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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sellgren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    River flow with excessive suspended sediment load: an evaluation of turbulent flow characteristics1986In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 17, no 4-5, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River flows with high volume concentrations (20-50%) of silty sediments generally imply that the mixture has non-Newtonian properties. In this study, the rheological behavior of mixtures with solids particles smaller than 0. 1 mm was identified experimentally with viscosimeters. Characteristic flow parameters, such as energy losses and depths, were then determined in several examples for turbulent open channel flows.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Evaporation from a snow cover: review and discussion of measurements1980In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 221-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of the literature and lysimeter measurements in Sweden demonstrated that total evaporation from snow cover during the season was only 10-20 mm. The calculated net total evaporation, accounting for the energy supply, for a single day in April was 0.14 mm. Variation in evaporation over the day, April 6, 1978, at Lulea, was from -5 mm per hour to 10 mm per hour. During midwinter when air was dry, little evaporation occurred. In spring solar radiation was available but the vapor pressure difference was very small. In the beginning of May 1979 evaporation rates were 0.6-0.8 mm per day, decreasing to zero by May 14 and becoming negative (condensation) May 15-23. Total evaporation was 6 mm, but net evaporation only 3 mm. The aerodynamic formula is most frequently used for determining evaporation on a routine basis, but should be used together with energy balance computations, because evaporation rate is limited by available energy. The profile method, which compensates for the effect of density stratification in the air, can be used on a short-term basis

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Snowmelt estimated from energy budget studies1976In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The snowmelt at a point is estimated through a simplified energy budget. From the energy equation a degree-day method is derived. The rate of snowmelt is found as a constant multiplied by the temperature excess over an equilibrium temperature which depends on solar radiation.The snowmelt events in Kiruna (3 years) and Luleå (4 years) are analysed utilizing energy balance computations and the degree-day method. First observed and calculated day when the ground was free of snow is for all seven years in good agreement. The rate of snowmelt calculated by the proposed degree-day method is almost identical to the rate found from energy balance computations. Snowmelt rates estimated by a simple degree-day method using a constant equilibrium temperature are too fast in the beginning and too slow at the end of the melting season.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The importance of refreezing on the diurnal snowmelt cycle with application to a Northern Swedish catchment1982In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for including night-time refreezing of the top layer of a snowpack in the degree-day method for computing daily snowmelt rates is presented. It is found that during days of large diurnal temperature variations the daily melt is more determined by the day-time conditions than by the daily mean conditions. Applications are made to an open area and a forested area. The refreezing-degree-day method is found to describe the snowmelt process very well, whereas the simple degree-day method shows a too fast snowmelt rate.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wind Induced Circulation in Lakes1978In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 75-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most lakes the wind is the most important flow generating mechanism. In this paper, the problem of wind generated circulation - directly wind induced currents and seiches - in small lakes was reviewed. Many field observations were presented and discussed. In the thermocline and the hypolimnion, forced seiche currents were shown to dominate the directly induced wind currents. Different kinds of non-convective mathematical lake models were discussed and applied to different small lakes. Comparisons of observed and calculated current showed that lake models can be used to reproduce the currents of the upper 3-4 metres in a lake. The interaction between large-scale flow and turbulent flow is yet unknown; and therefore, it is not possible to explain the physical current pattern and density anomalies at greater depth. In respect to the limited knowledge on turbulent processes in lakes, it is acceptable to apply a quadric relationship between wind stress and wind speed with a drag coefficient of about 0.001

  • 6.
    Engelmark, Helen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Infiltration in unsaturated frozen soil1984In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 15, no 4-5, p. 243-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-dimensioinal mathematical model is used to simulate the process of snow-melt infiltration in unsaturated frozen silt. Hydraulic and thermal parameters are mainly based on data given in the literature. Field observations in a watershed (of area 1. 8 km**2) are compared with simulated data and consequences on snow melt run-off are discussed

