Change search
Refine search result
1 - 41 of 41
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Lundberg, Angela
    Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 6, p. 1386-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  • 2.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Contribution of coarse particles from road surfaces to dissolved and particle-bound heavy metal loads in runoff: A laboratory leaching study with synthetic stormwater2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory leaching experiments were performed to study the potential of coarse street sediments (i.e. > 250 μm) to release dissolved and particulate-bound heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) during rainfall/runoff. Towards this end, street sediments were sampled by vacuuming at seven sites in five Swedish cities and the collected sediments were characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. In the laboratory, the sediments were combined with synthetic rainwater and subject to agitation by a shaker mimicking particle motion during transport by runoff from street surfaces. As a result of such action, coarse street sediments were found to release significant amounts of heavy metals, which were predominantly (up to 99%) in the particulate bound phase. Thus, in dry weather, coarse street sediments functioned as collectors of fine particles with attached heavy metals, but in wet weather, metal burdens were released by rainfall/runoff processes. The magnitude of such releases depended on the site characteristics (i.e. street cleaning and traffic intensity), particle properties (i.e. organic matter content), and runoff characteristics (pH, and the duration of, and energy input into, sediment/water agitation). The study findings suggest that street cleaning, which preferentially removes coarser sediments, may produce additional environmental benefits by also removing fine contaminated particles attached to coarser materials

  • 3.
    Burksch, S.
    et al.
    Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, KFB.
    Egebäck, Karl-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The Swedish program for investigations concerning biofuels1999In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 235, no 1-3, p. 293-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As constituted today, the transport sector is not sustainable in the long-term. It is based almost entirely on non-replenishable natural resources which, when combusted, release emissions that can cause serious harm to human beings, animals and the natural environment. Therefore, in order to achieve a sustainable transport system, it is imperative to achieve a means of propulsion, which is based on renewable energy sources in every phase of production and distribution. The responsibility for developing such a sustainable transport system is an assignment, which must be approached as a common cause, involving both the official agencies of society and the business sector together with international cooperation. In 1991 the Swedish Government allocated 120 million Swedish crowns to the Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB) as funds for research, development and demonstration in the field of biofuels to be used in the transportation sector. In order to fulfil this obligation a program was presented and approved and this program for engine alcohols and biogas was carried out between the summer of 1991 and the end of 1997. The program has generated a broad spectrum of useful results showing that, in general terms, there are a number of technical problems connected to the use of biofuels. There is also a need to continue the development of both the fuels and the engines in order to take advantage of all that can be achieved concerning the use of biofuels in the transportation sector. The presentation at The Sixth International Highway and Urban Pollution Symposium will focus on a brief description of the program carried out and a presentation of the results of the field tests and the emission characterisation.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Thunberg, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Holmström, Henning
    Envipro Miljöteknik AB, Linköping.
    Sequential extraction of sulfide-rich tailings remediated by the application of till cover, Kristineberg mine, northern Sweden2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 299, no 1-3, p. 207-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sequential extraction has been carried out on sulfide-rich mine tailings. The purpose was to investigate how elements released by oxidation are secondarily retained in the tailings and the possible consequences of the remediation. After investigating the solid tailings, seven samples were chosen for sequential extractions. Two samples were oxidised, situated just above the oxidation front; two samples from just below the former oxidation front with increased concentrations of several elements; two unoxidised samples were from an intermediate depth, and the deepest sample was from the tailings-peat boundary at the bottom of the impoundment. Five phases were extracted: adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate; labile organics; amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides/Mn-oxides; crystalline Fe-oxides; and organics/sulfides. The addition from dried porewater to the extracted fractions has been calculated and considered as minor. In the oxidised tailings, the sulfide fraction still dominates for elements such as Fe, S, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg and Zn, although the concentrations are low compared to the unoxidised tailings. Generally, the second most important fraction is the adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction. Below the oxidation front, the sulfide content of the tailings sharply increases. In the secondary enrichment zone, the total element concentrations increase compared with the deeper unoxidised samples, mainly due to secondary retention. For some elements, secondary retention is greater than the total amount extracted for the deeper unoxidised samples. In the secondary enrichment zone the adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction represents approximately 20 wt.% or more for Cd, Co, Mn, Ni and Zn. The amorphous iron oxyhydroxide or the crystalline iron oxide fractions are less important at this level, although for As, Ba and Cu the amorphous iron oxyhydroxide fraction represents up to 20 wt.. At the lower border of the enrichment zone, the total concentration for most metals is lower, but the importance of the adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction is further enhanced for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. These elements have 35-60 wt.% of the total amount from this fraction. For As, Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, the secondary fractions extracted (extractions A-D) represent between 60 and 80 wt.% of the total content. At greater depth in the impoundment the relative importance of the adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction decreases, whilst the importance of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and crystalline iron oxide fractions increases. The adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate fraction is the most easily remobilised fraction. A raised groundwater table previously situated below the enrichment zone may result in the release of secondarily retained metals.

