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  • 1.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Lundberg, Angela
    Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 6, p. 1386-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  • 2.
    Arora, Aman
    et al.
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.
    Arabameri, Alireza
    Department of Geomorphology, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Ale Ahmad Highway, Tehran 9821, Iran.
    Pandey, Manish
    University Center for Research & Development (UCRD), Chandigarh University, Mohali 140413, Punjab, India. Department of Civil Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali 140413, Punjab, India.
    Siddiqui, Masood A.
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.
    Shukla, U.K.
    Center for Advanced Study in Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.
    Tien Bui, Dieu
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Viet Nam.
    Mishra, Varun Narayan
    Centre for Climate Change and Water Research, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur 302017, Rajasthan, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, King's College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, UK.
    Optimization of state-of-the-art fuzzy-metaheuristic ANFIS-based machine learning models for flood susceptibility prediction mapping in the Middle Ganga Plain, India2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 750, article id 141565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an attempt to quantitatively test and compare novel advanced-machine learning algorithms in terms of their performance in achieving the goal of predicting flood susceptible areas in a low altitudinal range, sub-tropical floodplain environmental setting, like that prevailing in the Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), India. This part of the Ganga floodplain region, which under the influence of undergoing active tectonic regime related subsidence, is the hotbed of annual flood disaster. This makes the region one of the best natural laboratories to test the flood susceptibility models for establishing a universalization of such models in low relief highly flood prone areas. Based on highly sophisticated flood inventory archived for this region, and 12 flood conditioning factors viz. annual rainfall, soil type, stream density, distance from stream, distance from road, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), altitude, slope aspect, slope, curvature, land use/land cover, and geomorphology, an advanced novel hybrid model Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), and three metaheuristic models-based ensembles with ANFIS namely ANFIS-GA (Genetic Algorithm), ANFIS-DE (Differential Evolution), and ANFIS-PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization), have been applied for zonation of the flood susceptible areas. The flood inventory dataset, prepared by collected flood samples, were apportioned into 70:30 classes to prepare training and validation datasets. One independent validation method, the Area-Under Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) Curve, and other 11 cut-off-dependent model evaluation metrices have helped to conclude that the ANIFS-GA has outperformed other three models with highest success rate AUC = 0.922 and prediction rate AUC = 0.924. The accuracy was also found to be highest for ANFIS-GA during training (0.886) & validation (0.883). Better performance of ANIFS-GA than the individual models as well as some ensemble models suggests and warrants further study in this topoclimatic environment using other classes of susceptibility models. This will further help establishing a benchmark model with capability of highest accuracy and sensitivity performance in the similar topographic and climatic setting taking assumption of the quality of input parameters as constant.

  • 3.
    Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Lundgren, M.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Qvarforth, A.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Paulukat, Cora
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Moreno-Jimenez, E.
    Department of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Beesley, L.
    School of Science, Engineering and Environment, Peel Building, University of Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, UK; Department of Environmental Geosciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Trakal, L.
    Department of Environmental Geosciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Hough, R. L.
    The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK.
    Urban vegetable contamination - The role of adhering particles and their significance for human exposure2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 900, article id 165633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While urban-grown vegetables could help combat future food insecurity, the elevated levels of toxic metals in urban soils need to be met with measures that minimise transfer to crops. The study firstly examines soil/dust particle inclusion in leafy vegetables and its contribution to vegetable metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn), using vegetable, soil and dust data from an open-field urban farm in southeastern Sweden. Titanium concentrations were used to assess soil/dust adherence. Results showed that vegetables contained 0.05–1.3 wt% of adhering particles (AP) even after washing. With 0.5 % AP, an adult with an average intake of vegetables could ingest approximately 100mg of particles per day, highlighting leafy vegetables as a major route for soil/dust ingestion. The presence of adhering particles also significantly contributed to the vegetable concentrations of As (9-20%), Co (17-20%), Pb (25-29%), and Cr (33-34%). Secondly, data from an indoor experiment was used to characterise root metal uptake from 20 urban soils from Sweden, Denmark, Spain, the UK, and the Czech Republic. Combining particle adherence and root uptake data, vegetable metal concentrations were calculated for the 20 urban soils to represent hypothetical field scenarios for these. Subsequently, average daily doses were assessed for vegetable consumers (adults and 3-6 year old children), distinguishing between doses from adhering particles and root uptake. Risks were evaluated from hazard quotients (HQs; average daily doses/tolerable intakes). Lead was found to pose the greatest risk, where particle ingestion often resulted in HQs>1 across all assessed scenarios. In summary, since washing was shown to remove only a portion of adhering metal-laden soil/dust particles from leafy vegetation, farmers and urban planners need to consider that measures to limit particle deposition are equally important as cultivating in uncontaminated soil.

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  • 4.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Qvarforth, Anna
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hough, Rupert
    The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH, UK.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Paulukat, Cora
    Division of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Managing health risks in urban agriculture: The effect of vegetable washing for reducing exposure to metal contaminants2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 863, article id 160996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common, yet poorly evaluated, advice to remove contaminants from urban vegetables is to wash the produce before consumption. This study is based on 63 samples of chard, kale, lettuce and parsley that have grown near a heavily trafficked road in the third largest city in Sweden, with one portion of each sample being analysed without first being washed, and the other portion being subjected to common household washing. Concentrations of 71 elements were analysed by ICP-SFMS after a sample digestion that dissolves both the plant tissues and all potentially adhering particles. The results show that the washing effect, or the fraction removed upon washing, varies significantly between elements: from approximately 0 % for K to 68 % for the ∑REEs. Considering traditional metal contaminants, the efficiency decreased from Pb (on average 56 % lost) to Co (56 %) > Cr (55 %) > As (45 %) > Sb (35 %) > Ni (33 %) > Cu (13 %) > Zn (7 %) > Cd (7 %), and Ba (5 %). A clear negative correlation between the washing effect and the different elements' bioconcentration factors shows that the elements' accessibility for plant uptake is a key controlling factor for the degree to which they are removed upon washing. Based on the average washing efficiencies seen in this study, the average daily intake of Pb would increase by 130 % if vegetables are not washed prior to consumption. For the other contaminant metals this increase corresponds to 126 % (Co), 121 % (Cr), 82 % (As), 55 % (Sb), 50 % (Ni), 16 % (Cu), 8 % (Zn), 7 % (Cd) and 5 % (Ba). The advice to wash vegetables is therefore, for many elements, highly motivated for reducing exposure and health risks. For elements which are only slightly reduced when the vegetables are washed, however, advising should rather focus on reducing levels of contamination in the soil itself.

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  • 5.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Performance of a gross pollutant trap-biofilter and sand filter treatment train for the removal of organic micropollutants from highway stormwater (Field study)2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 900, article id 165734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This field study assessed the occurrence, event mean concentrations (EMCs), and removal of selected organic micro-pollutants (OMPs), namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), nonylphenol (NP), 4-t-octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA), in a gross pollutant trap (GPT)-biofilter/sand filter stormwater treatment train in Sundsvall, Sweden. The effects of design features of each treatment unit, including pre-sedimentation (GPT), sand filter medium, vegetation, and chalk amendment, were investigated by comparing the units' removal performances. Overall, the treatment train removed most OMPs from highway runoff effectively. The results showed that although the sand filter provided moderate (<50 % for phenolic substances) to high (50–80 % for PAHs and PHCs) removal of OMPs, adding a vegetated soil layer on top of the sand filter considerably improved the removal performance (by at least 30 %), especially for BPA, OP, and suspended solids. Moreover, GTP did not contribute to the treatment significantly. Uncertainties in the removal efficiencies of PAHs and PHCs by the filter cells increased substantially when the ratio of the influent concentration to the limit of quantification decreased. Thus, accounting for such uncertainties due to the low OMP concentrations should be considered when evaluating the removal performance of biofilters.

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  • 6.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Contribution of coarse particles from road surfaces to dissolved and particle-bound heavy metal loads in runoff: A laboratory leaching study with synthetic stormwater2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory leaching experiments were performed to study the potential of coarse street sediments (i.e. > 250 μm) to release dissolved and particulate-bound heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) during rainfall/runoff. Towards this end, street sediments were sampled by vacuuming at seven sites in five Swedish cities and the collected sediments were characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. In the laboratory, the sediments were combined with synthetic rainwater and subject to agitation by a shaker mimicking particle motion during transport by runoff from street surfaces. As a result of such action, coarse street sediments were found to release significant amounts of heavy metals, which were predominantly (up to 99%) in the particulate bound phase. Thus, in dry weather, coarse street sediments functioned as collectors of fine particles with attached heavy metals, but in wet weather, metal burdens were released by rainfall/runoff processes. The magnitude of such releases depended on the site characteristics (i.e. street cleaning and traffic intensity), particle properties (i.e. organic matter content), and runoff characteristics (pH, and the duration of, and energy input into, sediment/water agitation). The study findings suggest that street cleaning, which preferentially removes coarser sediments, may produce additional environmental benefits by also removing fine contaminated particles attached to coarser materials

  • 7.
    Brila, Ilze
    et al.
    Ecology and Genetics Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, 90014, Finland; Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland.
    Lavrinienko, Anton
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland.
    Tukalenko, Eugene
    Ecology and Genetics Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, 90014, Finland; Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland; National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Science, Kyiv, 04050, Ukraine.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Aurorum 10, 977 75 Luleå, Sweden.
    Kallio, Eva R.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland; School of Resource Wisdom, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland.
    Mappes, Tapio
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland.
    Watts, Phillip C.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland.
    Low-level environmental metal pollution is associated with altered gut microbiota of a wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus)2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 790, article id 148224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining and related industries are a major source of metal pollution. In contrast to the well-studied effects of exposure to metals on animal physiology and health, the impacts of environmental metal pollution on the gut microbiota of wild animals are virtually unknown. As the gut microbiota is a key component of host health, it is important to understand whether metal pollution can alter wild animal gut microbiota composition. Using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantification of metal levels in kidneys, we assessed whether multi-metal exposure (the sum of normalized levels of fifteen metals) was associated with changes in gut microbiota of wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) from two locations in Finland. Exposure to increased metal load was associated with higher gut microbiota species diversity (α-diversity) and altered community composition (β-diversity), but not dispersion. Multi-metal exposure and increased levels of several metals (Cd, Hg, Pb and Se) were associated with differences in the abundance of microbial taxa, especially those within the families Clostridiales vadinBB60 group, Desulfovibrionaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Muribaculaceae and Ruminococcaceae. Our data indicate that even low-level metal pollution can affect the diversity of microbiota and be associated with deterministic differences in composition of host gut microbiota in wild animal populations. These findings highlight the need to study a broader range of metals and their cocktails that are more representative of the types of environmental exposure experienced by wild animals.

