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  • 1.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Elin
    Vectura Consulting AB.
    Mueller, Seth
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7907-7916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system’s neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH < 2) with high concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6 mg/L), and Zn (150 mg/L) after 258 days. The leachate from water-saturated waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (<2 μg/L), Pb and Zn (20 μg/L and 5 mg/L), respectively, and its pH was around 6. Crushed (<6 mm) waste rock mixed with different fractions (1–5 wt %) of green liquid dregs, fly ash, mesa lime, and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) slag was leached on a small scale for 65 day, and showed near-neutral pH values, except for mixtures of waste rock with AOD slag and fly ash (5 % w/w) which were more basic (pH > 9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation

  • 2.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 3.
    Chlot, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Interaction between nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in mining-affected aquatic systems-experiences from field and laboratory measurements2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 5722-5736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives of this study were to (a) study the interaction between N and P cycles in mining-affected aquatic systems and (b) to quantify release rates of sedimentary soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) that may be related to this interaction. Sediment cores and water from Lake Bruträsket (Boliden, northern Sweden) were collected and a time series of water sampling and flow measurements was conducted in the Brubäcken stream connected to the lake. Factors affecting SRP release were studied in a sediment incubation experiment and water column experiments. Field and laboratory measurements indicated that pH and dissolved oxygen are two important factors for SRP release. At the end of the low-oxygen incubation, an SRP concentration of 56 μg L-1 resulted in a sedimentary flux of 1.1 mg SRP m-2 day-1. This is ∼10 times higher than the flux of 0.12 mg SRP m-2 day-1 obtained from depth integration of vertical SRP profiles measured in the lake, and ∼100 times higher than the external flux of 0.014 mg SRP m-2 d-1 into the lake (based on catchment area). Field measurements indicated that oxidation of organic matter and mining-related chemicals (ammonium and thiosulphates) may result in increased internal SRP flux from the sediment. Increased P loading in the lake as a result of low-oxygen conditions could change water column total nitrogen/total phosphorus ratios from 27 to 17, consequently changing the lake from being P-limited to be co-limited by N and P. The obtained findings point to possible interaction between the cycles of nitrogen (oxygen consumption) and P (flux from sediment) that may be important for nutrient regulation in mine water recipients.

  • 4.
    Hamberg, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The formation of unsaturated zones within cemented paste backfill mixtures: Effects on the release of copper, nickel, and zinc2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 21, p. 20809-20822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding of cemented paste backfill (CPB) filled mine workings is, commonly, a slow process and could lead to the formation of unsaturated zones within the CPB-fillings. This facilitates the oxidation of sulfide minerals, and thereby increases the risk of trace-metal leaching. Pyrrhotitic tailings from a gold mine (CT), containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Cu and Zn, were mixed with cement and/or fly ash (1-3 wt. %) to form CT-CPB-mixtures. Pyrrhotite oxidation progressed more extensively during unsaturated conditions, where acidity resulted in dissolution of the Ni, Cu, and Zn associated with amorphous Fe-precipitates and/or cementitious phases. The establishment of acidic, unsaturated conditions in CT-CBP:s with low fractions (1 wt. %) of binders increased the Cu-release (to be higher than that from CT), owing to the dissolution of Cu-associated amorphous Fe-precipitates. In CT-CPB:s with relatively high proportions of binder, acidity from pyrrhotite oxidation was buffered to a greater extent. At this stage, Zn-leaching increased due the occurrence of fly ash-specific Zn-species soluble in alkaline conditions. Irrespective of binder proportion and water saturation level, the Ni- and Zn-release were lower, compared to that in CT. Fractions of Ni, Zn, and Cu associated with acid-soluble phases or amorphous Fe-precipitates, susceptible to remobilization under acidic conditions, increased in tandem with binder fractions. Pyrrhotite oxidation occurred irrespective of the water saturation level in the CPB-mixtures. That in turn, poses an environmental risk, whereas a substantial proportion of Ni, Cu and Zn were associated with acid-soluble phases.

