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  • 1.
    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen
    et al.
    Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Área de Investigación e Instrumentación Atmosférica, Madrid, Spain.
    Sicard, Michaël
    CommSensLab, Dept. of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain. Ciències i Tecnologies de l'Espai-Centre de Recerca de l'Aeronàutica i de l'Espai/Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (CTE-CRAE/IEEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Del Águila, Ana
    nstituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Área de Investigación e Instrumentación Atmosférica, Madrid, Spain. emote Sensing Technology Institute, German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.
    Jiménez, Marcos
    Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Área de Sistemas de Teledetección, Madrid, Spain.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Performance of a dust model to predict the vertical mass concentration of an extreme Saharan dust event in the Iberian Peninsula: Comparison with continuous, elastic, polarization-sensitive lidars2019In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 214, article id 116828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An intense dusty event unusually occurred in wintertime over the Iberian Peninsula was detected over two Spanish NASA/MPLNET sites: the temporary Torrejón Observational Tower for Environmental Monitoring (TOTEM, 40.5°N 3.5°W) and the Barcelona station (BCN, 41.4°N 2.1°E). The highest dust incidence was observed from 22 to 23 February 2017; this two-day dusty scenario is examined in order to evaluate the performance of the operational NMMB/BSC-Dust model on forecasted mass concentration profiling in comparison with polarized Micro-Pulse (P-MPL) mass estimates for dust particles. First, the optical properties of the dust (DD) were effectively separated from the non-dust (ND) component by using the combined P-MPL/POLIPHON method. Lidar-derived DD optical depths reached maximums of 1.6–1.7 (±0.1) at both stations. Typical features for dust were obtained: linear particle depolarization ratios between 0.3 and 0.4, and lidar ratios in the range of 41–70 sr and 36–66 sr, respectively, for TOTEM and BCN. Lower AERONET Ångström exponents were reported for TOTEM (0.12 ± 0.04) than at BCN (0.5 ± 0.3). HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis showed air masses coming from the Sahara region, mostly transporting dust particles. AERONET-derived Mass Extinction Efficiencies (MEE) under dusty conditions were used for the extinction-to-mass conversion procedure as applied to the P-MPL measurements: MEE values were lower at TOTEM (0.57 ± 0.01 m2 g−1) than those found at BCN (0.87 ± 0.10 m2 g−1). Those results reveal that dust particles were predominantly larger at TOTEM than those observed at BCN, and a longer transport of dust particles from the Sahara sources to BCN could favour a higher gravitational settling of coarser particles before reaching BCN than TOTEM. A comparative analysis between profiles as obtained from the lidar DD component of the mass concentration and those forecasted by the NMMB/BSC-Dust model (25 available dusty profiles) was performed. The degree of agreement between both datasets was determined by the percentage of dusty cases satisfying selected model performance criteria (favourable cases) of two proxies: the Mean Fractional Bias, M&#x2062;F&#x2062;B" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; position: relative;">MFBM⁢F⁢B, and the correlation coefficient, C&#x2062;C" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; position: relative;">CCC⁢C. A good agreement is found (72% and 76%, respectively, of favourable cases); however, large discrepancies are found at low altitudes between the dust model and the lidar observations, mostly at early stages of the arrival of the dust intrusion. Higher model-derived centre-of-mass (CoM) heights are found in 60% of the cases (with differences < 15% w.r.t. the lidar CoM, whose values ranged between 1.8 and 2.3 km height). In addition, modelled mass loading (ML) values were generally higher than the lidar-derived ones. However, the evolution of the mass loading along the two days, 22 and 23 February, was rather similar for both the model forecasting and lidar observations at both stations. The relative ML differences (<50%) of the mass loading represented 60% of all cases. Discrepancies can be based on the uncertainties in the lidar retrievals (mainly, the use of single extinction-to-mass conversion factors). In general, a moderately good agreement is observed between the P-MPL-derived dust mass concentration profiles and the NMMB/BSC-Dust model ones at both sites; large discrepancies are found at lower altitudes, plausibly due to a lower sedimentation of dust particles coming from upper layers by gravitational settling than that introduced by the NMMB/BSC-Dust model in the simulations. The methodology described for the dust model evaluation against the continuous P-MPL observations can be easily adopted for an operational use of the NMMB/BSC-Dust model for forecasting the mass concentration profiling in frequently dust-affected regions with serious climate and environmental implications, as long as a typical MEE for dust could be accurately specified. Hence, a statistical analysis for determining AERONET-based MEE values over the Iberian Peninsula is on-going.

  • 2.
    Klauser, Franziska
    et al.
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH.
    Carlon, Elisa
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH.
    Kistler, Magdalena
    Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics.
    Schmidl, Christoph
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH.
    Schwabl, Manuel
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH.
    Sturmlechner, Rita
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH.
    Haslinger, Walter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH.
    Kasper-Giebl, Anne
    Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics.
    Emission characterization of modern wood stoves under real-life oriented operating conditions2018In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 192, p. 257-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of emission inventories substantially bases on the reliability of used emission factors (EFs). In this work EFs were studied according to recently published characterization methods, called “beReal”, reflecting real life operating conditions in Europe. EFs for four pellet stoves and nine firewood appliances (roomheaters and cookers) of carbon monoxide (CO), organic gaseous compounds (OGC), nitrogen oxides, total solid particles (TSP) of hot and of diluted flue gas, total, elemental and organic carbon (TC, EC, OC) and benzo(a)pyrene were determined.

    CO, OGC, TSPs, TC, EC and OC emissions from firewood appliances were significantly higher than for pellet stoves, indicating the high relevance of classifying appliances according to the operation type. TSP sampled from diluted flue gas at 40 °C (28 mg MJ−1 to 271 mg MJ−1 based on fuel input) was higher than TSP sampled from hot flue gas (2170 mg MJ−1 to 70 mg MJ−1). This reveals the high relevance of sampling conditions for the determination of real life emissions. Benzo(a)pyrene emissions scattered over a wide range (0.5 μg MJ−1 to 129.8 μg MJ−1) indicating high sensitivity to unfavorable combustion conditions. Therefore a higher number of experimentally determined emissions factors could improve the reliability of EFs for inventories. CO emissions measured in beReal tests were substantially higher than official type tests, thus showing that type testing results provide limited information for the determination of real life emissions.

    A systematic evaluation of EFs with defined real life methods like beReal would substantially improve the reliability of emission inventories.

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