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  • 1.
    Beaty, D.W
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
    Fernández-Remolar, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia.
    The potential science and engineering value of samples delivered to Earth by Mars sample return2019In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 667-671Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Beaty, D.W
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
    Fernández-Remolar, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia.
    The potential science and engineering value of samples delivered to Earth by Mars sample return: International MSR Objectives and Samples Team (iMOST)2019In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 54, no S1, p. 3-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Summary: Return of samples from the surface of Mars has been a goal of the international Mars science community for many years. Affirmation by NASA and ESA of the importance of Mars exploration led the agencies to establish the international MSR Objectives and Samples Team (iMOST). The purpose of the team is to re-evaluate and update the sample-related science and engineering objectives of a Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign. The iMOST team has also undertaken to define the measurements and the types of samples that can best address the objectives. Seven objectives have been defined for MSR, traceable through two decades of previously published international priorities. The first two objectives are further divided into sub-objectives. Within the main part of the report, the importance to science and/or engineering of each objective is described, critical measurements that would address the objectives are specified, and the kinds of samples that would be most likely to carry key information are identified. These seven objectives provide a framework for demonstrating how the first set of returned Martian samples would impact future Martian science and exploration. They also have implications for how analogous investigations might be conducted for samples returned by future missions from other solar system bodies, especially those that may harbor biologically relevant or sensitive material, such as Ocean Worlds (Europa, Enceladus, Titan) and others. Summary of Objectives and Sub-Objectives for MSR Identified by iMOST: Objective 1 Interpret the primary geologic processes and history that formed the Martian geologic record, with an emphasis on the role of water. Intent To investigate the geologic environment(s) represented at the Mars 2020 landing site, provide definitive geologic context for collected samples, and detail any characteristics that might relate to past biologic processesThis objective is divided into five sub-objectives that would apply at different landing sites. 1.1 Characterize the essential stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and facies variations of a sequence of Martian sedimentary rocks. Intent To understand the preserved Martian sedimentary record. Samples A suite of sedimentary rocks that span the range of variation. Importance Basic inputs into the history of water, climate change, and the possibility of life 1.2 Understand an ancient Martian hydrothermal system through study of its mineralization products and morphological expression. Intent To evaluate at least one potentially life-bearing “habitable” environment Samples A suite of rocks formed and/or altered by hydrothermal fluids. Importance Identification of a potentially habitable geochemical environment with high preservation potential. 1.3 Understand the rocks and minerals representative of a deep subsurface groundwater environment. Intent To evaluate definitively the role of water in the subsurface. Samples Suites of rocks/veins representing water/rock interaction in the subsurface. Importance May constitute the longest-lived habitable environments and a key to the hydrologic cycle. 1.4 Understand water/rock/atmosphere interactions at the Martian surface and how they have changed with time. Intent To constrain time-variable factors necessary to preserve records of microbial life. Samples Regolith, paleosols, and evaporites. Importance Subaerial near-surface processes could support and preserve microbial life. 1.5 Determine the petrogenesis of Martian igneous rocks in time and space. Intent To provide definitive characterization of igneous rocks on Mars. Samples Diverse suites of ancient igneous rocks. Importance Thermochemical record of the planet and nature of the interior. Objective 2 Assess and interpret the potential biological history of Mars, including assaying returned samples for the evidence of life. Intent To investigate the nature and extent of Martian habitability, the conditions and processes that supported or challenged life, how different environments might have influenced the preservation of biosignatures and created nonbiological “mimics,” and to look for biosignatures of past or present life.This objective has three sub-objectives: 2.1 Assess and characterize carbon, including possible organic and pre-biotic chemistry. Samples All samples collected as part of Objective 1. Importance Any biologic molecular scaffolding on Mars would likely be carbon-based. 