  • 5.
    Chlot, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Husson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Modelling nitrogen transformations in waters receiving mine effluents2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 21, p. 4585-4595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a biogeochemical model developed for a clarification pond receiving ammonium nitrogen rich discharge water from the Boliden concentration plant located in northern Sweden. Present knowledge about nitrogen (N) transformations in lakes is compiled in a dynamic model that calculates concentrations of the six N species (state variables) ammonium-N (Nam), nitrate-N (Nox), dissolved organic N in water (Norg), N in phytoplankton (Npp), in macrophytes (Nmp) and in sediment (Nsed). It also simulates the rate of 16 N transformation processes occurring in the water column and sediment as well as water–sediment and water–atmosphere interactions. The model was programmed in the software Powersim using 2008 data, whilst validation was performed using data from 2006 to 2007. The sensitivity analysis showed that the state variables are most sensitive to changes in the coefficients related to the temperature dependence of the transformation processes. A six-year simulation of Nam showed stable behaviour over time. The calibrated model rendered coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.93, 0.79 and 0.86 for Nam, Nox and Norg, respectively. Performance measures quantitatively expressing the deviation between modelled and measured data resulted in values close to zero, indicating a stable model structure. The simulated denitrification rate was on average five times higher than the ammonia volatilisation rate and about three times higher than the permanent burial of Nsed and, hence, the most important process for the permanent removal of N. The model can be used to simulate possible measures to reduce the nitrogen load and, after some modification and recalibration, it can be applied at other mine sites affected by N rich effluents.

  • 6.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Åberg, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Quantification of the effects of environmental leaching factors on emissions from bottom ash in road construction2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 362, no 1-3, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The re-use of bottom ash in road construction necessitates a tool to predict the impact of trace metals on the surroundings over the lifetime of the road. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of environmental factors that are supposed to influence leaching, so as to suggest guidelines in developing a leaching procedure for the testing of incineration residues re-used in road constructions. The effects of pH, L / S (liquid-to-solid ratio), leaching time, and leaching atmosphere on the leachate concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were studied using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was the pH, followed by L / S, though the importance of pH and L / S is often ignored in leaching tests. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in leaching data had R2 values ranging from 61-97%. A two-step pH-stat leaching procedure that considers pH as well as L / S and leaching time was suggested.

  • 7.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Processes improving urban stormwater quality in grass swales and filter strips: A review of research findings2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 669, p. 431-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing interest in urban drainage green infrastructure brings attention to grass swales and filter strips (GS&GFS) and their role in stormwater management. While the understanding of the hydrology and hydraulics of these stormwater control measures is adequate for current needs, there are knowledge gaps in understanding the water quality processes in GS&GFS and such a finding motivated preparation of the review paper that follows. The review revealed that most of the empirical studies of GS&GFS flow quality focused on the removal of pollutants associated with road runoff, and particularly solids, with relatively few studies addressing nutrients, traffic associated hydrocarbons, oxygen demanding substances, chloride, and faecal indicator bacteria. The reported results suffer from limitations caused by experimental conditions often representing a steady flow used to irrigate GS&GFS and generate runoff, non-submerged flows, no lateral inflows along swale side slopes, constant dosing of solids, emphasis on larger-than-typical solids, incomplete descriptions of experimental conditions, and limited attention to experimental uncertainties. Besides settling, other treatment processes, like adsorption/desorption, plant uptake, chemical precipitation and microbial degradation are often acknowledged, but without attempting to quantify their effects on flow quality. The modelling of GS&GFS flow quality would be beneficial for an improved understanding of green urban drainage infrastructure, but currently it is infeasible without a better knowledge of stormwater quality processes in GS&GFS facilities.

