REE release. The release of REE continues within and below the Bs1-horizon, but the results from one station show that light REE can be enriched in the Bs1-horizon. This secondary enrichment could be caused by adsorption on secondary oxy-hydroxides, on clay minerals or on organic material. However, the net result of the weathering is that all REE have been released to the groundwater.

  • 29.
    Öhlander, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Thunberg, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Land, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Höglund, Lars-Olof
    Kemakta Konsult AB.
    Han, Quishang
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Redistribution of trace metals in a mineralized spodosol due to weathering, Liikavaara, northern Sweden2003In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 883-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The till east of the Liikavaara Östra ore deposit in northern Sweden is in some parts rich in Cu and other sulphide-associated metals. Groundwater flowing in this till has higher concentrations of Cu than groundwater in a reference area where the till has low concentrations of Cu and other metals. To understand the processes that release metals from the mineralized till at Liikavaara into the groundwater, the authors performed a detailed study of the <2 mm fraction of a till profile where the highest metal concentrations in the Liikavaara area occur. The geochemistry and mineralogy of the till were determined, and the soil water was sampled by tension lysimeters. The importance of local diffusion of Cu-bearing airborne dust from the adjacent Aitik mine tailings impoundment was quantified and solid speciation of metals in airborne material was performed by sequential extraction. The results from Liikavaara were compared to results from the reference area. Glacial ice picked up sulphide-rich material from the Liikavaara Östra Cu ore during its flow. This material was deposited in the till east of the ore body when the ice melted. The sulphides have been dissolved in the <2 mm fraction during 8.7 ka of weathering since the glacial ice retreated. After dissolution of the sulphides, Cu was redistributed and secondarily retained in association with Fe-oxyhydroxides and altered biotite. Other sulphide-associated elements such as Co, Ni and Zn show the same pattern in the till profile as Cu, though the concentrations are much lower. Uptake of Cu2+ in the biotite through ion exchange with K+ may be an important mechanism for Cu-enrichment in biotite at Liikavaara. The airborne dust is not the source of Cu in the till. Although the soil water at Liikavaara has higher concentrations of Cu and other metals than the soil water at the reference area, the Cu-concentration is too low for infiltrating soil water to explain the high Cu-concentrations observed in groundwater. The high metal concentrations in the till, of Cu in particular, cause the increased concentrations in the local groundwater. A fluctuating groundwater table washes out Cu and other metals from the till. It is possible that increased Cu concentration in the local groundwater is caused by dissolved organic complexes, or by colloids (<0.45 μm) rich in organic matter and/or Fe-oxyhydroxides

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