2.2 Assay for the presence of biosignatures of past life at sites that hosted habitable environments and could have preserved any biosignatures. Samples All samples collected as part of Objective 1. Importance Provides the means of discovering ancient life. 2.3 Assess the possibility that any life forms detected are alive, or were recently alive. Samples All samples collected as part of Objective 1. Importance Planetary protection, and arguably the most important scientific discovery possible. Objective 3 Quantitatively determine the evolutionary timeline of Mars. Intent To provide a radioisotope-based time scale for major events, including magmatic, tectonic, fluvial, and impact events, and the formation of major sedimentary deposits and geomorphological features. Samples Ancient igneous rocks that bound critical stratigraphic intervals or correlate with crater-dated surfaces. Importance Quantification of Martian geologic history. Objective 4 Constrain the inventory of Martian volatiles as a function of geologic time and determine the ways in which these volatiles have interacted with Mars as a geologic system. Intent To recognize and quantify the major roles that volatiles (in the atmosphere and in the hydrosphere) play in Martian geologic and possibly biologic evolution. Samples Current atmospheric gas, ancient atmospheric gas trapped in older rocks, and minerals that equilibrated with the ancient atmosphere. Importance Key to understanding climate and environmental evolution. Objective 5 Reconstruct the processes that have affected the origin and modification of the interior, including the crust, mantle, core and the evolution of the Martian dynamo. Intent To quantify processes that have shaped the planet's crust and underlying structure, including planetary differentiation, core segregation and state of the magnetic dynamo, and cratering. Samples Igneous, potentially magnetized rocks (both igneous and sedimentary) and impact-generated samples. Importance Elucidate fundamental processes for comparative planetology. Objective 6 Understand and quantify the potential Martian environmental hazards to future human exploration and the terrestrial biosphere. Intent To define and mitigate an array of health risks related to the Martian environment associated with the potential future human exploration of Mars. Samples Fine-grained dust and regolith samples. Importance Key input to planetary protection planning and astronaut health. Objective 7 Evaluate the type and distribution of in-situ resources to support potential future Mars exploration. Intent To quantify the potential for obtaining Martian resources, including use of Martian materials as a source of water for human consumption, fuel production, building fabrication, and agriculture. Samples Regolith. Importance Production of simulants that will facilitate long-term human presence on Mars. Summary of iMOST Findings: Several specific findings were identified during the iMOST study. While they are not explicit recommendations, we suggest that they should serve as guidelines for future decision making regarding planning of potential future MSR missions. The samples to be collected by the Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover will be of sufficient size and quality to address and solve a wide variety of scientific questions. Samples, by definition, are a statistical representation of a larger entity. Our ability to interpret the source geologic units and processes by studying sample sub sets is highly dependent on the quality of the sample context. In the case of the M-2020 samples, the context is expected to be excellent, and at multiple scales. (A) Regional and planetary context will be established by the on-going work of the multi-agency fleet of Mars orbiters. (B) Local context will be established at field area- to outcrop- to hand sample- to hand lens scale using the instruments carried by M-2020. A significant fraction of the value of the MSR sample collection would come from its organization into sample suites, which are small groupings of samples designed to represent key aspects of geologic or geochemical variation. If the Mars 2020 rover acquires a scientifically well-chosen set of samples, with sufficient geological diversity, and if those samples were returned to Earth, then major progress can be expected on all seven of the objectives proposed in this study, regardless of the final choice of landing site. The specifics of which parts of Objective 1 could be achieved would be different at each of the final three candidate landing sites, but some combination of critically important progress could be made at any of them. An aspect of the search for evidence of life is that we do not know in advance how evidence for Martian life would be preserved in the geologic record. In order for the returned samples to be most useful for both understanding geologic processes (Objective 1) and the search for life (Objective 2), the sample collection should contain BOTH typical and unusual samples from the rock units explored. This consideration should be incorporated into sample selection and the design of the suites. The retrieval missions of a MSR campaign should (1) minimize stray magnetic fields to which the samples would be exposed and carry a magnetic witness plate to record exposure, (2) collect and return atmospheric gas sample(s), and (3) collect additional dust and/or regolith sample mass if possible.

  • 3.
    Brown, P.G.
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario,Canada.
    Vida, D.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Moser, D.E
    Jacobs Space Exploration Group, EV44/Meteoroid Environment Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koshak, W.J
    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ST11 Robert Cramer Research Hall, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.
    Chu, D.
    Chesapeake Aerospace LLC, Grasonville, Maryland,USA.
    Steckloff, J.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, Arizona, USA. Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.
    Licata, A.
    Farmington Community Stargazers, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA.
    Hariri, S.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, USA.
    Mason, J.
    Orchard Ridge Campus, Oakland Community College, Farmington Hills, Michigan,USA.
    Mazur, M.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Cooke, W.
    NASA Meteoroid Environment Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.