  • 5.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Department of Environment and Minerals ResourcesGreenland Institute of Nature ResourcesNuukGreenland.
    Hamberg, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Swedish Geological Survey AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Asif
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Department of Energy and Environment Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah, Pakistan.
    Mäkitalo, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Variation of green liquor dregs from different pulp and paper mills for use in mine waste remediation2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geotechnical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of green liquor dregs (GLDs) generated as byproducts from five paper mills were investigated to assess their buffering and heavy metal immobilization capacities and their roles as water and oxygen barriers. One type of GLD was further studied to test the effects of the retrieval process and the storage, drying, and hydration of GLD. The high water retention capacity of the GLDs is valuable for limiting O2diffusion. Laboratory results showed that the GLDs had hydraulic conductivities of 3.7 × 10−9–4.6 × 10−8 m/s and varied regularly in plasticity. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the GLDs varied greatly, reflecting the raw material used to produce paper and the process used to retrieve GLDs. Although they had high total heavy metal contents, none of the leached elements from the GLDs (L/S 10 cm3/kg) exceeded the European Union’s limits for landfills of non-hazardous waste. The GLDs exhibited high buffering capacities. In a supplementary test, the buffering capacities varied (0.0041–0.0114 M H+/g GLD) over 72 d after acid was added to the GLD. Changing the filtration process did not greatly affect the GLDs’ properties but mainly affected the hydraulic conductivity, total heavy metal contents and sulfur content. Analyzing the storage of GLDs is necessary in the mining industry because remediation measures require large amounts of material over short periods. The buffering capacity of the dried GLD decreased slightly. The effect of dewatering caused by the mixing of 2% Na-lignosulfate with GLD (w/w) was low.

  • 6.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mobility of as, Cu, Cr, and Zn from tailings covered with sealing materials using alkaline industrial residues: a comparison between two leaching methods2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 648-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different alkaline residue materials (fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud) generated from the pulp and paper industry as sealing materials were evaluated to cover aged mine waste tailings (

  • 7. Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Nason, Peter
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Investigation of biosolids degradation under flooded environments for use in underwater cover designs for mine tailing remediation2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 13, p. 10047-10057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the potential suitability of digested sewage sludge (frequently termed biosolids) for use as underwater cover material for mine waste tailings, the degradability of biosolids at 20 − 22 °C under flooded anaerobic conditions was evaluated during incubation for 230 days. Leaching of elements from the flooded anaerobic system was also evaluated. Biosolid degradation was confirmed by the generation and accumulation of CH4 and CO2. Specifically, approximately 1.65 mmoL gas/g biosolids was generated as a result of incubation, corresponding to degradation of 7.68 % of the organic matter, and the residue was stable at the end of the laboratory experiment. Under field conditions in northern Sweden, it is expected that the degradation rate will be much slower than that observed in the present study (Nason et al. Environ Earth Sci 70:30933105, 2013). Although the majority of biosolid fractions (>92 %) were shown to be recalcitrant during the incubation period, long-term monitoring of further degradability of residue is necessary. The leaching results showed that most of the metals and metalloids leached from the biosolids at day 230 were below the limit value for non-hazardous waste, although Ni was the only element approximately three times higher than the limit value for inert material at the landfill site. In conclusion, biosolids have potential for use as covering material for underwater storage of tailings based on their biodegradability and leaching of elements.