  • 8.
    Brown, Ludovick
    et al.
    Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Fuchs, Boris
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Zedrosser, Andreas
    Department of Natural Sciences and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø in Telemark, Norway; Institute for Wildlife Biology and Game Management, University for Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Pelletier, Fanie
    Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Lead exposure in brown bears is linked to environmental levels and the distribution of moose kills2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 873, article id 162099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead (Pb) is heterogeneously distributed in the environment and multiple sources like Pb ammunition and fossil fuel combustion can increase the risk of exposure in wildlife. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden have higher blood Pb levels compared to bears from other populations, but the sources and routes of exposure are unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of two potential sources of Pb exposure in female brown bears (n = 34 individuals; n = 61 samples). We used multiple linear regressions to determine the contribution of both environmental Pb levels estimated from plant roots and moose (Alces alces) kills to blood Pb concentrations in female brown bears. We found positive relationships between blood Pb concentrations in bears and both the distribution of moose kills by hunters and environmental Pb levels around capture locations. Our results suggest that the consumption of slaughter remains discarded by moose hunters is a likely significant pathway of Pb exposure and this exposure is additive to environmental Pb exposure in female brown bears in Sweden. We suggest that spatially explicit models, incorporating habitat selection analyses of harvest data, may prove useful in predicting Pb exposure in scavengers.

  • 9.
    Bucksch, S.
    et al.
    Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, KFB, Box 5706, 11487 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Egebäck, Karl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The Swedish program for investigations concerning biofuels1999In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 235, no 1-3, p. 293-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As constituted today, the transport sector is not sustainable in the long-term. It is based almost entirely on non-replenishable natural resources which, when combusted, release emissions that can cause serious harm to human beings, animals and the natural environment. Therefore, in order to achieve a sustainable transport system, it is imperative to achieve a means of propulsion, which is based on renewable energy sources in every phase of production and distribution. The responsibility for developing such a sustainable transport system is an assignment, which must be approached as a common cause, involving both the official agencies of society and the business sector together with international cooperation. In 1991 the Swedish Government allocated 120 million Swedish crowns to the Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB) as funds for research, development and demonstration in the field of biofuels to be used in the transportation sector. In order to fulfil this obligation a program was presented and approved and this program for engine alcohols and biogas was carried out between the summer of 1991 and the end of 1997. The program has generated a broad spectrum of useful results showing that, in general terms, there are a number of technical problems connected to the use of biofuels. There is also a need to continue the development of both the fuels and the engines in order to take advantage of all that can be achieved concerning the use of biofuels in the transportation sector. The presentation at The Sixth International Highway and Urban Pollution Symposium will focus on a brief description of the program carried out and a presentation of the results of the field tests and the emission characterisation.

  • 10.
    Burman, Anton J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hedger, Richard D.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research – NINA, NO-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andersson, Anders G.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sundt-Hansen, Line E.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research – NINA, NO-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Modelling the downstream longitudinal effects of frequent hydropeaking on the spawning potential and stranding susceptibility of salmonids2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 796, article id 148999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower plant operating conditions are expected to change to be more in tandem with intermittent power production so as to meet the requirements of the Paris Agreement, which in turn may negatively impact ecological conditions downstream of the hydropower plants. The current study investigates how highly flexible hydropower operating conditions may impact several salmonid species (European grayling, Atlantic salmon and brown trout) in the River Umeälven, a major river in northern Sweden; specifically, how changes in hydropeaking frequency may affect the area of the downstream watercourse that is hydraulically suitable for spawning (potential spawning area) and how changes in spill gate closing time may affect the propensity to stranding. River hydrodynamics were modeled using the open-source solver Delft3D, with a range of hydropeaking frequencies (from 10 to 60 starts and stops per day) and a range of spill gate closing times from (1–30 min). Increasing the hydropeaking frequency caused a reduction in potential spawning area, but also a reduction in dewatering of potential spawning area at low flows. Increasing spill gate closing time caused a decrease in propensity to stranding. Effects were dependent on both species and life-stage, and declined longitudinally with distance downstream from the spillway outlet. The modelling approach used here provides an effective method for predicting likely outcomes of flexible hydropower operating conditions, taking into account fish species and life-stages present and watercourse characteristics.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Thunberg, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Holmström, Henning
    Envipro Miljöteknik AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sequential extraction of sulfide-rich tailings remediated by the application of till cover, Kristineberg mine, northern Sweden2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 299, no 1-3, p. 207-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sequential extraction has been carried out on sulfide-rich mine tailings. The purpose was to investigate how elements released by oxidation are secondarily retained in the tailings and the possible consequences of the remediation. After investigating the solid tailings, seven samples were chosen for sequential extractions. Two samples were oxidised, situated just above the oxidation front; two samples from just below the former oxidation front with increased concentrations of several elements; two unoxidised samples were from an intermediate depth, and the deepest sample was from the tailings-peat boundary at the bottom of the impoundment. Five phases were extracted: adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate; labile organics; amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides/Mn-oxides; crystalline Fe-oxides; and organics/sulfides. The addition from dried porewater to the extracted fractions has been calculated and considered as minor. In the oxidised tailings, the sulfide fraction still dominates for elements such as Fe, S, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg and Zn, although the concentrations are low compared to the unoxidised tailings. Generally, the second most important fraction is the adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction. Below the oxidation front, the sulfide content of the tailings sharply increases. In the secondary enrichment zone, the total element concentrations increase compared with the deeper unoxidised samples, mainly due to secondary retention. For some elements, secondary retention is greater than the total amount extracted for the deeper unoxidised samples. In the secondary enrichment zone the adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction represents approximately 20 wt.% or more for Cd, Co, Mn, Ni and Zn. The amorphous iron oxyhydroxide or the crystalline iron oxide fractions are less important at this level, although for As, Ba and Cu the amorphous iron oxyhydroxide fraction represents up to 20 wt.. At the lower border of the enrichment zone, the total concentration for most metals is lower, but the importance of the adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction is further enhanced for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. These elements have 35-60 wt.% of the total amount from this fraction. For As, Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, the secondary fractions extracted (extractions A-D) represent between 60 and 80 wt.% of the total content. At greater depth in the impoundment the relative importance of the adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction decreases, whilst the importance of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and crystalline iron oxide fractions increases. The adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction is the most easily remobilised fraction. A raised groundwater table previously situated below the enrichment zone may result in the release of secondarily retained metals.

  • 12.
    Chen, Xuanjing
    et al.
    College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China, Water Systems and Global Change Group, Wageningen University & Research, PB, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Strokal, Maryna
    Water Systems and Global Change Group, Wageningen University & Research, PB, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Water Systems and Global Change Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Ma, Lin
    Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, PR China.
    Shen, Zhenyao
    State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, PR China.
    Wu, Jiechen
    Key Lab of Plant-Soil Interaction, MOE, Center for Resources, Environment and Food Security, College of Resources. Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, PR China.
    Chen, Xinping
    College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China.
    Shi, Xiaojun
    College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Tiansheng Road 02, Chongqing 400715, PR China.
    Seasonality in river export of nitrogen: A modelling approach for the Yangtze River2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 671, p. 1282-1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In China, many estuaries suffer from eutrophication problems such as green tides and hypoxia. This is often a result of human activities on land leading to increased nutrient exports by rivers. River pollution shows seasonal trends that are not well understood. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to improve our understanding of the seasonal variation in river export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) by source and at the sub-basin scale. To this end, we modified the existing MARINA model 1.0 (Model to Assess River Input of Nutrient to seAs) to account for seasonality in river export of DIN, and applied it to the Yangtze River. The resulting MARINA model version 1.1 takes a mass-balance approach and accounts for seasonality in human activities (e.g., crop planting and fertilization) and meteorology. The model distinguishes four seasons: winter (December–February), spring (March–May), summer (June–August) and fall (September–November). Our results for Yangtze indicate that N inputs to land and river export of DIN to sea are higher in summer and lower in winter. In spring, summer and fall, diffuse sources from agriculture contribute 43–85% to DIN export. In spring and fall, use of synthetic N fertilizers in cropland is an important source of DIN. In summer, both atmospheric N deposition and synthetic N fertilizers dominate. Animal manure is typically applied on land in spring and fall, contributing then to DIN. In winter, point sources of animal manure are responsible for 34–74% of DIN river export. In general, more DIN is exported to the sea from activities in middlestream and downstream sub-basins. Our results can serve as an example for other large rivers worldwide, and support the formulation of effective strategies to reduce seasonal eutrophication.

