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  • 1.
    Chirindja, F.J.
    et al.
    Geology Department, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo.
    Dahlin, Torleif
    LTH, Lund, Department of Engineering Geology, Lund University.
    Perttu, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Steinbrusch, F.
    Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai.
    Owen, R.
    University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
    Combined electrical resistivity tomography and magnetic resonance sounding investigation of the surface-water/groundwater interaction in the Urema Graben, Mozambique2016In: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1583-1592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focusses on the hydrogeology of Urema Graben, especially possible interactions between surface water and groundwater around Lake Urema, in Gorongosa National Park (GNP). Lake Urema is the only permanent water source for wildlife inside GNP, and there are concerns that it will disappear due to interferences in surface-water/groundwater interactions as a result of changes in the hydraulic environment. As the lake is the only permanent water source, this would be a disaster for the ecosystem of the park. The sub-surface geology in Urema Graben was investigated by 20 km of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and three magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) surveys. The average depth penetration was 60 and 100 m, respectively. The location of the ERT lines was decided based on general rift morphology and therefore orientated perpendicular to Urema Graben, from the transitional areas of the margins of the Barue platform in the west to the Cheringoma plateau escarpments in the east. ERT and MRS both indicate a second aquifer, where Urema Lake is a window of the first upper semi-confined aquifer, while the lower aquifer is confined by a clay layer 30–40 m thick. The location and depth of this aquifer suggest that it is probably linked to the Pungwe River which could be a main source of recharge during the dry season. If a dam or any other infra-structure is constructed in Pungwe River upstream of GNP, the groundwater level will decrease which could lead to drying out of Urema Lake.

  • 2.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Temperature-driven groundwater convection in cold climates2016In: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 1245-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study density-driven groundwater flow and analyse groundwater mixing because of seasonal changes in groundwater temperature. Here, density-driven convection in groundwater was studied by numerical simulations in a subarctic climate, i.e. where the water temperature was < 4 A degrees C. The effects of soil permeability and groundwater temperature (i.e. viscosity and density) were determined. The influence of impermeable obstacles in otherwise homogeneous ground was also studied. An initial disturbance in the form of a horizontal groundwater flow was necessary to start the convection. Transient solutions describe the development of convective cells in the groundwater and it took 22 days before fully developed convection patterns were formed. The thermal convection reached a maximum depth of 1.0 m in soil of low permeability (2.71 center dot 10(-9) m(2)). At groundwater temperature close to its density maximum (4 A degrees C), the physical size (in m) of the convection cells was reduced. Small stones or frost lenses in the ground slightly affect the convective flow, while larger obstacles change the size and shape of the convection cells. Performed simulations show that "seasonal groundwater turnover" occurs. This knowledge may be useful in the prevention of nutrient leakage to underlying groundwater from soils, especially in agricultural areas where no natural vertical groundwater flow is evident. An application in northern Sweden is discussed.

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