  • 8.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stahre, Nanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mäkitalo, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elemental mobility in sulfidic mine tailings reclaimed with paper mill by-products as sealing materials2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 25, p. 20389-20389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sealing layers made of two alkaline paper mill by-products, fly ash and green liquor dregs, were placed on top of 50-year-old sulfide-containing tailings as a full-scale remediation approach. The performance and effectiveness of the sealing layers with high water content for an oxygen barrier and low hydraulic conductivity for a sealing layer in preventing the formation of acid rock drainage were evaluated 5 years after the remediation. The leaching behavior of the covered tailings was studied using batch leaching tests (L/S ratio 10 L/kg). The leaching results revealed that, in general, the dregs- and ash-covered tailings released relatively lower concentrations of many elements contained in acid rock drainage compared to those from the uncovered tailings. A change in the chemical composition and mineralogical state of the tailings was observed for the tailings beneath the covers. The increase in pH caused by the alkaline materials promoted metal precipitation. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC confirmed most of the geochemical changes of the covered tailings. Both the ash and dregs showed potential to function as sealing materials in terms of their geochemical properties. However, mobilization of Zn and Ni from the lower part of the dregs-covered tailings was observed. The same phenomenon was observed for the lower part of the ash-covered tailings. Ash showed advantages over dregs as a cover material; based on geochemical studies, the ash immobilized more elements than the dregs did. Lysimeters were installed below the sealing layers, and infiltrating water chemistry and hydrology were studied to monitor the amount and quality of the leachate percolating through

  • 9.
    Kaasalainen, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Sweco Environment, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Paula
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Impact of declining oxygen conditions on metal(loid) release from partially oxidized waste rock2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 20, p. 20712-20730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The best available technology for preventing the formation of acid drainage water from the sulfidic waste rock at mine closure aims to limit the oxygen access to the waste. There is, however, a concern that contaminants associated with secondary minerals become remobilized due to changing environmental conditions. Metal(loid) mobility from partially oxidized sulfidic waste rock under declining and limited oxygen conditions was studied in unsaturated column experiments. The concentrations of sulfate and metal(loid)s peaked coincidently with declining oxygen conditions from 100 to < 5 sat-% and to a lesser extent following a further decrease in the oxygen level during the experiment. However, the peak concentrations only lasted for a short time and were lower or in the similar concentration range as in the leachate from a reference column leached under atmospheric conditions. Despite the acid pH (~ 3), the overall quality of the leachate formed under limited oxygen conditions clearly improved compared with atmospheric conditions. In particular, the release of As was two orders of magnitude lower, while cationic metals such as Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn also decreased, although to a lesser extent. Decreased sulfide oxidation is considered the primary reason for the improved water quality under limited oxygen conditions. Another reason may be the immobility of Fe with the incorporation of metal(loid)s in Fe(III) minerals, in contrast to the expected mobilization of Fe. The peaking metal(loid) concentrations are probably due to remobilization from solid Fe(III)-sulfate phases, while the relatively high concentrations of Al, Mn, and Zn under limited oxygen conditions were due to release from the adsorbed/exchangeable fraction. Despite the peaking metal(loid) concentrations during declining oxygen conditions, it is clear that the primary remediation goal is to prevent further sulfide oxidation.

  • 10.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydrothermal carbonisation of peat-based spent sorbents loaded with metal(loid)s2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 23, p. 23730-23738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) is a wet and relatively low-temperature process where, under autogenous pressures, biomass undergoes a chain of reactions leading to the defragmentation of organic matter. As well as its other uses (e.g. for producing low-cost carbon-based nano-compounds), HTC is utilised for the treatment of wet wastes, such as manure and biosludge. This study aimed to determine if hydrothermal carbonisation is a feasible treatment method for spent sorbents that are highly enriched with arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc. The chemical properties of hydrochar and process liquid were evaluated after HTC treatment, where peat-based spent sorbents were carbonised at 230 °C for 3 h. Analysis of Fourier transform-infrared spectra revealed that during HTC, the oxygenated bonds of ethers, esters, and carboxylic groups were cleaved, and low-molecular-weight organic fragments were dissolved in the process liquid. A large fraction of arsenic (up to 62%), copper (up to 25%), and zinc (up to 36%) were transferred from the solids into the process water. Leaching of these elements from the hydrochars increased significantly in comparison with the spent sorbents.