  • 7.
    Engelmark, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Svensson, Urban
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Numerical modelling of phase change in freezing and thawing unsaturated soil1993In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 24, no 2/3, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems associated with seasonal freezing and thawing processes occur in natural and man modified soil environments. To optimize various technical solutions in such areas, the importance of accurately predicting heat and water flow in seasonally freezing and thawing soils becomes obvious. A phase change between water and ice occurs in moist soils subjected to freezing and thawing. In concentrating on water transport phenomena in frozen soil, it can be demonstrated that the heat and moisture flow relationships are coupled to relationships for mass balance and phase change. A new numerical model was developed for handling the phase change process. In the new method, heat and mass transfer equations for soils subjected to both freezing and thawing (but without heaving and transport of mass in the air phase), are solved numerically. This new method for handling the phase change process is based on a total energy balance together with soil-water-freezing-characteristics (SWFC). The total energy balance of the frozen zone includes sensible and latent heat components. The phase change during a time increment is calculated, without any iteration, after the heat and water flow equations are solved for the same time increment (i.e., a two-step approach). Simulations of the three tests with the proposed new method were carried out with abrupt boundary conditions from time zero. Little difference between measured and calculated temperature and moisture content profiles resulted. However, a difference in the results at the cold end, between simulations with the new model and a previously developed model, shows that without any exact measurement of the moisture content at the cold end, no final conclusion about the real magnitude of the moisture content at the cold end can be drawn. A supercooling of the pore water was needed before ice formation could begin. This was due to moderate initial moisture content. The water flow toward the freezing front caused the moisture content to decrease in the unfrozen part of the soil column. Lesser amounts of water in this part, then required even lower temperatures before ice formation could start. Frost depths were not detectable with only temperature measurements. (See also W93-08925) (Lantz-PTT)

  • 8.
    Feiccabrino, James
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Gustafsson, David
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Improving surface based precipitation phase determination through air mass boundary identification2012In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most hydrological models apply one empirical formula based on surface air temperature for precipitation phase determination. This approach is flawed as surface precipitation phase results from energy exchanges between falling precipitation and air in the lower atmosphere. Different lower atmospheric conditions cause different precipitation phase probabilities for near-freezing temperatures. Often directly measured lower atmospheric conditions are not available for remote areas. However, meteorological observations occurring before/after similar air mass boundaries have similar atmospheric conditions that vary from most other observations. Therefore, hydrological models can indirectly account for lower atmospheric conditions. Twenty years of manual observations from eight United States weather stations were used to compare misclassified precipitation proportions when analyzing (a) all precipitation observations together and (b) identified cold air mass boundary observations (CAB) and non-CAB observations separately. The CAB observations were identified by a rapid surface air temperature decrease. A two-surface air temperature threshold method with one threshold all snow (T-S degrees C) and one all rain (T-R degrees C) having a linear snow fraction decrease between the thresholds was used. The T-S (0 degrees C), and T-R (4 degrees C) values for CAB were 1 degrees C warmer than for non-CAB (-1 degrees C, 3 degrees C). Analyzing CAB and non-CAB separately reduced misclassified precipitation 23%, from 7.0 to 5.4%.

  • 9. Gunneriusson, Lars
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Equilibrium Speciation Models for Hg, Cd, and Pb in the Gulf of Bothnia and its Catchment Area1991In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Combination of a conceptual model and an autoregressive error model for improving short time forecasting1982In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 233-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An autoregressive error model has been tested on the residuals of the conceptual HBV-model for the Eman catchment. The autoregressive model gives considerable improvements for real shorttime forecasting, but for long range (10 days or more) forecasting no improvement is achieved compared to the conceptual model

  • 11.
    Lundberg, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Beyerl, H.
    Ash on snow a tool - a tool to prevent flooding?2001In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 195-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Years with late spring in combination with thick snow-pack constitute risk for flooding. To decrease that risk, the possibility of spreading albedo-lowering material (wood ash) on parts of a basin snow has been examined. By blackening the snow more solar radiation is absorbed and the snowmelt is enhanced. If sun-exposed parts of the basin are ash-treated (before normal runoff starts) the runoff will be distributed over a longer period of time and the risk of flooding will be reduced. Wood ash in different concentrations was spread on small snow plots and melt rates and albedo were measured. For snow covered with 0.03 kg ash m super(-2), the albedo was decreased from approximately 0.60 for natural snow to approximately 0.25, resulting in approximately 90% more absorbed short-wave radiation. Melt on the ash treated surface, (daily average snow water equivalent), was 70% larger than melt on natural snow (12 and 7 mm d super(-1) respectively). A five times larger concentration (0.15 kg m super(-2)) only increased the melt rate to 14 mm d super(-1). The temperature-index method was shown to be inadequate for modelling the melt rate for the ash treated snow. A radiation-index model, based on absorbed incoming short wave radiation, was shown to model the melt rate better than the temperature-index method.