  • 13.
    Chlot, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Husson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Modelling nitrogen transformations in waters receiving mine effluents2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 21, p. 4585-4595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a biogeochemical model developed for a clarification pond receiving ammonium nitrogen rich discharge water from the Boliden concentration plant located in northern Sweden. Present knowledge about nitrogen (N) transformations in lakes is compiled in a dynamic model that calculates concentrations of the six N species (state variables) ammonium-N (Nam), nitrate-N (Nox), dissolved organic N in water (Norg), N in phytoplankton (Npp), in macrophytes (Nmp) and in sediment (Nsed). It also simulates the rate of 16 N transformation processes occurring in the water column and sediment as well as water–sediment and water–atmosphere interactions. The model was programmed in the software Powersim using 2008 data, whilst validation was performed using data from 2006 to 2007. The sensitivity analysis showed that the state variables are most sensitive to changes in the coefficients related to the temperature dependence of the transformation processes. A six-year simulation of Nam showed stable behaviour over time. The calibrated model rendered coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.93, 0.79 and 0.86 for Nam, Nox and Norg, respectively. Performance measures quantitatively expressing the deviation between modelled and measured data resulted in values close to zero, indicating a stable model structure. The simulated denitrification rate was on average five times higher than the ammonia volatilisation rate and about three times higher than the permanent burial of Nsed and, hence, the most important process for the permanent removal of N. The model can be used to simulate possible measures to reduce the nitrogen load and, after some modification and recalibration, it can be applied at other mine sites affected by N rich effluents.

  • 14.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Plant Breeding, SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094 Nanjing, China.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Ji, Dongxiao
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    The need for fully bio-based facemasks to counter coronavirus outbreaks: A perspective2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 736, article id 139611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The onset of coronavirus pandemic has sparked a shortage of facemasks in almost all nations. Without this personal protective equipment, healthcare providers, essential workers, and the general public are exposed to the risk of infection. In light of the aforementioned, it is critical to balance the supply and demand for masks. COVID-19 will also ensure that masks are always considered as an essential commodity in future pandemic preparedness. Moreover, billions of facemasks are produced from petrochemicals derived raw materials, which are non-degradable upon disposal after their single use, thus causing environmental pollution and damage. The sustainable way forward is to utilise raw materials that are side-stream products of local industries to develop facemasks having equal or better efficiency than the conventional ones. In this regard, wheat gluten biopolymer, which is a by-product or co-product of cereal industries, can be electrospun into nanofibre membranes and subsequently carbonised at over 700 °C to form a network structure, which can simultaneously act as the filter media and reinforcement for gluten-based masks. In parallel, the same gluten material can be processed into cohesive thin films using plasticiser and hot press. Additionally, lanosol, a naturally-occurring substance, imparts fire (V-0 rating in vertical burn test), and microbe resistance in gluten plastics. Thus, thin films of flexible gluten with very low amounts of lanosol (<10 wt%) can be bonded together with the carbonised mat and shaped by thermoforming to create the facemasks. The carbon mat acting as the filter can be attached to the masks through adapters that can also be made from injection moulded gluten. The creation of these masks could simultaneously be effective in reducing the transmittance of infectious diseases and pave the way for environmentally benign sustainable products.

  • 15.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University.
    Berglund, Åsa M.M.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Sörlin, Dieke
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Spatio-temporal variation of metals and organic contaminants in bank voles (Myodes glareolus)2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 713, article id 136353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contamination with metals and organic compounds is of increasing concern for ecosystem and human health. Still, our knowledge about spatial distribution, temporal changes and ecotoxicological fate of metals and organic contaminants in wildlife is limited. We studied concentrations of 69 elements and 50 organic compounds in 300 bank voles (Myodes glareolus), Europe's most common mammal, sampled in spring and autumn 2017–2018 in five monitoring areas, representing three biogeographic regions. In addition, we compared measured concentrations with previous results from bank voles sampled within the same areas in 1995–1997 and 2001. In general, our results show regional differences, but no consistent patterns among contaminants and study areas. The exception was for the lowest concentrations of organic contaminants (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS), which were generally found in the northern Swedish mountain area. Concentrations of metals and organic contaminants in adults varied seasonally with most organic contaminants being higher in spring; likely induced by diet shifts but potentially also related to age differences. In addition, metal concentrations varied between organs (liver vs. kidney), age classes (juveniles vs. adults; generally higher in adults) as well as between males and females. Concentrations of chromium and nickel in kidney and liver in the northernmost mountain area were lower in 2017–2018 than in 1995–1997 and in three of four areas, lead concentrations were lower in 2017–2018 than in 2001. Current metal concentrations (except mercury) are not expected to negatively affect the voles. Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene displayed highest concentrations in 2001 in the mountains, while it was close to detection limit in 2017–2018. Likewise, PFOS concentrations decreased in the mountains and in south-central lowland forests between 2001 and 2017–2018. Our results suggest that season, age class and sex need to be considered when designing and interpreting results from monitoring programs targeting inorganic and organic contaminants in wildlife.

  • 16.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Åberg, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Quantification of the effects of environmental leaching factors on emissions from bottom ash in road construction2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 362, no 1-3, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The re-use of bottom ash in road construction necessitates a tool to predict the impact of trace metals on the surroundings over the lifetime of the road. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of environmental factors that are supposed to influence leaching, so as to suggest guidelines in developing a leaching procedure for the testing of incineration residues re-used in road constructions. The effects of pH, L / S (liquid-to-solid ratio), leaching time, and leaching atmosphere on the leachate concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were studied using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was the pH, followed by L / S, though the importance of pH and L / S is often ignored in leaching tests. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in leaching data had R2 values ranging from 61-97%. A two-step pH-stat leaching procedure that considers pH as well as L / S and leaching time was suggested.

  • 17.
    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo
    et al.
    University of Aveiro.
    Almeida, Salomé F.P.
    University of Aveiro.
    Nunes, Marcelo L.
    University of Aveiro.
    Luís, Ana T.
    University of Aveiro.
    Borg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hedlund, Markus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    de Sá, Carlos Marques
    University of Porto.
    Patinha, Carla
    University of Aveiro.
    Teixeira, Paula
    University of Aveiro.
    Heavy metal pollution downstream the abandoned Coval da Mó mine (Portugal) and associated effects on epilithic diatom communities2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 21, p. 5620-5636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined trace-element concentrations in 39 sediment samples collected in the vicinity of the abandoned Coval da Mó mine, and evaluated the anthropogenic contaminant effects and other environmental variables in the taxonomic composition, structure and morphological changes of benthic diatom communities.The results show the existence of extremely high contamination in Pb, Zn and Cd (the mean values exceed the background values 376, 96 and 19 times, respectively) on the first 2.5 km in the water flow direction. Also Co, Cu, Mn and Ni are present in high concentrations. Dilution by relatively uncontaminated sediment reduces metal concentrations downstream, but Zn concentrations increase downstream Fílvida stream, as a result of several factors such as sewage and agriculture.To evaluate the biological effects caused by Pb, Cd and Zn, three sites were selected. In the stressed environment, near the mining area (C232), diatoms were extremely rare, however there was a slight recovery at site C79 located 2 km downstream. Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens, Fragilaria cf. crotonensis and Achnanthidium minutissimum showed abnormal valves which may be related to high levels of metals.Six km downstream, in Fílvida stream (C85), an increase in species richness and diversity was registered while the relative percentage of valve teratologies was lower. In the absence of OM, nutrients and low pH the diatom community patterns must be attributed to the metal concentration at some sites. Considering that community diversity can be affected by abiotic and biotic variables and valve deformations are caused by a small number of variables, basically metals, and acid conditions, we consider the presence of teratologies as an indication of the presence of metals.

  • 18.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    Cerema, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Demare, Dominique
    IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Eau et Environnement, route de Bouaye CS4, 44344 Bouguenais Cedex, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Dubois, Philippe
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    Cerema, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Retention and transport processes of particulate and dissolved micropollutants in stormwater biofilters treating road runoff.2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 656, p. 1178-1190, article id S0048-9697(18)34660-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road runoff is contaminated by various micropollutants and may be treated using low impact development techniques, such as stormwater biofilters. Better understanding the processes, such as filtration, sorption and leaching, which affect pollutants in these systems is essential to reliably predicting treatment performance and optimizing system design. Field data from an in situ monitoring campaign, wherein dissolved and particulate concentrations of a wide range of micropollutants (trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bisphenol-A, alkylphenols and phthalates) were characterized in untreated road runoff and biofilter outlets for 19 rain events, are used to explore transport and retention processes. Although retention of the particulate phase of pollutants was generally quite effective, unusually high particle concentrations were observed at biofilter outlets for three winter events. Particle characterization in road runoff and outlet waters revealed that this degraded performance was due to poor filtration rather than particle erosion, which was attributed to the relative abundance of small (<10 μm) particles during this period, along with possible preferential flows. Dissolved pollutants were less effectively removed in general. To better understand this behavior, field results were combined with laboratory sorption and leaching tests. Dissolved concentrations of trace metals were shown to be influenced by organic carbon; leaching from road-originated particles may also influence their transport. Removal of the dissolved phase of organic micropollutants was limited by the contamination of the filter media, either before installation or during the first period of operation, due to emissions from construction materials.

  • 19.
    Furén, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. NCC Sverige AB, Department of Research & Innovation, 170 80 Solna, Sweden.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Winston, Ryan J.
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States; Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Tirpak, R. Andrew
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Dorsey, Jay D.
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence, concentration, and distribution of 38 organic micropollutants in the filter material of 12 stormwater bioretention facilities2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 846, article id 157372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of bioretention facilities as a low impact development measure for treating stormwater runoff underscores the need to further understand their long-term function. Eventually, bioretention filter media must be (partly) replaced and disposed of at the end of its functional lifespan. While there are several studies of metal accumulation and distributions in bioretention media, less is known about organic pollutant pathways and accumulation in these filters. The present study considers the occurrence and accumulation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls, 13 phthalates, and two alkylphenols throughout 12 older bioretention facilities (7–13 years old) used for stormwater treatment in Michigan and Ohio, USA. These pollutant groups appear to behave similarly, with greater instances of detection and higher concentrations in the upper media layers which decrease with increased depth from the surface. The patterns of detection and concentration in the filter material may be explained by characteristics of the pollutants, such as molecular structures and solubility that affect the removal of the organic pollutants by the filter material. There is also a large variation in concentration magnitudes between the bioretention sites, most likely due to differences in pollutant sources, contributing catchment size and/or land uses.

