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  • 1.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Formation and composition of cemented layers in low-sulphide mine tailings, Laver, northern Sweden2006In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 809-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cemented layers (hardpans) are common in carbonate or sulphide-rich mine tailings and where pyrrhotite is the predominating Fe-sulphide. Laver, northern Sweden, is an abandoned Cu-mine where the tailings have low pyrrhotite content, almost no pyrite and no carbonates. Two cemented layers at different locations in the Laver tailings impoundment were investigated, with the aim to determine their effects on metal mobility. The cementing agents were mainly jarosite and Fe-oxyhydroxides in the layer formed where the tailings have a barren surface, whereas only Fe-oxyhydroxides were identified below grass-covered tailings surface. Arsenic was enriched in both layers which also exhibit high concentrations of Mo, V, Hg and Pb compared to unoxidised tailings. Sequential extraction indicates that these metals and As were mainly retained with crystalline Fe-oxides, and therefore potentially will be remobilised if the oxic conditions become more reducing, for instance as a result of remediation of the tailings impoundment.

  • 2.
    Holmström, Henning
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ljungberg, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Role of carbonates in mitigation of metal release from mining waste: evidence from humidity cells tests1999In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 267-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching of two contrasting types of sulphidic tailings in humidity cells has been performed. The release of heavy metals and the oxidation rate have been studied. Tailings from the Laver mine contain a few percent sulphides and lack carbonates, whereas tailings from the Stekenjokk mine are both sulphide- and carbonate-rich. The results showed that in the leachates from the Laver samples, the metal concentrations increased and pH decreased with time, indicating an increased oxidation rate. In the Stekenjokk samples, pH remained high during the experiment, thereby keeping the metal concentrations low in the leachates. The oxidation rate also decreased with time, probably due to Fe-hydroxide coatings on sulphide surfaces. The results show that addition of carbonates and the maintenance of a high pH not only reduce the solubility of heavy metals, but also decrease the oxidation rate of sulphides.

  • 3.
    Holmström, Henning
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ljungberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ekström, M.
    Analytica AB.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Secondary copper enrichment in tailings at the Laver mine, northern Sweden1999In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 327-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field and laboratory studies of the sulphide-bearing tailings at Laver, northern Sweden, show that the present release of metals from the tailings is low, especially with regard to Cu. A large part of the Cu released by sulphide oxidation is enriched in a distinct zone just below the oxidation front. The enrichment zone occurs almost all over the tailings area except in areas with a shallow groundwater table. The Cu enrichment is caused by formation of covellite and adsorption onto mineral surfaces. The transport of Zn, Co, Cd, Ni and S seems to be controlled mainly by adsorption. No secondary zone or secondary minerals containing these metals have been found. Just below the groundwater table, metals are released into solution when the enrichment zone reaches the groundwater due to the low pH. An increased release of metals, especially Cu, can be expected in the future, since the enrichment zone is moving towards the groundwater table.

  • 4.
    Jacks, G.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Sefe, F.
    University of Botswana, Department of environments sciences.
    Carling, M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hammar, M.
    Letsamao, P.
    Central District Council, Private Bag 001, Serowe, Botswana.
    Tentative nitrogen budget for pit latrines, eastern Botswana1999In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 199-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    et al.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Moiseenko, T.
    Institute of Water Problems. Russian Academy of Science.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aqueous transport and fate of pollutants in mining area: a case study of Khibiny apatite-nepheline mines, the Kola Peninsula, Russia: a case study of Khibiny apatite-nepheline mines, the Kola Peninsula, Russia2002In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 43, no 1-2, p. 172-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven decades of mining activity on the Khibiny apatite-nepheline ore deposits and current large excavation volumes have resulted in elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids and metals in various waters near the mines. To assess the major sources of pollution inputs and fate of pollutants in watercourses draining the mine workings, snow cover, surface waters, and deposited and suspended sediments were sampled and analyzed. Water chemistry data showed that discharges of the mine wastewater are the main contributor to solute and metal loads in the streams. Atmospheric transport of metals and their accumulation in the snowpack account for a sharp increase in metal concentrations in stream waters during spring snowmelt. Data on bed and suspended sediments indicated that the streams have a low capacity of immobilization of metals. The dominant mechanism responsible for decrease in solutes in watercourses is dilution. The results demonstrated the necessity for remediation actions to address pollutant loads due to wastewater discharges

  • 6.
    Peinerud, Elsa K
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Interpretation of Si concentrations in lake sediments: three case studies2000In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 40, no 1-2, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biogenic Si concentration in a sediment can be determined as the non-detrital Si concentration by normalization of the total Si concentration with Al. This procedure is based upon the assumptions that (1) that Al exists predominantly in detrital, i.e. minerogenic, particles and (2) that biogenic Si (mainly diatom frustules) is the dominating non-detrital Si phase. This paper focuses on the reasons for the variations of the non-detrital Si concentration in these lake sediments. Data from three lakes are presented, representing three principally different cases regarding the Si concentration. The processes controlling the concentrations of detrital and non-detrital Si are discussed.

  • 7. Wattanasen, Kamhaeng
    et al.
    Elming, Sten-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lohawijarn, W.
    Prince of Songkla University, HatYai.
    Bhongsuwan, T.
    Prince of Songkla University, HatYai.
    An integrated geophysical study of arsenic contaminated area in the peninsular Thailand2006In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 595-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geophysical surveys were carried out in an arsenic contaminated area, in the Ron Phibun District in southern Thailand. Here, tin and associated minerals, i.e. arsenopyrite and pyrite, have been extracted from granites and natural processes and the mining activities led to arsenic contamination in the environment. Electrical resistivity and self-potential (SP) were used to define the distribution of arsenic contamination in the groundwater. Resistivities of 25-100 Ωm and a positive SP anomaly of 66.0 mV were observed in an area where the arsenic content in auger water at 3.5-5.0 m depths was high, 0.5-5.0 mg/l. Integrated interpretation of resistivity, seismic refraction, GPR and gravity data gave a clear image of subsurface shallow structures (< 30 m depths). There was a good correlation between the resistivity and the gravity data. A subsurface rise was found, which possibly acts as a naturally buried dam, separating a high-contaminated area from a low contaminated area.

  • 8.
    Öhlander, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Axelsson, M.D.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Muller, B.
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich.
    Analyses of trace elements on quartz surfaces in sulfidic mine tailings from Kristineberg (Sweden) a few years after remediation2003In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine the elemental composition of the surface layer, as well as of the first interior layer, of quartz grains from the mine tailings from Kristineberg (northern Sweden) in order to determine concentration gradients between these two layers. The quartz grains were collected from the oxidized and unoxidized zones within the tailings. The aim of this study is to assess the role of quartz surfaces as sites for the attenuation of solutes from the mine-tailings porewater. Concentrations of Cu, Ag, Sb, Pb and Bi are highest near the surface of each grain and decrease towards the interior. The surface concentration of Cu, Zn and Pb is more pronounced within the unoxidized than within the oxidized zone of the tailings. Cu exhibits a distinct concentration peak at the surface of the quartz grains below the pre-remediation oxidation front. For Zn and Ce the trend of high surface concentration is less pronounced than for Cu or Pb. Silver, Bi and As are preferably adsorbed within the uppermost layers of the oxidized zone where the pH is as high as 6.2. The conversion of intensity signals of the elements to concentration values in ppm was done by using external standards (NIST silicate glass).

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