  • 12.
    Lundberg, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Johansson, R.-M.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Optical precipitation gauge: determination of precipitation type and intensity by light attenuation technique1994In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 359-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists a great need for automatic precipitation gauges for effective road maintenance during the winter period. These gauges should be inexpensive, not require mains supply, need little attendance, give information about presence of precipitation and determine type (snow, rain or sleet) while there is no need for high accuracy of the precipitation intensity. Light attenuation precipitation sensors (optical gauges) fulfil several of these requirements and are used in the Swedish National Road Administration Road Weather System. The optical gauges measure the time it takes of particles of snow etc. to pass (attenuate) a light beam and relate this time to precipitation type and intensity. The rain precipitation mass is approximately proportional to the accumulated attenuation time. To investigate whether or not optical gauges could also be used for solid precipitation, the precipitation mass for snow, rain and sleet was measured with a reference gauge and compared to the attenuation time. The passage time of individual hydrometeorologic particles (snow, rain and sleet) was compared with precipitation type and wind speed. Air temperature could be used as a rough guide a distinguish three precipitation categories for the following temperatures: rain (> +2-degrees-C), sleet (0 to +2-degrees-C) and snow (less-than-or-equal-to 0-degree-C). At low wind speeds (< 3 m/s) the passage time of individual particles could be used to distinguish between rain and snow. The accumulated attenuation time for the same precipitation mass was approximately 25 and 5 times greater for snow and sleet respectively compared to rain. With the attenuation time for the snow-fall corrected for wind influence the quotient between the attenuation time for snow and rain is decreased from approximately 25 to approximately 12 times.

  • 13.
    Lundberg, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Thunehed, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Snow wetness influence on impulse radar snow surveys: theoretical and laboratory study2000In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 89-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The snow-water equivalent of late-winter snowpack is of utmost importance for hydropower production in areas where a large proportion of the reservoir water emanates from snowmelt. Impulse radar can be used to estimate the snow-water equivalent of the snowpack and thus the expected snowmelt discharge. Impulse radar is now in operational use in some Scandinavian basins. With radar technology the radar wave propagation time in the snowpack is converted into snow-water equivalent with help of a parameter usually termed the a-value. Use of radar technology during late winter brings about risk for measurements on wet snow. The a-value for dry snow cannot be used directly for wet snow. We have found that a liquid-water content of 5% (by volume) reduces the a-value by approximately 20%. In this paper an equation, based on snow density and snow liquid water content, for calculation of wet-snow a-value is presented.

  • 14.
    Lundberg, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Thunehed, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergström, J
    Impulse radar snow surveys: influence of snow density2000In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow cover water equivalent (SWE) is of major importance for planning of e.g. hydropower production in areas where a large proportion of the annual precipitation falls as snow. Radar technique can be used to determine SWE from the two-way travel time (twt) of a radar-wave propagation through a snowpack. SWE is usually related to twt through an empirical relationship, SWE = -b+a twt, where the values of a and b are determined by linear regression from simultaneous measurements of SWE (with snow-courses) and twt (with radar technology). In this paper a theoretical relationship between twt and SWE is developed showing the need for introducing the density when relating twt to SWE. Use of different empirical relationships for the real dielectric constant showed that the a-value for dry snow with a density of 350 kg m-3 (a typical value at the end of the accumulation season in the Nordic countries) is 0.040 m ns-1 (twt given in nanoseconds). When the snow density deviates considerably from this value a corrected a-value has to be used. A density of 300 and 400 kg m-3 gives a = 0.036 and 0.045 m ns-1 respectively. The b-value should theoretically be zero for measurements at the snow surface, non-zero values are probably due to the use of the direct wave between transmitter and receiver antennas as reference. The theoretically derived equations were confirmed by laboratory and field measurements as well as by measurements taken from literature.

  • 15.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Condensation of Humidity onto a Snow Covered Roof1990In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 21, no 4-5, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 16.
    Nordell, Bo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Maria
    Seasonal groundwater turnover2006In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal air temperature variations and corresponding changes in groundwater temperature cause convective movements in groundwater similar to the seasonal turnover in lakes. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the natural conditions for thermally driven groundwater convection to take place. Thermally driven convection could be triggered by a horizontal groundwater flow, Convection then starts at a considerably lower Rayleigh number (Ra) than the general critical Rayleigh number (Ra assuming that 10 degrees C groundwater is cooled to 4 degrees C, i.e. heated from below convection in porous media, This study supports the hypothesis that seasonal temperature variations, under certain conditions, initiate and drive thermal convection.