  • 8.
    Holmström, Henning
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ljungberg, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The character of the suspended and dissolved phases in the water cover of the flooded mine tailings at Stekenjokk, northern Sweden2000In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 247, no 1, p. 15-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the suspended and dissolved phases of the pond water, material collected from sediment traps, and surficial sediments/tailings from the flooded tailings pond at Stekenjokk have been performed. The aim was to characterise the material, to study the seasonal variations and to quantify possible resuspension of the tailings in the pond. The element concentrations in the pond at Stekenjokk seem to be largely controlled by processes controlling the precipitation and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-oxyhydroxides in both the water column and in the surficial tailings. Physiochemical processes such as weathering of silicates on the surrounding mountain slopes or dykes contributes both dissolved elements and detrital particles. The suspended phase consists of detrital silicate material as well as Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. The average heavy metal concentrations are high, e.g. 0.42% Cu, 0.15% Pb and 3.1% Zn, which is probably due to sorption onto Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. The suspended phase is richer in Fe, and particularly Mn, during the winter. The suspended phase resembles the material collected in sediment traps and the material in the surficial sediments. The pond water is well mixed during the ice-free season. The dissolved heavy metal concentrations are generally rather low with, e.g. maximum concentrations of 2.03 μg/l Cu, 0.23 μg/l Pb and 268 μg/l Zn during the winter. Higher dissolved concentrations are found below the ice-cover above the sediment surface during the winter, caused by diffusion of elements from the sediment-water interface up into the pond water. Most of the metals occurring in the pond are dissolved and resuspension of tailings is negligible.

  • 9.
    Holmström, Henning
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Salmon, Ursula
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Paraskev, Petrov
    Sofia University.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Geochemical investigations of sulfide-bearing tailings at Kristineberg, northern Sweden, a few years after remediation2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 273, no 1-3, p. 111-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Kristineberg mining area in northern Sweden, massive, pyrite-rich Zn-Cu ores are intercalated in ca. 1.9 Ga volcano-sedimentary rocks. Investigations of a tailings impoundment remediated by means of both till coverage and raising the groundwater table have been undertaken. The aim of the study was to characterise the tailings with respect to mineralogy, the chemical composition of both the tailings and the pore water, and to try to identify the significant reactions that may have occurred before and after remediation. It was found that the oxidation front had reached down to depths of between approximately 0.1 and 1.15 m before remediation. The oxidation of sulfides has produced high concentrations of some metals in the pore water; up to 26, 16, 4.1, 2.7 and 82 mg/l have been measured for Al, Mn, Fe and Zn, respectively. Concentrations of metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb are lower, with average concentrations of 18.4, 83.8, 45, 79.6 and 451 μg/l, respectively. Higher concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg and S have been measured at depth in pore water than at shallower levels. This is probably caused by flush out of elements after remediation and vertical transport from the upper parts before remediation. The pH is relatively high, approximately 5.5 at most depths in the tailings, except in and around the former oxidation zone where it is lower, and where the highest dissolved concentrations of elements such as As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn occur. This is probably due to the release of metals secondarily retained below the oxidation front prior to the remediation. Since the groundwater table is raised, the groundwater reaches the retained metals, which leads to desorption of metals and dissolution of secondary minerals.

  • 10.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bert, Valérie
    INERIS, Technologies and Sustainable and Clean Processes, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment.
    Friesl-Hani, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department.
    Galazka, Rafal
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Herzig, Rolf
    Phytotech Foundation and AGB, Quartiergasse 12, 3013 Bern.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Kidd, Petra
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela.
    Mench, Michel
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Pillnitzer Platz 3, 01326 Dresden.
    Neu, Silke
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Pillnitzer Platz 3, 01326 Dresden.
    Oustriere, Nadège
    INRA, UMR1202 BIOGECO, F-33610 Cestas, France and Université de Bordeaux.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna — BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence, Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, P.le delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence.
    Roumier, Pierre-Hevré
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Manier, Nicolas
    INERIS, Expertise and Assays in Ecotoxicology, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO)2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 496, p. 510-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities.