  • 20.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Processes improving urban stormwater quality in grass swales and filter strips: A review of research findings2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 669, p. 431-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing interest in urban drainage green infrastructure brings attention to grass swales and filter strips (GS&GFS) and their role in stormwater management. While the understanding of the hydrology and hydraulics of these stormwater control measures is adequate for current needs, there are knowledge gaps in understanding the water quality processes in GS&GFS and such a finding motivated preparation of the review paper that follows. The review revealed that most of the empirical studies of GS&GFS flow quality focused on the removal of pollutants associated with road runoff, and particularly solids, with relatively few studies addressing nutrients, traffic associated hydrocarbons, oxygen demanding substances, chloride, and faecal indicator bacteria. The reported results suffer from limitations caused by experimental conditions often representing a steady flow used to irrigate GS&GFS and generate runoff, non-submerged flows, no lateral inflows along swale side slopes, constant dosing of solids, emphasis on larger-than-typical solids, incomplete descriptions of experimental conditions, and limited attention to experimental uncertainties. Besides settling, other treatment processes, like adsorption/desorption, plant uptake, chemical precipitation and microbial degradation are often acknowledged, but without attempting to quantify their effects on flow quality. The modelling of GS&GFS flow quality would be beneficial for an improved understanding of green urban drainage infrastructure, but currently it is infeasible without a better knowledge of stormwater quality processes in GS&GFS facilities.

  • 21.
    Gavrić, Snežana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Heléne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Metal enrichment of soils in three urban drainage grass swales used for seasonal snow storage2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 760, article id 144136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enrichment of soils in three urban drainage swales by metals associated with traffic sources was investigated in a cool temperate climate with seasonal snow. Such swales differed from those not exposed to snow by receiving additional pollutant loads from winter road maintenance involving applications of salt and grit, use of studded tires, and storage and melting of polluted snow cleared from trafficked areas into swales. Among the swales studied, swale L2 in the downtown was the oldest (built around 1960), drained runoff from a road with the highest traffic intensity, and exhibited the highest mean concentrations of most of the metals studied (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Co, V, Ti, and W). In the case of Pb, this exceedance was about an order of magnitude: 71 mg/kg DW in L2, compared to about ~8 mg/kg DW in L1 and L3, both built in 1979. Among the metals originating from local geology, barium (Ba) was found in the swales and the grit material at high concentrations of ~650 mg/kg DW and 700–1000 mg/kg DW, respectively. Such concentrations exceeded the Swedish EPA guideline limits of 300 mg/kg DW for less sensitive soil use. The sequential extraction analysis of samples from swale L2 indicated that Ba was mostly in the immobile residual fraction (90%). The absence of clear decline in metal concentrations with distance from the trafficked surfaces suggested that stored snow was another source of metals partly balancing spatial distribution of metals in swale soils.

  • 22.
    Hashim, Bassim Mohammed
    et al.
    Environment and Water Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq.
    Al-Naseri, Saadi K.
    Environment and Water Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq.
    Al-Maliki, Ali
    Environment and Water Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on NO2, O3, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations and assessing air quality changes in Baghdad, Iraq2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 754, article id 141978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Covid-19 was first reported in Iraq on February 24, 2020. Since then, to prevent its propagation, the Iraqi government declared a state of health emergency. A set of rapid and strict countermeasures have taken, including locking down cities and limiting population's mobility. In this study, concentrations of four criteria pollutants, NO2, O3, PM2.5 and PM10 before the lockdown from January 16 to February 29, 2020, and during four periods of partial and total lockdown from March 1 to July 24, 2020, in Baghdad were analysed. Overall, 6, 8 and 15% decreases in NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations, respectively in Baghdad during the 1st partial and total lockdown from March 1 to April 21, compared to the period before the lockdown. While, there were 13% increase in O3 for same period. During the 2nd partial lockdown from June 14 to July 24, NO2 and PM2.5 decreases 20 and 2.5%, respectively. While, there were 525 and 56% increase in O3 and PM10, respectively for same period. The air quality index (AQI) improved by 13% in Baghdad during the 1st partial lockdown from March 1 to April 21, compared to its pre-lockdown. The results of NO2 tropospheric column extracted from the Sentinel-5P satellite shown the NO2 emissions reduced up to 35 to 40% across Iraq, due to lockdown measures, between January and July 2020, especially across the major cities such as Baghdad, Basra and Erbil. The lockdown due to COVID-19 has drastic effects on social and economic aspects. However, the lockdown also has some positive effect on natural environment and air quality improvement.

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  • 23.
    Ho, Janice Y.
    et al.
    Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Shi, Yuan
    Institute of Future Cities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Lau, Kevin K.L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Institute of Future Cities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Ng, Edward Y.Y.
    Institute of Future Cities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Ren, Chao
    Division of Landscape Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Goggins, William B.
    Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Urban heat island effect-related mortality under extreme heat and non-extreme heat scenarios: A 2010–2019 case study in Hong Kong2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 858, Part 1, article id 159791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect exacerbates the adverse impact of heat on human health. However, while the UHI effect is further intensified during extreme heat events, prior studies have rarely mapped the UHI effect during extreme heat events to assess its direct temperature impact on mortality. This study examined the UHI effect during extreme heat and non-extreme heat scenarios and compared their temperature-mortality associations in Hong Kong from 2010 to 2019. Four urban heat island degree hour (UHIdh) scenarios were mapped onto Hong Kong&apos;s tertiary planning units and classified into three levels (Low, Moderate, and High). We assessed the association between temperature and non-external mortality of populations living in each UHIdh level for the extreme heat/non-extreme heat scenarios during the 2010–2019 hot seasons. Our results showed substantial differences between the temperature-mortality associations in the three levels under the UHIdh extreme heat scenario (UHIdh_EH). While there was no evidence of increased mortality in Low UHIdh_EH areas, the mortality risk in Moderate and High UHIdh_EH areas were significantly increased during periods of hot temperature, with the High UHIdh_EH areas displaying almost double the risk (RR: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.14 vs. RR: 1.05, 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.09). However, other non-extreme heat UHI scenarios did not demonstrate as prominent of a difference. When stratified by age, the heat effects were found in Moderate and High UHIdh_EH among the elderly aged 75 and above. Our study found a difference in the temperature-mortality associations based on UHI intensity and potential heat vulnerability of populations during extreme heat events. Preventive measures should be taken to mitigate heat especially in urban areas with high UHI intensity during extreme heat events, with particular attention and support for those prone to heat vulnerability, such as the elderly and poorer populations.

  • 24.
    Holmström, Henning
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ljungberg, Johan
    Boliden AB, Boliden, Sweden.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The character of the suspended and dissolved phases in the water cover of the flooded mine tailings at Stekenjokk, northern Sweden2000In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 247, no 1, p. 15-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the suspended and dissolved phases of the pond water, material collected from sediment traps, and surficial sediments/tailings from the flooded tailings pond at Stekenjokk have been performed. The aim was to characterise the material, to study the seasonal variations and to quantify possible resuspension of the tailings in the pond. The element concentrations in the pond at Stekenjokk seem to be largely controlled by processes controlling the precipitation and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-oxyhydroxides in both the water column and in the surficial tailings. Physiochemical processes such as weathering of silicates on the surrounding mountain slopes or dykes contributes both dissolved elements and detrital particles. The suspended phase consists of detrital silicate material as well as Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. The average heavy metal concentrations are high, e.g. 0.42% Cu, 0.15% Pb and 3.1% Zn, which is probably due to sorption onto Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. The suspended phase is richer in Fe, and particularly Mn, during the winter. The suspended phase resembles the material collected in sediment traps and the material in the surficial sediments. The pond water is well mixed during the ice-free season. The dissolved heavy metal concentrations are generally rather low with, e.g. maximum concentrations of 2.03 μg/l Cu, 0.23 μg/l Pb and 268 μg/l Zn during the winter. Higher dissolved concentrations are found below the ice-cover above the sediment surface during the winter, caused by diffusion of elements from the sediment-water interface up into the pond water. Most of the metals occurring in the pond are dissolved and resuspension of tailings is negligible.

  • 25.
    Holmström, Henning
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Salmon, Ursula J.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Paraskev, Petrov
    Luleå University of Technology. Department of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology, Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Geochemical investigations of sulfide-bearing tailings at Kristineberg, northern Sweden, a few years after remediation2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 273, no 1-3, p. 111-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Kristineberg mining area in northern Sweden, massive, pyrite-rich Zn-Cu ores are intercalated in ca. 1.9 Ga volcano-sedimentary rocks. Investigations of a tailings impoundment remediated by means of both till coverage and raising the groundwater table have been undertaken. The aim of the study was to characterise the tailings with respect to mineralogy, the chemical composition of both the tailings and the pore water, and to try to identify the significant reactions that may have occurred before and after remediation. It was found that the oxidation front had reached down to depths of between approximately 0.1 and 1.15 m before remediation. The oxidation of sulfides has produced high concentrations of some metals in the pore water; up to 26, 16, 4.1, 2.7 and 82 mg/l have been measured for Al, Mn, Fe and Zn, respectively. Concentrations of metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb are lower, with average concentrations of 18.4, 83.8, 45, 79.6 and 451 μg/l, respectively. Higher concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg and S have been measured at depth in pore water than at shallower levels. This is probably caused by flush out of elements after remediation and vertical transport from the upper parts before remediation. The pH is relatively high, approximately 5.5 at most depths in the tailings, except in and around the former oxidation zone where it is lower, and where the highest dissolved concentrations of elements such as As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn occur. This is probably due to the release of metals secondarily retained below the oxidation front prior to the remediation. Since the groundwater table is raised, the groundwater reaches the retained metals, which leads to desorption of metals and dissolution of secondary minerals.