  • 11.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Treatment of metal (loid) contaminated solutions using iron-peat as sorbent: is landfilling a suitable management option for the spent sorbent?2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 21, p. 21425-21436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study firstly aimed to investigate the potential of simultaneous metal (loid) removal from metal (oid) solution through adsorption on iron-peat, where the sorbent was made from peat and Fe by-products. Up-flow columns filled with the prepared sorbent were used to treat water contaminated with As, Cu, Cr, and Zn. Peat effectively adsorbed Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas approximately 50% of inlet As was detected in the eluent. Iron-sand was effective only for adsorbing As, but Cr, Cu, and Zn were poorly adsorbed. Only iron-peat showed the simultaneous removal of all tested metal (loid)s. Metal (loid) leaching from the spent sorbent at reducing conditions as means to assess the behaviour of the spent sorbent if landfilled was also evaluated. For this purpose, a standardised batch leaching test and leaching experiment at reducing conditions were conducted using the spent sorbent. It was found that oxidising conditions, which prevailed during the standardised batch leaching test, could have led to an underestimation of redox-sensitive As leaching. Substantially higher amounts of As were leached out from the spent sorbents at reducing atmosphere compared with oxidising one. Furthermore, reducing environment caused As(V) to be reduced into the more-toxic As (III).

  • 12.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Desogus, Paolo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Schulenburg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Arenella, Mariarita
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 8649-8662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe0) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe0 was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe0 treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required.

  • 13.
    Patel, Alok
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering. Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, Biotechnology Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT-R), Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India .
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Pruthi, Parul A
    Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, Biotechnology Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT-R), Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India .
    Pruthi, Vikas
    Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, Biotechnology Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT-R), Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India .
    Potential of aquatic oomycete as a novel feedstock for microbial oil grown on waste sugarcane bagasse2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 33, p. 33443-33454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiesel production from vegetable oils is not sustainable and economical due to the food crisis worldwide. The development of a cost-effective non-edible feedstock is essential. In this study, we proposed to use aquatic oomycetes for microbial oils, which are cellulolytic fungus-like filamentous eukaryotic microorganisms, commonly known as water molds. They differ from true fungi as cellulose is present in their cell wall and chitin is absent. They show parasitic as well as saprophytic nature and have great potential to utilize decaying animal and plant debris in freshwater habitats. To study the triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in the aquatic oomycetes, the isolated water mold Achlya diffusa was cultivated under semi-solid-state conditions on waste sugarcane bagasse, which was compared with the cultivation in Czapek (DOX) medium. A. diffusa grown on waste sugarcane bagasse showed large lipid droplets in its cellular compartment and synthesized 124.03 ± 1.93 mg/gds cell dry weight with 50.26 ± 1.76% w/w lipid content. The cell dry weight and lipid content of this water mold decreased to 89.54 ± 1.21 mg/gds and 38.82% w/w, respectively, when cultivated on standard medium Czapek-Dox agar (CDA). For the fatty acid profile of A. diffusa grown in sugarcane bagasse and CDA, in situ transesterification (IST) and indirect transesterification (IDT) approaches were evaluated. The lipid profile of this mold revealed the presence of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C20:0, and C21:0 fatty acids, which is similar to vegetable oils. The biodiesel properties of the lipids obtained from A. diffusa satisfied the limits as determined by international standards ASTM-D6751 and EN-14214 demonstrating its suitability as a fuel for diesel engines.

  • 14.
    Qureshi, Asif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jia, Yu
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Potential of fly ash for neutralisation of acid mine drainage2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 17, p. 17083-17094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignite (PK), bituminous (FI) and biomass (SE) fly ashes (FAs) were mineralogically and geochemically characterised, and their element leachability was studied with batch leaching tests. The potential for acid neutralisation (ANP) was quantified by their buffering capacity, reflecting their potential for neutralisation of acid mine drainage. Quartz was the common mineral in FAs detected by XRD with iron oxide, anhydrite, and magnesioferrite in PK, mullite and lime in FI, and calcite and anorthite in SE. All the FAs had high contents of major elements such as Fe, Si, Al and Ca. The Ca content in SE was six and eight times higher compared to PK and FI, respectively. Sulphur content in PK and SE was one magnitude higher than FI. Iron concentrations were higher in PK. The trace element concentrations varied between the FAs. SE had the highest ANP (corresponding to 275 kg CaCO3 tonne-1) which was 15 and 10 times higher than PK and FI, respectively. The concentrations of Ca2+, SO4 2-, Na+ and Cl- in the leachates were much higher compared to other elements from all FA samples. Iron, Cu and Hg were not detected in any of the FA leachates because of their mild to strong alkaline nature with pH ranging from 9 to 13. Potassium leached in much higher quantity from SE than from the other ashes. Arsenic, Mn and Ni leached from PK only, while Co and Pb from SE only. The concentrations of Zn were higher in the leachates from SE. The FAs used in this study have strong potential for the neutralisation of AMD due to their alkaline nature. However, on the other hand, FAs must be further investigated, with scaled-up experiments before full-scale application, because they might leach pronounced concentrations of elements of concern with decreasing pH while neutralising AMD.