    Krzeminski, Z.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    The Hamburg meteorite fall: Fireball trajectory, orbit, and dynamics2019In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 54, no 9, p. 2027-2045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hamburg (H4) meteorite fell on 17 January 2018 at 01:08 UT approximately 10 km north of Ann Arbor, Michigan. More than two dozen fragments totaling under 1 kg were recovered, primarily from frozen lake surfaces. The fireball initial velocity was 15.83 ± 0.05 km s−1, based on four independent records showing the fireball above 50 km altitude. The radiant had a zenith angle of 66.14 ± 0.29° and an azimuth of 121.56 ± 1.2°. The resulting low inclination (<1°) Apollo‐type orbit has a large aphelion distance and Tisserand value relative to Jupiter (Tj) of ~3. Two major flares dominate the energy deposition profile, centered at 24.1 and 21.7 km altitude, respectively, under dynamic pressures of 5–7 MPa. The Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite‐16 also detected the two main flares and their relative timing and peak flux agree with the video‐derived brightness profile. Our preferred total energy for the Hamburg fireball is 2–7 T TNT (8.4–28 × 109 J), which corresponds to a likely initial mass in the range of 60–225 kg or diameter between 0.3 and 0.5 m. Based on the model of Granvik et al. (2018), the meteorite originated in an escape route from the mid to outer asteroid belt. Hamburg is the 14th known H chondrite with an instrumentally derived preatmospheric orbit, half of which have small (<5°) inclinations making connection with (6) Hebe problematic. A definitive parent body consistent with all 14 known H chondrite orbits remains elusive.

  • 4.
    Jenniskens, Peter
    et al.
    SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, California, USA. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California,USA.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki, Finland.
    The Creston, California, meteorite fall and the origin of L chondrites2019In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 699-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that all L chondrites resulted from an ongoing collisional cascade of fragments that originated from the formation of the ~500 Ma old asteroid family Gefion, located near the 5:2 mean‐motion resonance with Jupiter in the middle Main Belt. If so, L chondrite pre‐atmospheric orbits should be distributed as expected for that source region. Here, we present contradictory results from the orbit and collisional history of the October 24, 2015, L6 ordinary chondrite fall at Creston, CA (here reclassified to L5/6). Creston's short 1.30 ± 0.02 AU semimajor axis orbit would imply a long dynamical evolution if it originated from the middle Main Belt. Indeed, Creston has a high cosmic ray exposure age of 40–50 Ma. However, Creston's small meteoroid size and low 4.23 ± 0.07° inclination indicate a short dynamical lifetime against collisions. This suggests, instead, that Creston originated most likely in the inner asteroid belt and was delivered via the ν6 resonance. The U‐Pb systematics of Creston apatite reveals a Pb‐Pb age of 4,497.1 ± 3.7 Ma, and an upper intercept U‐Pb age of 4,496.7 ± 5.8 Ma (2σ), circa 70 Ma after formation of CAI, as found for other L chondrites. The K‐Ar (age ~4.3 Ga) and U,Th‐He (age ~1 Ga) chronometers were not reset at ~500 Ma, while the lower intercept U‐Pb age is poorly defined as 770 ± 320 Ma. So far, the three known L chondrites that impacted on orbits with semimajor axes a <2.0 AU all have high (>3 Ga) K‐Ar ages. This argues for a source of some of our L chondrites in the inner Main Belt. Not all L chondrites originate in a continuous population of Gefion family debris stretching across the 3:1 mean‐motion resonance.

  • 5.
    Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.
    et al.
    Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans.
    Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.
    Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans.
    Benito, M. Isabel
    Departamento de Estratigrafía-IGEO, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-CSIC.
    Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto
    Fac. de Ciencias Ambientales y Bioquímica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha.
    Lee, Martin R.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow.
    Mestres, Narcís
    Institut de Cìencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) .
    Martínez-Jiménez, Marina
    Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Fraxedas, Jordi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB.
    Petrographic and geochemical evidence for multiphase formation of carbonates in the Martian orthopyroxenite Allan Hills 840012017In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1030-1047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martian meteorites can provide valuable information about past environmental conditions on Mars. Allan Hills 84001 formed more than 4 Gyr ago, and owing to its age and long exposure to the Martian environment, and this meteorite has features that may record early processes. These features include a highly fractured texture, gases trapped during one or more impact events or during formation of the rock, and spherical Fe-Mg-Ca carbonates. In this study, we have concentrated on providing new insights into the context of these carbonates using a range of techniques to explore whether they record multiple precipitation and shock events. The petrographic features and compositional properties of these carbonates indicate that at least two pulses of Mg- and Fe-rich solutions saturated the rock. Those two generations of carbonates can be distinguished by a very sharp change in compositions, from being rich in Mg and poor in Fe and Mn, to being poor in Mg and rich in Fe and Mn. Between these two generations of carbonate is evidence for fracturing and local corrosion

  • 6.
    Schwenzer, Susanne P.
    et al.
    CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes, Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes, Open University, Milton Keynes, Department of Physical Science, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes.
    Bridges, John C.
    Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University of Leicester.
    Wiens, Roger C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, International Space and Response Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Kelley, S.P.
    Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes.
    Leveille, R.