  • 26.
    Hruzova, Katerina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Patel, Alok
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Masák, Jan
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Maťátková, Olga
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    A novel approach for the production of green biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa using renewable forest biomass2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 711, article id 135099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising demand for surfactants by the pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries has generated vast amounts of petroleum-based synthetic surfactants, which are often toxic and non-degradable. Owing to their low toxicity, stability in extreme conditions, and biodegradability, biosurfactants could represent a sustainable alternative. The present study aimed to maximize the production of rhamnolipids (RL) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa by optimizing glucose concentration, temperature, and C/N and C/P ratios. After 96 h of cultivation at 37 °C, the final RL concentration was 4.18 ± 0.19 g/L with a final yield of 0.214 ± 0.010 g/gglucose when pure glucose was used as a carbon source. At present, the main obstacle towards commercialization of RL production is economic sustainability, due to the high cost of downstream processes and media components. For this reason, a renewable source such as wood hydrolysates (from birch and spruce woodchips) was examined here as a possible source of glucose for RL production. Both hydrolysates proved to be adequate, resulting in 2.34 ± 0.17 and 2.31 ± 0.10 g/L of RL, respectively, and corresponding yields of 0.081 ± 0.006 and 0.089 ± 0.004 g/gsugar after 96 h. These results demonstrate the potential of using renewable biomass for the production of biosurfactants and, to the best of our knowledge, they constitute the first report on the use of wood hydrolysates for RL production.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Kim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Immobilisation of arsenic in contaminated soil by electrokinetics in an outdoor experiment2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 918, article id 170656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although landfilling is environmentally and economically unsustainable, it is the dominant soil remediation method in EU member states. This paper describes part of a study on mixed contaminants that investigated the stabilisation of arsenic (As) in contaminated soil in an outdoor box experiment with electrokinetic treatment (EK). The experiment was conducted in two 1 m3 boxes, each containing a 20 cm bottom layer of sand, overlaid with 20 cm of peat. In EK, a pulsating, low-voltage current was applied with the intention of corroding the zerovalent iron (Fe) electrodes, migrating ionic Fe species, and forming secondary iron minerals, thereby immobilizing As. Porewater samples were collected over two seasons to determine whether the treatment decreased the concentration of dissolved As. Sequential extraction was performed on the soil samples to determine whether the fraction of Fe-bound As increased. Reed canary grass was planted in one of the boxes during the second season and analysed for As uptake. The results showed that the treatment decreased the porewater As concentration in sand by 50–54 %, while the concentration of Fe increased. The sequential extraction of sand showed that the fraction of As bound to poorly crystalline Fe oxides increased during this time. This treatment effect was less visible in the peat. Moreover, the exchangeable As fraction increased in both peat and sand, most likely because of the decrease in redox potential at the end of the experiment. The plants grown in treated soil accumulated less As than those grown in untreated soil, indicating that the phytoavailable As fraction decreased. This study showed that EK remediation can be a suitable in situ remediation technique, mostly in sand. Future research should focus on redox control to further optimise EK remediation and ensure long-term As stability in treated soils.

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  • 28.
    Kolarević, Stoimir
    et al.
    University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, National Institute of Republic of Serbia, Department of Hydroecology and Water Protection, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Micsinai, Adrienn
    WESSLING Hungary Ltd., H-1045 Budapest, Anonymus str 6., Hungary.
    Szántó-Egész, Réka
    Biomi Ltd., H-2100 Gödöllő, Szent-Györgyi Albert str 4., Hungary.
    Lukács, Alena
    Biomi Ltd., H-2100 Gödöllő, Szent-Györgyi Albert str 4., Hungary.
    Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta
    University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, National Institute of Republic of Serbia, Department of Hydroecology and Water Protection, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Lundy, Lian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Middlesex University, The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT, UK.
    Kirschner, Alexander K.T.
    Medical University Vienna, Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology - Water Microbiology, Kinderspitalgasse 15, Vienna, Austria. Interuniversity Cooperation Center Water and Health (ICC), Austria. Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Division Water Quality & Health, Dr.-Karl-Dorrek-Straße 30, A-3500 Krems, Austria.
    Farnleitner, Andreas H.
    Interuniversity Cooperation Center Water and Health (ICC), Austria. Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Division Water Quality & Health, Dr.-Karl-Dorrek-Straße 30, A-3500 Krems, Austria. Technische Universität Wien, Institute of Chemical, Environmental and Bioscience Engineering, Research Group for Environmental Microbiology and Molecular Diagnostics, Gumpendorferstraße 1a, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Djukic, Aleksandar
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Čolić, Jasna
    Jaroslav Černi Water Institute, Jaroslava Černog 80, 11226 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Nenin, Tanja
    Jaroslav Černi Water Institute, Jaroslava Černog 80, 11226 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Sunjog, Karolina
    University of Belgrade, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Paunović, Momir
    University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, National Institute of Republic of Serbia, Department of Hydroecology and Water Protection, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the Danube River in Serbia associated with the discharge of untreated wastewaters2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 783, article id 146967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Serbia less than 13% of collected municipal wastewaters is being treated before their release in the environment. This includes all municipal wastewater discharges from Belgrade (capital city of Serbia; population 1,700,000). Previous research has identified the impacts of raw wastewater discharges from Belgrade on the Danube River, and this study investigated if such discharges also provided a pathway for SARS-CoV-2 RNA material. Samples were collected during the most critical circumstances that occurred so far within the COVID-19 pandemics in Serbia. Grab and composite samples were collected in December 2020, during the peak of the third wave (in terms of reported cases) at the site which receives the wastewater loads in Belgrade. Grab samples collected upstream and downstream of Belgrade were also analyzed. RNA was quantified using RT-qPCR with primer sets targeting nucleocapsid (N1 and N2) and envelope (E) protein genes. SARS-CoV-2 RNA (5.97 × 103 to 1.32 × 104 copies/L) was detected only in samples collected at the site strongly impacted by the wastewaters where all three applied primer sets gave positive signals. Determined concentrations correspond to those reported in wastewater influents sampled at treatment plants in other countries indicating an epidemiological indicator function of used approach for rivers with high pollution loads in countries with poor wastewater treatment.

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  • 29.
    Kujala, Katharina
    et al.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu.
    Karlsson, Teemu
    Industrial Environments and Recycling Unit, Geological Survey of Finland.
    Nieminen, Soile
    Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment of Finland.
    Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu.
    Design parameters for nitrogen removal by constructed wetlandstreating mine waters andmunicipal wastewater under Nordic conditions2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 662, p. 559-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen (N) loads from municipal and mine wastewater discharges typically increase N concentrations in recipient water bodies which should get more attention especially in cold-climate regions. This study compared N removal efficiency of six constructed wetlands (CWs) treating mine waters and three CWs polishing municipal wastewater. There were clear impacts of point source N loading to recipient water bodies in all cases studied and >300-fold increase in N was seen in some cases. First-order N removal coefficient was determined for seven of these CWs. All CWs studied were observed to remove N efficiently during the warm growing season but the amount of N released increased significantly during the cold season. Although some year-round purification was achieved by both peat-based and pond-type CWs, removal of nitrate + nitrite-N ((NO3− + NO2−-N)) was low during winter. The first-order N removal coefficient varied from 4.9 · 10−6 to 1.9 · 10−3 d−1 and showed that peat-based CWs were slightly more efficient in N removal than pond-type CWs. However, purification efficiency was steadier and higher for pond-type CWs, as lower hydraulic load or longer water residence time compensated for purification performance. Pond-type CWs showed mean removal efficiency of 59% and 46% for ammonium-N (NH4+-N) and (NO3− + NO2−)-N, respectively, whereas peatland-type CWs had lower removal efficiency for NH4+-N (mean of 26%) and in many cases negative removal for (NO3− + NO2−)-N. Correlation analysis revealed no clear, systematic relationship between temperature and N removal. However, in some CWs the highest correlation was between temperature and (NO3− + NO2−)-N, reflecting lower denitrification rate at lower temperature. More than 50% removal was found to require a hydraulic load below 10 mm d−1. In order to achieve 70% of NH4+-N removal, Ntot load lower than 75 g m−2 year−1 and a residence time longer than 80 d are needed in CWs in cold-climate regions.