  • 11. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Leffler, Per
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Maurice, Christian
    Field trials to assess the use of iron-bearing industrial by-products for stabilisation of chromated copper arsenate-contaminated soil2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 387, no 1-3, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two industrial by-products with high iron contents were tested for their effectiveness in the stabilisation of arsenic and trace metals in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil. Steel abrasive (SA; 97% Fe0) and oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG; 69% Fe3O4) were applied at levels of 1% and 8% (w/w) respectively to two soils with different organic matter contents. Field lysimeter measurements indicated that SA and OSG treatments decreased the arsenic concentration in pore water by 68% and 92%, respectively, for the soil with low organic matter content, and by about 30% in pore water of soil with high organic matter content. At pH ≤6, the amended soil with low organic content contained elevated levels of manganese and nickel in their pore water, which were sufficient to induce cytotoxic effects in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The industrial by-products have significant potential for soil amendment at field-scale, but caution is required because of the potential release of their chemical contaminants and their reduced capacity for sorption of arsenic in organic-rich soils.

  • 12.
    Lindgren, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Asphalt wear and pollution transport1996In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 189-190, p. 281-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  • 13.
    Merriman, Laura S.
    et al.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Moore, T.L.C.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University.
    Wang, J.W.
    Centre for Urban Greenery and Ecology, National Parks Board, 1E Cluny Road, 259569, Singapore.
    Osmond, D.L.
    Soil Science, North Carolina State University.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Smolek, A.P.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt, William F.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Evaluation of factors affecting soil carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds in varying climate zones.2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 583, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds were investigated in four different climates: U.S., Northern Sweden, Southern Sweden, and Singapore, representing a range of annual mean temperatures, growing season lengths and rainfall depths: geographic factors that were not statistically compared, but have great effect on carbon (C) accumulation. A chronosequence was used to estimate C accumulations rates; C accumulation and decomposition rates were not directly measured. C accumulated significantly over time in vegetated shallow water areas (0–30 cm) in the USA (78.4 g C m− 2 yr− 1), in vegetated temporary inundation zones in Sweden (75.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1), and in all ponds in Singapore (135 g C m− 2 yr− 1). Vegetative production appeared to exert a stronger influence on relative C accumulation rates than decomposition. Comparing among the four climatic zones, the effects of increasing rainfall and growing season lengths (vegetative production) outweighed the effects of higher temperature on decomposition rates. Littoral vegetation was a significant source to the soil C pool relative to C sources draining from watersheds. Establishment of vegetation in the shallow water zones of retention ponds is vital to providing a C source to the soil. Thus, the width of littoral shelves containing this vegetation along the perimeter may be increased if C sequestration is a design goal. This assessment establishes that stormwater wet retention ponds can sequester C across different climate zones with generally annual rainfall and lengths of growing season being important general factors for C accumulation.

  • 14.
    Murray, Jesica
    et al.
    Instituto de Bio y Geo Ciencias del Noroeste Argentino, Universidad Nacional de Salta - CONICET, 4405 Rosario de Lerma, Argentina. Laboratoire d'Hydrologie et de Géochimie de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, EOST, CNRS, Strasbourg, France.
    Nordstrom, Darrell Kirk
    United States Geological Survey, Boulder, CO, United States of America.
    Dold, Bernhard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Orué, Maria Romero
    Instituto de Bio y Geo Ciencias del Noroeste Argentino, Universidad Nacional de Salta - CONICET, Rosario de Lerma, Argentina.
    Kirschbaum, Alicia
    Instituto de Bio y Geo Ciencias del Noroeste Argentino, Universidad Nacional de Salta - CONICET, Rosario de Lerma, Argentina.
    Origin and geochemistry of arsenic in surface and groundwaters of Los Pozuelos basin, Puna region, Central Andes, Argentina2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 697, article id 134085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Los Pozuelos is a closed basin in the Puna region of NW Argentina, Central Andes. This is a semi-arid region where closed basins are the most important feature for the hydrologic systems. The center of the basin is occupied by a fluctuating playa lake called Los Pozuelos lagoon, which constitutes a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. This is one of the most populated closed basins in the Argentinian Puna and residents use groundwater for drinking and cooking. Lowest concentrations of As and dissolved solids are in the headwaters of the rivers (1.46–27 μg/L) and the highest concentrations are in the lagoon (43.7–200.3 μg/L). In groundwater, arsenic concentrations increase from the outer ring aquifer (3.82–29.7 μg/L) composed of alluvial-alluvial fan sediments to the inner lacustrine aquifer (10–113 μg/L) that surround the playa lake. Moreover, high concentrations of As during the dry season (90.2 and 113 μg/L), Na/K mass ratios (0.2 and 0.3), and formation of Na-rich efflorescent salts suggest that high evaporation rates increases As concentration, while rainwater dilutes the concentration during the wet season. As(V) is the dominant species in all the water types, except for the lagoon, where As(III) occasionally dominates because of organic matter buildup. There are at least three potential sources for As in water i) oxidation of As sulfides in Pan de Azúcar mine wastes, and acid mine drainage discharging into the basin; ii) weathering and erosion of mineralized shales; iii) weathering of volcanic eruptive non-mineralized rocks. Because it is a closed basin, the arsenic released from the natural and anthropogenic sources is transported in solution and in fluvial sediments and finally accumulates in the center of the basin where the concentration in water increases by evaporation with occasional enhancement by organic matter interaction in the lagoon.