  • 15.
    Qureshi, Asif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Pakistan.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effects of the co-disposal of lignite fly ash and coal mine waste rocks on AMD and leachate quality2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 4104-4115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignite fly ash (FA) and waste rocks (WRs) were mixed in three different ratios (1:1, 1:3 and 1:5) and studied to compare the effects of adding FA on acid mine drainage generation from coal mining WRs, leachability of elements and the potential occurrence of the secondary minerals. FA mixed with WRs showed significant differences in pH levels compared to previous research. The 1:1 mixture performed best of all the three mixtures in terms of pH and leachability of elements, mainly due to the higher proportion of FA in the mixture. The pH in the 1:1 mixtures varied between 3.3 and 5.1 compared to other mixtures (2.3–3.5). Iron and SO42− leached considerably less from the 1:1 mixture compared to the others, indicating that the oxidation of sulphides was weaker in this mixture. Aluminium leached to a high degree from all mixtures, with concentrations varying from mg L−1 to g L−1. The reason behind this increase is probably the addition of FA which, due to acidic conditions and the composition of the FA, increases the availability of Al. For the same reason, high concentrations of Mn and Zn were also measured. Geochemical modelling indicates that the 1:1 mixture performs better in terms of precipitation of Al3+ minerals, whereas Fe3+ minerals precipitated more in mixtures containing less FA. These results suggest that, with time, the pores could possibly be filled with these secondary minerals and sulphate salts (followed by a decrease in sulphide oxidation), improving the pore water pH and decreasing the leachability of elements. Since grain size plays a crucial role in the reactivity of sulphides, there is a risk that the results from the leaching tests may have been influenced by crushing and milling of the WR samples.

  • 16.
    Rodríguez, Nathalie Pérez
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Langella, Francesca
    Institute for Microbiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kothe, Erika
    Institute for Microbiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The role of bacterial consortium and organic amendment in Cu and Fe isotope fractionation in plants on a polluted mine site2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 6836-6844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper and iron isotope fractionation by plant uptake and translocation is a matter of current research. As a way to apply the use of Cu and Fe stable isotopes in the phytoremediation of contaminated sites, the effects of organic amendment and microbial addition in a mine spoiled soil seeded with Helianthus annuus in pot experiments and field trials were studied. Results show that the addition of a microbial consortium of ten bacterial strains has an influence on Cu and Fe isotope fractionation by the uptake and translocation in pot experiments, with an increase in average of 0.99‰ for the δ65Cu values from soil to roots. In the field trial, the amendment with the addition of bacteria and mycorrhiza as single and double inoculation enriches the leaves in 65Cu compared to the soil. As a result of the same trial, the δ56Fe values in the leaves are lower than those from the bulk soil, although some differences are seen according to the amendment used. Siderophores, possibly released by the bacterial consortium, can be responsible for this change in the Cu and Fe fractionation. The overall isotopic fractionation trend for Cu and Fe does not vary for pots and field experiments with or without bacteria. However variations in specific metabolic pathways related to metal-organic complexation and weathering can modify particular isotopic signatures.

  • 17.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 19101-19111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30 % APCR/70 % soil and 50 % APCR/50 % soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39–93 % in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

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