  • 30.
    Kumar, A. Naresh
    et al.
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea; Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Sarkar, Omprakash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Chandrasekhar, K.
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.
    Raj, Tirath
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.
    Narishetty, Vivek
    School of Water, Energy, and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK.
    Mohan, S. Venkata
    Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007, India.
    Pandey, Ashok
    Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India.
    Varjani, Sunita
    Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382010, India.
    Kumar, Sunil
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nagpur 440 020, India.
    Sharma, Pooja
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nagpur 440 020, India.
    Jeon, Byong-Hun
    Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea.
    Jang, Min
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Sang-Hyoun
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.
    Upgrading the value of anaerobic fermentation via renewable chemicals production: A sustainable integration for circular bioeconomy2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 806, part 1, article id 150312Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The single bioprocess approach has certain limitations in terms of process efficiency, product synthesis, and effective resource utilization. Integrated or combined bioprocessing maximizes resource recovery and creates a novel platform to establish sustainable biorefineries. Anaerobic fermentation (AF) is a well-established process for the transformation of organic waste into biogas; conversely, biogas CO2 separation is a challenging and cost-effective process. Biological fixation of CO2 for succinic acid (SA) mitigates CO2 separation issues and produces commercially important renewable chemicals. Additionally, utilizing digestate rich in volatile fatty acid (VFA) to produce medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) creates a novel integrated platform by utilizing residual organic metabolites. The present review encapsulates the advantages and limitations of AF along with biogas CO2 fixation for SA and digestate rich in VFA utilization for MCFA in a closed-loop approach. Biomethane and biohydrogen process CO2 utilization for SA production is cohesively deliberated along with the role of biohydrogen as an alternative reducing agent to augment SA yields. Similarly, MCFA production using VFA as a substrate and function of electron donors namely ethanol, lactate, and hydrogen are comprehensively discussed. A road map to establish the fermentative biorefinery approach in the framework of AF integrated sustainable bioprocess development is deliberated along with limitations and factors influencing for techno-economic analysis. The discussed integrated approach significantly contributes to promote the circular bioeconomy by establishing carbon-neutral processes in accord with sustainable development goals.

  • 31.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bert, Valérie
    INERIS, Technologies and Sustainable and Clean Processes, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment.
    Friesl-Hani, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department.
    Galazka, Rafal
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Herzig, Rolf
    Phytotech Foundation and AGB, Quartiergasse 12, 3013 Bern.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Kidd, Petra
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela.
    Mench, Michel
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Pillnitzer Platz 3, 01326 Dresden.
    Neu, Silke
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Pillnitzer Platz 3, 01326 Dresden.
    Oustriere, Nadège
    INRA, UMR1202 BIOGECO, F-33610 Cestas, France and Université de Bordeaux.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna — BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence, Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, P.le delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence.
    Roumier, Pierre-Hevré
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Manier, Nicolas
    INERIS, Expertise and Assays in Ecotoxicology, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO)2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 496, p. 510-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities.

  • 32.
    Lange, Katharina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Metal speciation in stormwater bioretention: Removal of particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved metals2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 724, article id 138121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For comprehensive estimation of the metal treatment efficiency of bioretention systems, information on metal speciation in the stormwater and the effluent is needed. However, so far, most bioretention studies only considered total metal concentrations. Despite their environmental importance, dissolved metals (defined as fractions < 0.45 μm) have only been evaluated in few studies. This study represents the first bioretention study to subdivide the <0.45 μm fraction further by filtration through a 3 kDa ultrafilter (corresponding to appr. 2–3 nm), thus enabling distinction between particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved metals. Higher bioavailability of the truly dissolved fraction has been indicated by previous research, underlining the importance of this study. Since vegetation and salt in stormwater both may be explanatory variables for metal fractionation, these have been added as factors in the utilized full factorial pilot-scale column experiment. While total metal removal was often >95%, detailed fractionation revealed that Cu and (when no salt was added) Zn removal in the <0.45 μm and <3 kDa fractions was significantly lower. Further, mean concentrations of Cu and (in one treatment) Cd in the <0.45 μm effluent fraction did not meet Swedish receiving water quality guidelines. By calculating the particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved fractions, it was shown that bioretention systems affect metal speciation of Cu and Zn. Colloidal and truly dissolved fractions were mostly prevalent in the effluent rather than the influent. Salt affected metal removal mostly negatively. Fractionation was affected by salt mainly in the influent where it increased the concentrations of Cd and Zn in the truly dissolved fraction (no effects on Cu and Pb fractions). In the effluent, Cu and Zn were only slightly affected by salt. Vegetation had mostly no significant effects on metal removal and fractionation. Further integration of detailed metal fractionation into sampling routines in bioretention research is recommended.

  • 33.
    Lange, Katharina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence and concentration of 20–100 µm sized microplastics in highway runoff and its removal in a gross pollutant trap – bioretention and sand filter treatment trainIn: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lange, Katharina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence and concentration of 20–100 μm sized microplastic in highway runoff and its removal in a gross pollutant trap – Bioretention and sand filter stormwater treatment train2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 809, article id 151151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastic pollution of stormwater can be a serious threat to the environment. Gross pollutant trap (GPT) - bioretention treatment trains have been shown previously to treat (inter alia) particulate stormwater pollutants including microplastic particles larger than 100 μm. This study was carried out to investigate whether such stormwater treatment trains also remove smaller 20 to 100 μm sized microplastic particles from highway runoff. Further, it investigates occurrence and concentration of 20 to 100 μm sized microplastic particles in highway runoff and which polymer types they can be assigned to. Volume proportional samples from nine rain events were taken from the incoming highway stormwater, from the gross pollutant trap effluent and the outflow from a bioretention system as well as a non-vegetated sand filter. The microplastic analyses were carried out using μFTIR and FTIR-ATR, which made it possible to detect particles where carbon black was present. It was found that 20 to 100 μm sized microplastic particles are abundant in highway runoff and that their concentrations are highly variable, with a median of 230 particles/L, a minimum of 42 particles/L and a maximum of 8577 particles/L. The dominant polymer types in highway stormwater were Polypropylene (PP), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM) rubber and Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). The treatment train with the bioretention system treated 20 to 200 μm sized microplastic particles significantly better than the treatment train with a non-vegetated sand filter, with median effluent concentrations of 26.5 particles/L and 121 particles/L, respectively. The GPT had no significant impact on the treatment of 20 to 100 μm sized microplastic particles.

  • 35.
    Li, Shuo
    et al.
    School of Life Science, Institute of Life Science and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071002, China. College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.
    Hu, Mengjun
    International Joint Research Laboratory for Global Change Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China.
    Shi, Jianglan
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.
    Tian, Xiaohong
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.
    Wu, Jiechen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, 100193, Beijing, China.
    Integrated wheat-maize straw and tillage management strategies influence economic profit and carbon footprint in the Guanzhong Plain of China2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 767, article id 145347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Appropriate straw and tillage management strategies increase grain yields, and promote atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation through soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, little is known about economic parameters and carbon footprint (CF, defined as total greenhouse gases emission from the whole life cycle perspective) of intensive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) double cropping production under different integrated strategies of straw-return and tillage. To quantify the differences of straw-return and tillage integrated strategies in economic parameters and carbon sustainability, a field experiment was established in 2008 in which six integrated strategies were evaluated: straw return of both maize and wheat (MR-WR), MR-WR with subsoiling to ~40 cm depth after maize harvest (MS-WR), single straw return of wheat (MN-WR), single straw return of maize (MR-WN), MR-WN with subsoiling to ~40 cm depth after maize harvest (MS-WN) and no straw return (MN-WN). Results showed that the MS-WR had the greatest grain yields of both wheat and maize, gross revenue and economic profit with increases of 45.5%, 35.6%, 26.5%, and 79.7% relative to the MN-WN, respectively. Compared with the initial SOC level, the SOC stock increased by 22.9% under MS-WR, following by MR-WR (16.0%), MS-WN (11.6%), MR-WN (8.0%), MN-WR (5.1%), and MN-WN (-3.8%). The MS-WR reduced the net CF and net CF per economic profit by 35.4% and 64.1% relative to the MN-WN although it elevated the CF by 25.3%. Therefore, adopting the integrated strategies of both maize and wheat straw return with subsoiling to ~40 cm depth after maize harvest represented an economically and C-friendly optimal field management practice for intensive wheat-maize double cropping production in the Guanzhong Plain or other regions with similar environmental conditions in the world.

  • 36.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Leffler, Per
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Field trials to assess the use of iron-bearing industrial by-products for stabilisation of chromated copper arsenate-contaminated soil2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 387, no 1-3, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two industrial by-products with high iron contents were tested for their effectiveness in the stabilisation of arsenic and trace metals in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil. Steel abrasive (SA; 97% Fe0) and oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG; 69% Fe3O4) were applied at levels of 1% and 8% (w/w) respectively to two soils with different organic matter contents. Field lysimeter measurements indicated that SA and OSG treatments decreased the arsenic concentration in pore water by 68% and 92%, respectively, for the soil with low organic matter content, and by about 30% in pore water of soil with high organic matter content. At pH ≤6, the amended soil with low organic content contained elevated levels of manganese and nickel in their pore water, which were sufficient to induce cytotoxic effects in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The industrial by-products have significant potential for soil amendment at field-scale, but caution is required because of the potential release of their chemical contaminants and their reduced capacity for sorption of arsenic in organic-rich soils.

  • 37.
    Lindfors, Sarah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lundy, Lian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Metal size distribution in rainfall and snowmelt-induced runoff from three urban catchments2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 743, article id 140813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The size distribution of metals transported by urban runoff has implications for treatment type and design, predicting their mobility and evaluating their potential impact on receiving waters. There is an urgent need to better understand the distribution of metals between fractions, particularly those in the sub-dissolved fractions. As a contribution to addressing this need, this study characterises the size distribution of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, V and Zn using conventional and novel techniques. Data is presented as event mean concentrations (EMC) of a total of 18 rainfall and snowmelt events at three urban sites. For all studied metals in all events and at all sites, the contribution of the truly dissolved fraction made a greater contribution to the total concentrations than the colloidal fraction. Truly dissolved Cd and Zn concentrations contributed (on average) 26% and 28% respectively, of the total EMCs with truly dissolved Cu and Ni contributing (on average) 18%. In contrast, only 1% (V) and 3% (Cr) were identified in the truly dissolved fraction. The greatest contribution of truly dissolved Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations (relative to total concentrations) were reported during rainfall events. However, no seasonal differences were identified and differences between the sites regarding the EMCs distribution by fractions were not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05) for any metal or event. The loads of truly dissolved and colloidal metals did not follow the patterns of particulate metal loads indicating particulates are not the main source of sub-dissolved metals. The data suggests that ultrafiltration as a treatment technique would not efficiently mitigate the risks posed by metals to receiving water ecologies.