  • 15.
    Müller, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The pollution conveyed by urban runoff: A review of sourcesIn: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Müller, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Building surface materials as sources of micropollutants in building runoff: A pilot study2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 680, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control of diffuse pollution is critical for achieving good surface water quality status. In this context, pollutant contributions from building materials have received increased attention in recent decades. This study examined the releases of metals, nonylphenols and phthalates from ten common building surface materials (installed in triplicates) into rainwater runoff from six rain events. The highest releases of metals were from copper and zinc sheets (average concentrations of 3090 μg/L Cu and 7770 μg/L Zn respectively), while other metal materials, e.g., Corten weathering steel, exhibited lower releases. PVC roofing released high concentrations of nonylphenols and phthalates (average concentrations of up to 26 μg/L nonylphenols and 455 μg/L Diisononyl phthalate, DINP) which have not been investigated in the earlier studies. Pollutant releases varied between events, likely because of weather conditions and rainfall characteristics. Study findings should be valuable for environmentally responsible applications of the existing building materials and the development of new ones, as well as the investigations and risk assessment of specific pollutants in stormwater.

  • 17.
    Müller, Barbara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Axelsson, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Adsorption of trace elements on pyrite surfaces in sulfidic mine tailings from Kristineberg (Sweden): a few years after remediation2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 298, no 1-3, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) has been used to determine the elemental composition of the surface and interior layers of pyrite grains from the mine tailings from Kristineberg (northern Sweden) in order to determine concentration gradients between these two layers. The pyrite grains were collected from oxidized and unoxidized zones within the tailings. The aim of this study was to assess the role of pyrite surfaces as sites for the attenuation of solutes from the mine-tailings porewater. The normalized intensities of Cu, Zn, Ag, Sb, Ce, Pb and Bi are highest at the surface of each grain (within the surface layer drilled by the LA) and decrease towards the interior. The surface adsorption of Cu, Zn and Pb is more pronounced within the unoxidized than within the oxidized zone of the tailings. Copper exhibits a distinct concentration peak at the surface of the pyrite grains below the pre-remediation oxidation front. Silver, Sb, Bi, As and Au are preferably adsorbed within the uppermost layer of the oxidized zone in the tailings, where the pH is as high as 6.2. The conversion of intensity signals of the elements to concentration values in ppm was accomplished using an external calibration against an in-house pyrite standard.

  • 18.
    Onwubuya, Kene
    et al.
    University of Brighton.
    Cundy, Andrew
    University of Brighton.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bone, Brian
    Environment Agency.
    Greaves, Jon
    Environment Agency.
    Teasdale, Phillip
    University of Brighton.
    Mench, Michel
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, University of Bordeaux.
    Tlustos, Pavel
    Czech University of Life Sceinces Prague.
    Mikhalovsky, Sergey
    University of Brighton.
    Waite, Steve
    University of Brighton.
    Friesl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Marschner, Bernd
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Muller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Developing decision support tools for the selection of "gentle" remediation approaches2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 24, p. 6132-6142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of tools have been proposed to support decision making in contaminated land remediation. From a European perspective it is clear, however, that there are considerable national differences in the decision support process, and more generally in the extent to which this process supports the selection of less invasive, alternative remediation options such as phytoremediation, in situ immobilisation etc. (referred to here as "gentle" remediation technologies). In this paper we present results from the recently completed European Union ERANET SNOWMAN project SUMATECS (Sustainable Management of Trace Element Contaminated Sites), and critically review available decision support tools in terms of their fitness for purpose for the application of gentle remediation technologies. Stakeholder feedback indicates a lack of knowledge amongst stakeholders of currently available decision support tools. We propose that decision support which focuses on gentle remediation is more strongly incorporated into existing, well-established (national) decision support tools / decision-frameworks, to promote more widespread use and uptake.