    Canadian Space Agency, St-Hubert.
    Mangold, Nicolas
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique de Nantes, LPGN/CNRS and Université de Nantes, Laboratorie de Planetologie et Geodynamique de Nantes, Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes, LPGN, CNRS, UMR 6112, Université Nantes, CNRS- UMR 6112, Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, Université de Nantes.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Newsom, Horton E.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Institute of Meteoritics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Rapin, W.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Spray, John G.
    Planetary and Space Science Centre, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton.
    Treiman, A.H.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Westall, F.
    Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS, Orléans.
    Fairen, Alberto G.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Meslin, Pierre-Yves
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Fluids during diagenesis and sulfate vein formation in sediments at Gale crater, Mars2016In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 2175-2202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We model the fluids involved in the alteration processes recorded in the Sheepbed Member mudstones of Yellowknife Bay (YKB), Gale crater, Mars, as revealed by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover investigations. We compare the Gale crater waters with fluids modeled for shergottites, nakhlites, and the ancient meteorite ALH 84001, as well as rocks analyzed by the Mars Exploration rovers, and with terrestrial ground and surface waters. The aqueous solution present during sediment alteration associated with phyllosilicate formation at Gale was high in Na, K, and Si; had low Mg, Fe, and Al concentrations—relative to terrestrial groundwaters such as the Deccan Traps and other modeled Mars fluids; and had near neutral to alkaline pH. Ca and S species were present in the 10−3 to 10−2 concentration range. A fluid local to Gale crater strata produced the alteration products observed by Curiosity and subsequent evaporation of this groundwater-type fluid formed impure sulfate- and silica-rich deposits—veins or horizons. In a second, separate stage of alteration, partial dissolution of this sulfate-rich layer in Yellowknife Bay, or beyond, led to the pure sulfate veins observed in YKB. This scenario is analogous to similar processes identified at a terrestrial site in Triassic sediments with gypsum veins of the Mercia Mudstone Group in Watchet Bay, UK.

  • 7.
    Unsalan, Ozan
    et al.
    University of Istanbul, Vezneciler, Fatih Istanbul, Turkey. Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.
    Jenniskens, Peter
    SETI Institute, Mountain View, California, USA. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Schmedemann, Nico
    Freie Universit at Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Gottingen, Germany.
    The Sariçiçek howardite fall in Turkey: Source crater of HED meteorites on Vesta and impact risk of Vestoids2019In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 953-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sariçiçek howardite meteorite shower consisting of 343 documented stones occurred on September 2, 2015 in Turkey and is the first documented howardite fall. Cosmogenic isotopes show that Sariçiçek experienced a complex cosmic‐ray exposure history, exposed during ~12–14 Ma in a regolith near the surface of a parent asteroid, and that an ~1 m sized meteoroid was launched by an impact 22 ± 2 Ma ago to Earth (as did one‐third of all HED meteorites). SIMS dating of zircon and baddeleyite yielded 4550.4 ± 2.5 Ma and 4553 ± 8.8 Ma crystallization ages for the basaltic magma clasts. The apatite U‐Pb age of 4525 ± 17 Ma, K‐Ar age of ~3.9 Ga, and the U,Th‐He ages of 1.8 ± 0.7 and 2.6 ± 0.3 Ga are interpreted to represent thermal metamorphic and impact‐related resetting ages, respectively. Petrographic; geochemical; and O‐, Cr‐, and Ti‐isotopic studies confirm that Sariçiçek belongs to the normal clan of HED meteorites. Petrographic observations and analysis of organic material indicate a small portion of carbonaceous chondrite material in the Sariçiçek regolith and organic contamination of the meteorite after a few days on soil. Video observations of the fall show an atmospheric entry at 17.3 ± 0.8 km s−1 from NW; fragmentations at 37, 33, 31, and 27 km altitude; and provide a pre‐atmospheric orbit that is the first dynamical link between the normal HED meteorite clan and the inner Main Belt. Spectral data indicate the similarity of Sariçiçek with the Vesta asteroid family (V‐class) spectra, a group of asteroids stretching to delivery resonances, which includes (4) Vesta. Dynamical modeling of meteoroid delivery to Earth shows that the complete disruption of a ~1 km sized Vesta family asteroid or a ~10 km sized impact crater on Vesta is required to provide sufficient meteoroids ≤4 m in size to account for the influx of meteorites from this HED clan. The 16.7 km diameter Antionia impact crater on Vesta was formed on terrain of the same age as given by the 4He retention age of Sariçiçek. Lunar scaling for crater production to crater counts of its ejecta blanket show it was formed ~22 Ma ago.

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