  • 38.
    Lindgren, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Asphalt wear and pollution transport1996In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 189-190, p. 281-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  • 39.
    Lönnqvist, Joel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Farrell, Claire
    School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, 500, Yarra Boulevard, Richmond, Victoria 3121, Australia.
    Schrieke, Dean
    School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, 500, Yarra Boulevard, Richmond, Victoria 3121, Australia.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Plant water use related to leaf traits and CSR strategies of 10 common European green roof species2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 890, article id 164044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vegetation layer contributes to multiple functions of green roofs including their hydrological function as plants remove water from substrates between rainfall events through evapotranspiration, restoring the green roofs storage capacity for rainfall retention. While individual traits have been related to water use strategies of green roof plants, these traits are inconsistent, suggesting the importance of trait combinations which may be reflected in CSR (competitor, stress tolerator, ruderal) strategies. Therefore, relating plant water use to leaf traits and CSR strategies could help facilitate green roof plant selection into new geographical regions where green roof technology is developing. For example, in high latitude northern European regions with long daylight during the growing season. Growth (shoot biomass, relative growth rate and leaf area), leaf traits (leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area and succulence) and CSR strategies were determined of 10 common European green roof plants and related to their water use under well-watered (WW) and water-deficit (WD) conditions. All three succulent species included in the experiment showed mostly stress tolerant traits and their water loss was less than the bare unplanted substrate, likely due to mulching of the substrate surface. Plants with greater water use under WW conditions had more ruderal and competitive strategies, and greater leaf area and shoot biomass, than species with lower WW water use. However, the four species with the highest water use under WW conditions were able to downregulate their water use under WD, indicating that they could both retain rainfall and survive periods of water limitations. This study indicates that, for optimal stormwater retention, green roof plant selection in high latitude regions like northern Europe, should focus on selecting non-succulent plants with predominantly competitive or ruderal strategies to make the most of the long daylight during the short growing season.

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  • 40.
    Merriman, Laura S.
    et al.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Moore, T.L.C.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University.
    Wang, J.W.
    Centre for Urban Greenery and Ecology, National Parks Board, 1E Cluny Road, 259569, Singapore.
    Osmond, D.L.
    Soil Science, North Carolina State University.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Smolek, A.P.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt, William F.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Evaluation of factors affecting soil carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds in varying climate zones.2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 583, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds were investigated in four different climates: U.S., Northern Sweden, Southern Sweden, and Singapore, representing a range of annual mean temperatures, growing season lengths and rainfall depths: geographic factors that were not statistically compared, but have great effect on carbon (C) accumulation. A chronosequence was used to estimate C accumulations rates; C accumulation and decomposition rates were not directly measured. C accumulated significantly over time in vegetated shallow water areas (0–30 cm) in the USA (78.4 g C m− 2 yr− 1), in vegetated temporary inundation zones in Sweden (75.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1), and in all ponds in Singapore (135 g C m− 2 yr− 1). Vegetative production appeared to exert a stronger influence on relative C accumulation rates than decomposition. Comparing among the four climatic zones, the effects of increasing rainfall and growing season lengths (vegetative production) outweighed the effects of higher temperature on decomposition rates. Littoral vegetation was a significant source to the soil C pool relative to C sources draining from watersheds. Establishment of vegetation in the shallow water zones of retention ponds is vital to providing a C source to the soil. Thus, the width of littoral shelves containing this vegetation along the perimeter may be increased if C sequestration is a design goal. This assessment establishes that stormwater wet retention ponds can sequester C across different climate zones with generally annual rainfall and lengths of growing season being important general factors for C accumulation.

  • 41.
    Milošević, Dragan
    et al.
    Climatology and Hydrology Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Middel, Ariane
    School of Arts, Media and Engineering, School of Computing and Augmented Intelligence, Arizona State University, 950 S. Forest Mall, Stauffer B258, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA.
    Savić, Stevan
    Climatology and Hydrology Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Dunjić, Jelena
    Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Lau, Kevin
    Institute of Future Cities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Stojsavljević, Rastislav
    Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Mask wearing behavior in hot urban spaces of Novi Sad during the COVID-19 pandemic2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 815, article id 152782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban overheating (due to climate change and urbanization) and COVID-19 are two converging crises that must be addressed in tandem. Fine-scale, place-based, people-centric biometeorological and behavioral data are needed to implement context-specific preventative measures such as mask-wearing. This study collected local biometeorological measurements in diverse urban spaces (square, urban park, river quay) in Novi Sad, Serbia on hot sunny summer days (27–30 August 2020) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Observations were supplemented by an online survey asking questions about thermal sensation, comfort, and concurrent protective behavior of the local population. Biometeorological measurements show that the main square in the city center was the most thermally uncomfortable area. According to the survey, it was also perceived as the least safe space to not contract the virus. The urban park was perceived as the most thermally comfortable area in the morning and during midday. It was also considered the safest urban space for outdoor activities. In the evening, the river quay was the most thermally comfortable area in the city. Intra-urban differences in Physiologically Equivalent Temperatures were highest during midday, while differences in air temperatures were highest in the evening. More than 70% of the respondents did not wear face masks when it was hot because of breathing issues and feeling warmer than without mask. Most people wearing a mask felt “slightly warm” in the morning and evening, while the majority of respondents felt “hot” during midday. Only 3% of the respondents felt comfortable while wearing a mask, while 97% experienced some degree of discomfort (from slight discomfort to very uncomfortable). Our study shows that fine scale temporal and spatial urban biometeorological data and population surveys should be included in decision-making processes during the pandemic to develop climate-sensitive health services that are place-based, people-centric, and facilitate planning towards green, resilient, and inclusive cities.

  • 42.
    Mohanakrishna, Gunda
    et al.
    Center for Energy and Environment, School of Advanced Sciences, KLE Technological University, Hubballi 580031, India.
    Sneha, Naik P.
    Center for Energy and Environment, School of Advanced Sciences, KLE Technological University, Hubballi 580031, India.
    Rafi, Shaik Mohammad
    Center for Energy and Environment, School of Advanced Sciences, KLE Technological University, Hubballi 580031, India.
    Sarkar, Omprakash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Dark fermentative hydrogen production: Potential of food waste as future energy needs2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 888, article id 163801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, food waste (FW) is found to be one of the major constituents creating several hurdles in waste management. On the other hand, the energy crisis is increasing and the limited fossil fuel resources available are not sufficient for energy needed for emerging population. In this context, biohydrogen production approach through valorization of FW is emerging as one of the sustainable and eco-friendly options. The present review explores FW sources, characteristics, and dark fermentative production of hydrogen along with its efficiency. FW are highly biodegradable and rich in carbohydrates which can be efficiently utilized by anaerobic bacteria. Based on the composition of FW, several pretreatment methods can be adapted to improve the bioavailability of the organics. By-products of dark fermentation are organic acids that can be integrated with several secondary bioprocesses. The versatility of secondary products is ranging from energy generation to biochemicals production. Integrated approaches facilitate in enhanced energy harvesting along with extended wastewater treatment. The review also discusses various parameters like pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time and nutrient supplementation to enhance the process efficiency of biohydrogen production. The application of solid-state fermentation (SSF) in dark fermentation improves the process efficiency. Dark fermentation as the key process for valorization and additional energy generating process can make FW the most suitable substrate for circular economy and waste based biorefinery.

  • 43.
    Murray, Jesica
    et al.
    Instituto de Bio y Geo Ciencias del Noroeste Argentino, Universidad Nacional de Salta - CONICET, 4405 Rosario de Lerma, Argentina. Laboratoire d'Hydrologie et de Géochimie de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, EOST, CNRS, Strasbourg, France.
    Nordstrom, Darrell Kirk
    United States Geological Survey, Boulder, CO, United States of America.
    Dold, Bernhard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Orué, Maria Romero
    Instituto de Bio y Geo Ciencias del Noroeste Argentino, Universidad Nacional de Salta - CONICET, Rosario de Lerma, Argentina.
    Kirschbaum, Alicia
    Instituto de Bio y Geo Ciencias del Noroeste Argentino, Universidad Nacional de Salta - CONICET, Rosario de Lerma, Argentina.
    Origin and geochemistry of arsenic in surface and groundwaters of Los Pozuelos basin, Puna region, Central Andes, Argentina2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 697, article id 134085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Los Pozuelos is a closed basin in the Puna region of NW Argentina, Central Andes. This is a semi-arid region where closed basins are the most important feature for the hydrologic systems. The center of the basin is occupied by a fluctuating playa lake called Los Pozuelos lagoon, which constitutes a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. This is one of the most populated closed basins in the Argentinian Puna and residents use groundwater for drinking and cooking. Lowest concentrations of As and dissolved solids are in the headwaters of the rivers (1.46–27 μg/L) and the highest concentrations are in the lagoon (43.7–200.3 μg/L). In groundwater, arsenic concentrations increase from the outer ring aquifer (3.82–29.7 μg/L) composed of alluvial-alluvial fan sediments to the inner lacustrine aquifer (10–113 μg/L) that surround the playa lake. Moreover, high concentrations of As during the dry season (90.2 and 113 μg/L), Na/K mass ratios (0.2 and 0.3), and formation of Na-rich efflorescent salts suggest that high evaporation rates increases As concentration, while rainwater dilutes the concentration during the wet season. As(V) is the dominant species in all the water types, except for the lagoon, where As(III) occasionally dominates because of organic matter buildup. There are at least three potential sources for As in water i) oxidation of As sulfides in Pan de Azúcar mine wastes, and acid mine drainage discharging into the basin; ii) weathering and erosion of mineralized shales; iii) weathering of volcanic eruptive non-mineralized rocks. Because it is a closed basin, the arsenic released from the natural and anthropogenic sources is transported in solution and in fluvial sediments and finally accumulates in the center of the basin where the concentration in water increases by evaporation with occasional enhancement by organic matter interaction in the lagoon.