  • 19.
    Palmquist, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hanaeus, Jörgen
    Hazardous substances in separately collected grey- and blackwater from ordinary Swedish households2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 348, no 1-3, p. 151-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present the mass flows of a number of selected hazardous substances in raw, separate grey- and blackwater from ordinary Swedish households. The Vibyasen housing area was selected for the investigation since its wastewater system has separate flows for grey- and blackwater. Due to the high analytical costs, a limited number of hazardous substances had to be selected and the number of samples restricted. The greywater flow was manually measured and the samples were collected at set time intervals. The blackwater samples were randomly collected from a blackwater tank. A total of 105 selected hazardous substances were measured in both fractions. Of the 24 elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Al, Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pt, Sb, Sn, Te, Zn) measured in both fractions, 22 were detected in the greywater and 23 in the blackwater. 81 organic substances were selected and measured in both fractions (nonylphenol- and octylphenol ethoxylates, brominated flame-retardants, organotin compounds, PAH, PCB, phthalates, monocyclic aromatics, and triclosan). 46 organic substances were found in greywater and 26 in blackwater. PCB was the only group found in neither grey- nor blackwater. The greywater flow fluctuated, with a specific average flow of 66 L per person and day. The composition of blackwater also fluctuated, with shifting proportions of urine, faeces, and flush water. The specific average blackwater flow was 28.5 L per person and day. The mixture of substances in separate wastewater fractions from Swedish households was too complex to exactly distinguish their specific sources.

  • 20.
    Paton, Graeme I.
    et al.
    University of Aberdeen.
    Ruth, Katja Viventsova
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Wilson, Michael J.
    University of Aberdeen.
    Weitz, Hedda J.
    University of Aberdeen.
    Dawson, Julian J.C.
    University of Aberdeen.
    An ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated forest soils from the Kola Peninsula2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 355, no 1-3, p. 106-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Point source copper and nickel contamination emanating from smelters of the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, has been observed since the mid-1960s. Previous studies have concentrated on the spatial distribution of heavy metals and their effects on forest ecology and indigenous mammals and birds. Soil is perceived as the major repository for the metal pollutants but there is a need to link the soil concentration of pollutants on the Kola Peninsula with biological parameters. Many standard methods currently used in soil ecotoxicology are developed and refined with artificial amendments and rarely modified for use in historically contaminated environments. In this study, forest soils were sampled along a 34 km transect from the smelter and analysed both chemically and with a range of ecologically relevant biological tests. Soil respiration, total nematode count, microbial heterotrophic numbers and minimal inhibitory concentrations to copper and nickel were carried out on bulk soil. The soil pore water was tested with bacterial and fungal bioluminescence-based biosensors. The heterotrophic numbers and their inhibitory concentration showed strong correlation with heavy metal concentrations while decreasing biosensor luminescence was related to increasing copper concentrations present in the pore waters. Overall, there were considerable impacts on some microbial parameters but other measures including respiration and nematode populations were insensitive to pollutant levels. While chemical analysis of heavy metals proved essential in defining the extent of contamination, environmentally relevant ecotoxicological tests complemented these data by demonstrating pollutant impact. Ecotoxicological approaches that study both the bulk soil and pore water may represent the key to understanding the fate of heavy metal in soils.