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  • 17.
    Rentz, Ralf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Urban impact on water bodies in the Luleå area, northern Sweden, and the role of redox processes2012In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 917-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment and water from urban water bodies in the Luleå area, northern Sweden, were studied to determine the degree of contamination from metals and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). The heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, which are of main concern in urban stormwater, are enriched in all investigated bays. PAH concentrations were also found to be enriched. The water and sediment quality of the investigated water bodies depends on catchment area characteristics and emission impact, from point sources in particular. Water volume and turnover rate in the water bodies with low water levels and no surface runoff during wintertime, and ice covering during winter, contribute to anoxic conditions in the water column and sediments. The present redox conditions in the water bodies predominantly cause fixation of pollutants in the sediment due to formation of sulphides and slow oxidation of organic pollutants. Postglacial land uplift implies continuous changes in the environment, which can lead to changing redox conditions, thereby necessitating new risk assessments.

  • 18.
    Sheng, D.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Axelsson, Kenneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Frost heave due to ice lens formation in freezing soils. 1: Theory and verification1995In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 125-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A frost heave model which simulates formation of ice lenses is developed for saturated salt-free soils. Quasi-steady state heat and mass flow is considered. Special attention is paid to the transmitted zone, i.e. the frozen fringe. The permeability of the frozen fringe is assumed to vary exponentially as a function of temperature. The rates of water flow in the frozen fringe and in the unfrozen soil are assumed to be constant in space but vary with time. The pore water pressure in the frozen fringe is integrated from the Darcy law. The ice pressure in the frozen fringe is determined by the generalized Clapeyron equation. A new ice lens is assumed to form in the frozen fringe when and where the effective stress approaches zero. The neutral stress is determined as a simple function of the unfrozen water content and porosity. The model is implemented on an personal computer. The simulated heave amounts and heaving rates are compared with experimental data, which shows that the model generally gives reasonable estimation.

  • 19.
    Sheng, D.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Axelsson, Kenneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Frost heave due to ice lens formation in freezing soils: 2, Field application1995In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 147-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An operational model for estimation of frost heave in field where stratified soil profile appears is presented. The model is developed from the research model described in part B. Soil layers are first classified into frost-susceptible layers (FSL) or non-frost-susceptible layers (NFSL). In an FSL, both heat flow and water flow are considered and ice lensing can occur. In a NFSL, only heat flow is possible and no ice lensing is allowed. The governing equations for heat and mass transfer are established for the time period when the frost front is moving within FSL. Capillarity and unsaturation are also considered. The operational model is verified by field measurements of heave amounts. Examples of application are given.

  • 20.
    Sundin, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Energy budget approach to urban snow deposit melt1999In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 39-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban areas in cold regions snow handling is a significant part of municipal activity. The snow is usually ploughed off the streets and then transported to a snow deposit. As a consequence the snow is mechanically blended, packed, polluted and piled up, giving it a characteristic texture, shape, and size. To predict snow deposit melt an energy budget model that uses general meteorological data has been derived. The model is a synthesis of available energy balance terms developed for natural snow covers, and general mass and heat transfer considerations. This approach was found applicable for estimating snow deposit melt. Only geometry, radiation, sensible and latent heat are included to the model. Radiation was found to be the major source of snow deposit melt. Very little difference was found between top and side energy fluxes. Model predictions were compared with measurements of two pilot snow deposits which were constructed with snow collected from the streets of Lulea, Sweden. The degree day approach also seems to be an applicable method to estimate snow deposit melt

  • 21.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Hernebring, Claes
    DHI Water & Environment, Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Modelling sediment transport during snowmelt- and rainfall-induced road runoff2008In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 113-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a simple conceptual model is presented to describe the dynamics of total suspended solid (TSS) transport during snowmelt- and rainfall-induced road runoff from a small urban runoff plot in northern Sweden. The study period (28 March to 28 May 2000) included both snowmelt and rainfall. A temperature-index method is used to describe snowmelt and the accumulation and transport of TSS is described by a linear build-up function and a wash-off model. The model was verified through measurements taken from 22 March to 22 May 2001. The simulation results showed that the simple model concept was capable of describing the dynamics of road runoff and TSS well, based on the continuous course of events for the whole modelling period. However, if the model was used for simulating a snowmelt period, or single events during snowmelt, the model approach would be too simple.

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