  • 44.
    Müller, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The pollution conveyed by urban runoff: A review of sources2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 709, article id 136125Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban stormwater and snowmelt pollution contributes significantly to the deterioration of surface waters quality in many locations. Consequently, the sources of such pollution have been studied for the past 50 years, with the vehicular transportation sector and the atmospheric deposition identified early as the major pollution sources. In search for mitigation of this pollution, source controls, besides other measures, were recognised as effective pollution mitigation tools, whose successful implementation requires a good knowledge of pollution sources. Even though great research efforts have been exerted to document specific sources of urban runoff pollution, or specific groups of pollutants present in urban runoff, a comprehensive overview of all known contributing sources is still missing. This review contributes to closing this gap by compiling findings of previous research and critically synthesizing the current knowledge of various stormwater pollution sources. As the emphasis is placed on the sources, the related issues of implications for urban surface water quality and possible source controls for individual sources are touched upon just briefly, where required. The review showed that the atmospheric deposition, vehicular transportation-related activities and metallic building envelopes continue to be among the major pollution sources, which have been studied in a far greater detail than other sources. Furthermore, it was noted that because of the rapid advances in clean manufacturing and pollution control technologies, a large part of the body of data on stormwater quality available in the literature should be considered as historical data, which may no longer describe well the current conditions. Progressing historical data obsolescence, combined with continuing releases of new materials and chemicals, and, in some cases of new substances of potential concern, into the environment, suggests that the identification of important stormwater runoff/snowmelt pollution sources, and the associated pollutants, has been and will remain to be a work in progress.

  • 45.
    Müller, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Building surface materials as sources of micropollutants in building runoff: A pilot study2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 680, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control of diffuse pollution is critical for achieving good surface water quality status. In this context, pollutant contributions from building materials have received increased attention in recent decades. This study examined the releases of metals, nonylphenols and phthalates from ten common building surface materials (installed in triplicates) into rainwater runoff from six rain events. The highest releases of metals were from copper and zinc sheets (average concentrations of 3090 μg/L Cu and 7770 μg/L Zn respectively), while other metal materials, e.g., Corten weathering steel, exhibited lower releases. PVC roofing released high concentrations of nonylphenols and phthalates (average concentrations of up to 26 μg/L nonylphenols and 455 μg/L Diisononyl phthalate, DINP) which have not been investigated in the earlier studies. Pollutant releases varied between events, likely because of weather conditions and rainfall characteristics. Study findings should be valuable for environmentally responsible applications of the existing building materials and the development of new ones, as well as the investigations and risk assessment of specific pollutants in stormwater.

  • 46.
    Müller, Barbara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Axelsson, Mikael D.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Adsorption of trace elements on pyrite surfaces in sulfidic mine tailings from Kristineberg (Sweden): a few years after remediation2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 298, no 1-3, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) has been used to determine the elemental composition of the surface and interior layers of pyrite grains from the mine tailings from Kristineberg (northern Sweden) in order to determine concentration gradients between these two layers. The pyrite grains were collected from oxidized and unoxidized zones within the tailings. The aim of this study was to assess the role of pyrite surfaces as sites for the attenuation of solutes from the mine-tailings porewater. The normalized intensities of Cu, Zn, Ag, Sb, Ce, Pb and Bi are highest at the surface of each grain (within the surface layer drilled by the LA) and decrease towards the interior. The surface adsorption of Cu, Zn and Pb is more pronounced within the unoxidized than within the oxidized zone of the tailings. Copper exhibits a distinct concentration peak at the surface of the pyrite grains below the pre-remediation oxidation front. Silver, Sb, Bi, As and Au are preferably adsorbed within the uppermost layer of the oxidized zone in the tailings, where the pH is as high as 6.2. The conversion of intensity signals of the elements to concentration values in ppm was accomplished using an external calibration against an in-house pyrite standard.

  • 47.
    Onwubuya, Kene
    et al.
    University of Brighton.
    Cundy, Andrew
    University of Brighton.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bone, Brian
    Environment Agency.
    Greaves, Jon
    Environment Agency.
    Teasdale, Phillip
    University of Brighton.
    Mench, Michel
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, University of Bordeaux.
    Tlustos, Pavel
    Czech University of Life Sceinces Prague.
    Mikhalovsky, Sergey
    University of Brighton.
    Waite, Steve
    University of Brighton.
    Friesl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Marschner, Bernd
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Muller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Developing decision support tools for the selection of "gentle" remediation approaches2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 24, p. 6132-6142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of tools have been proposed to support decision making in contaminated land remediation. From a European perspective it is clear, however, that there are considerable national differences in the decision support process, and more generally in the extent to which this process supports the selection of less invasive, alternative remediation options such as phytoremediation, in situ immobilisation etc. (referred to here as "gentle" remediation technologies). In this paper we present results from the recently completed European Union ERANET SNOWMAN project SUMATECS (Sustainable Management of Trace Element Contaminated Sites), and critically review available decision support tools in terms of their fitness for purpose for the application of gentle remediation technologies. Stakeholder feedback indicates a lack of knowledge amongst stakeholders of currently available decision support tools. We propose that decision support which focuses on gentle remediation is more strongly incorporated into existing, well-established (national) decision support tools / decision-frameworks, to promote more widespread use and uptake.

  • 48.
    Palmquist, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hanaeus, Jörgen
    Hazardous substances in separately collected grey- and blackwater from ordinary Swedish households2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 348, no 1-3, p. 151-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present the mass flows of a number of selected hazardous substances in raw, separate grey- and blackwater from ordinary Swedish households. The Vibyasen housing area was selected for the investigation since its wastewater system has separate flows for grey- and blackwater. Due to the high analytical costs, a limited number of hazardous substances had to be selected and the number of samples restricted. The greywater flow was manually measured and the samples were collected at set time intervals. The blackwater samples were randomly collected from a blackwater tank. A total of 105 selected hazardous substances were measured in both fractions. Of the 24 elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Al, Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pt, Sb, Sn, Te, Zn) measured in both fractions, 22 were detected in the greywater and 23 in the blackwater. 81 organic substances were selected and measured in both fractions (nonylphenol- and octylphenol ethoxylates, brominated flame-retardants, organotin compounds, PAH, PCB, phthalates, monocyclic aromatics, and triclosan). 46 organic substances were found in greywater and 26 in blackwater. PCB was the only group found in neither grey- nor blackwater. The greywater flow fluctuated, with a specific average flow of 66 L per person and day. The composition of blackwater also fluctuated, with shifting proportions of urine, faeces, and flush water. The specific average blackwater flow was 28.5 L per person and day. The mixture of substances in separate wastewater fractions from Swedish households was too complex to exactly distinguish their specific sources.

  • 49.
    Patel, Alok
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Mining of squalene as a value-added byproduct from DHA producing marine thraustochytrid cultivated on food waste hydrolysate2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 736, article id 139691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The commercial production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from oleaginous microorganisms is getting more attention due to several advantages over fish oils. The processing cost became a major bottleneck for commercialization of DHA from microorganisms. The most of cost shares in the feedstock to cultivate the microorganisms and downstream processing. The cost of feedstock can be compensated with the utilization of substrate from waste stream whereas production of value-added chemicals boosts the economic viability of nutraceutical production. In the present study, the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-producing marine protist Aurantiochytrium sp. T66 was cultivated on post-consumption food waste hydrolysate for the mining of squalene. After 120 h of cultivation, cell dry weight was 14.7 g/L, of which 6.34 g/L (43.13%; w/w) were lipids. DHA accounted for 2.15 g/L (34.05%) of total extracted lipids or 0.15 g/gCDW. Maximum squalene concentration and yield were 1.05 g/L and 69.31 mg/gCDW, respectively. Hence, utilization of food waste represents an excellent low-cost strategy for cultivating marine oleaginous thraustochytrids and produce squalene as a byproduct of DHA.

  • 50.
    Paton, Graeme I.
    et al.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Viventsova (Ruth), Ekaterina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Wilson, Michael J.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Weitz, Hedda J.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Dawson, Julian J.C.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK.
    An ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated forest soils from the Kola Peninsula2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 355, no 1-3, p. 106-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Point source copper and nickel contamination emanating from smelters of the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, has been observed since the mid-1960s. Previous studies have concentrated on the spatial distribution of heavy metals and their effects on forest ecology and indigenous mammals and birds. Soil is perceived as the major repository for the metal pollutants but there is a need to link the soil concentration of pollutants on the Kola Peninsula with biological parameters. Many standard methods currently used in soil ecotoxicology are developed and refined with artificial amendments and rarely modified for use in historically contaminated environments. In this study, forest soils were sampled along a 34 km transect from the smelter and analysed both chemically and with a range of ecologically relevant biological tests. Soil respiration, total nematode count, microbial heterotrophic numbers and minimal inhibitory concentrations to copper and nickel were carried out on bulk soil. The soil pore water was tested with bacterial and fungal bioluminescence-based biosensors. The heterotrophic numbers and their inhibitory concentration showed strong correlation with heavy metal concentrations while decreasing biosensor luminescence was related to increasing copper concentrations present in the pore waters. Overall, there were considerable impacts on some microbial parameters but other measures including respiration and nematode populations were insensitive to pollutant levels. While chemical analysis of heavy metals proved essential in defining the extent of contamination, environmentally relevant ecotoxicological tests complemented these data by demonstrating pollutant impact. Ecotoxicological approaches that study both the bulk soil and pore water may represent the key to understanding the fate of heavy metal in soils.

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