  • 21.
    Quintela-Sabarís, Celestino
    et al.
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Marchand, Lilian
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Kidd, Petra S.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela .
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna .
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Neu, Silke
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Gałązka, Rafał
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Bert, Valérie
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Herzig, Rolf
    Phytotech Foundation (PT-F), and AGB-Bioindikation Umweltbeobachtung und oekologische Planung Quartiergasse, Bern.
    Cundy, Andrew B.
    Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre (Southampton), University of Southampton.
    Oustrière, Nadège
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Kolbas, Aliaksandr
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Galland, William
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Mench, Michel
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Assessing phytotoxicity of trace element-contaminated soils phytomanaged with gentle remediation options at ten European field trials2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, p. 1388-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gentle remediation options (GRO), i.e. in situ stabilisation, (aided) phytoextraction and (aided) phytostabilisation, were implemented at ten European sites contaminated with trace elements (TE) from various anthropogenic sources: mining, atmospheric fallout, landfill leachates, wood preservatives, dredged-sediments, and dumped wastes. To assess the performance of the GRO options, topsoil was collected from each field trial, potted, and cultivated with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for 48 days. Shoot dry weight (DW) yield, photosynthesis efficiency and major element and TE concentrations in the soil pore water and lettuce shoots were measured.

    GRO implementation had a limited effect on TE concentrations in the soil pore water, although use of multivariate Co-inertia Analysis revealed a clear amelioration effect in phytomanaged soils. Phytomanagement increased shoot DW yield at all industrial and mine sites, whereas in agricultural soils improvements were produced in one out of five sites. Photosynthesis efficiency was less sensitive than changes in shoot biomass and did not discriminate changes in soil conditions.

    Based on lettuce shoot DW yield, compost amendment followed by phytoextraction yielded better results than phytostabilisation; moreover shoot ionome data proved that, depending on initial soil conditions, recurrent compost application may be required to maintain crop production with common shoot nutrient concentrations.

  • 22.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Axelsson, Mikael D.
    SGAB Analytica.
    Application of double focusing sector field ICP-MS for multielemental characterization of human hair and nails: Part I: Analytical methodology2000In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 250, no 1-3, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capabilities of double focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SMS) for the determination of 71 elements in hair and nails were studied. A microwave-assisted digestion procedure with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide as well as direct sampling of the nails by laser ablation (LA) have been tested. Examples of spectral interferences are given and different correction procedures are discussed. Method detection limits below ng g-1 were obtained for 39 elements investigated by using high-purity reagents and by taking special care to prevent contamination during preparation. However, these detection limits were insufficient for detection of some platinum group elements in the majority of the samples. The accuracy of the analytical procedure was estimated by analysis of the GBW07601 certified reference material as well as by participation in an interlaboratory comparison program. The reproducibility was assessed from replicate analysis (including sample preparation) and was found to be, as average values for all elements, 9-10% R.S.D. and 18-19% R.S.D. for hair and nails, respectively. Contribution from exogenous deposition was evaluated by analyzing samples before and after washing, as well as by studying spatial element distribution along hair and nails. It was found that even after sample washing, many elements are enriched in the surface of the nail.

  • 23.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Axelsson, Mikael D.
    SGAB Analytica.
    Application of double focusing sector field ICP-MS for multielemental characterization of human hair and nails: Part II: A study of the inhabitants of northern Sweden2000In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 262, no 1-2, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Double-focusing sector-field, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used for the determination of 71 elements in scalp hair and fingernail samples from an urban population group living in the north-east of Sweden. Samples (n=114 for hair and n=96 for nails) were taken from subjects without known occupational exposure to metals. From these results, concentration ranges were calculated and compared with published intervals. Statistical analysis was used to elucidate differences according to sex, age and smoking habit. It was found that significant correlations exist between different elements in hair and nails, as well as between hair and nail concentrations for several elements. Strong positive correlation for Hg, Cd, Pb, Sb and Bi levels between these media confirms that both can be used for exposure assessment for these elements. Several examples on the use of distribution patterns for the rare-earth elements (REE) and of Pb isotope ratios for assessment of exposure are given.

  • 24.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Axelsson, Mikael D.
    SGAB Analytica.
    Application of double focusing sector field ICP-MS for multielemental characterization of human hair and nails: Part III: Direct analysis by laser ablation2003In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 305, no 1-3, p. 23-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capabilities of laser ablation double focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of 55 elements in nails and hair were studied. Quantification was performed by external calibration using in-house matrix-matched standards in tablet form following correction for variations in ablation efficiency by internal standardization using a matrix element (S). For nails, intra-individual long- and short-term chronological variations as well as depth distribution patterns were studied. For the majority of elements tested, significant enrichment was found in the surface of the nail. Element distributions along a hair strand were investigated with a spatial resolution of 2.5 mm.

  • 25.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå.
    Paulukat, Cora
    ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå.
    Pontér, Simon
    ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå.
    Baxter, Douglas
    ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå.
    Sörlin, Dieke
    ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå.
    Pallavicini, Nicola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå.
    Rodushkina, Katerina
    Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Application of double-focusing sector field ICP-MS for determination of ultratrace constituents in samples characterized by complex composition of the matrix2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622-623, p. 203-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of double focusing, sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for determination of analytes, including technology critical elements (TCE), at ultra-trace levels in environmental and clinical matrices was critically evaluated. Different configurations of the ICP-SFMS introduction system as well as various sample preparations, pre-concentration and matrix separation methods were employed and compared. Factors affecting detection capabilities and accuracy of data produced (instrumental sensitivity, contamination risks, purity of reagents, spectral interferences, matrix effects, analyte recovery and losses) were discussed. Optimized matrix-specific methods were applied to a range of reference and control materials (riverine, brackish and seawaters; whole blood, serum and urine) as well as tap water and snow samples collected in the area of Luleå city, northern Sweden; brackish and seawater from the Laptev Sea; venous blood samples with a special emphasis on determination of Au, Ag, Ir, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sb and Te. Even though these low abundant elements are relatively under-documented, the results produced were compared with published data, where available.

  • 26.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Sörlin, D.
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Levels of inorganic constituents in raw nuts and seeds on the Swedish market2008In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 392, no 2-3, p. 290-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of approximately 70 elements were determined in different culinary nuts (hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, bitter almonds, pecans, cashews, Brazil nuts, pistachios, pine nuts, peanuts and coconuts) and seeds (pumpkin and sunflower) available on the Swedish market. The study was limited to raw, virtually unprocessed nuts and seeds (both shelled and unshelled) excluding mixed, roasted or salted products. In total, 44 products from different suppliers were analyzed, with the number of samples per nut/seed variety reflecting the availability of unprocessed products in retail outlets, varying from two for bitter almonds and pistachios to six for hazelnuts and walnuts. This selection includes samples from at least 11 different countries of origin. The optimized analytical procedure consists of microwave-assisted sample digestion using a HNO3/HF mixture, followed by multi-elemental analysis by double focusing, sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The analyses were accompanied by rigorous quality control measures including thorough control of potential sample contamination at all analytical stages, participation in inter-laboratory performance assessment schemes, and the analysis of certified reference materials of plant origin. Concentrations thus obtained were compared with data from product labels (where available), food composition tables and other relevant surveys, demonstrating, depending on the elements in question, close agreement as well as considerable differences.

  • 27.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Sörlin, Dieke
    ALS Analytica AB, Luleå.
    Pontèr, Christer
    ALS Analytica AB, Luleå.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden: Part I. Evaluation of background status2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 386, no 1-3, p. 145-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and 187Os/188Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Luleå, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic 187Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean 187Os/188Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) ≤ spruce needles ≤ mushrooms ≤ tree leaves ≤ pine needles < mosses lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO4) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO4 concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean 187Os/188Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only source of contemporary environmental contamination.

  • 28.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Sörlin, Dieke
    ALS Analytica AB, Luleå.
    Pontér, Christer
    ALS Analytica AB, Luleå.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden: Part II. Identification of anthropogenic sources2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 386, no 1-3, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and 187Os/188Os isotope abundance ratios measured in epiphytic lichens from Northeast Sweden have been used for the identification of anthropogenic emission sources of this element. Based on isotope abundance ratios and similarities in spatial distributions between Os and chromium, smelters operated on chromium ores from Kemi deposits have shown to be the most important factor affecting the airborne Os burden in the region. The extent of the exposure is reflected by lichen concentrations near the source exceeding those from remote areas by a factor of 1000. Contributions from metal foundries processing iron, copper, lead and zinc ores can also be seen, though, because of lower Os concentrations in the feedstock, on a considerably lower scale. Masked by these industrial emissions in the studied area, the impact of Os originating from automotive catalytic converters cannot be resolved at present.

  • 29.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ödman, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmström, Henning
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Multi-element analysis of wild berries from northern Sweden by ICP techniques1999In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 231, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the abundances of 60 chemical elements were determined in berries of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma double focusing sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SMS). Samples of both species were collected at 35 sites in northern Sweden. The sites are related to four zones representing areas affected by different types of human activity as well as an adjacent reference area. Special care was taken to keep sample contamination during sampling and sample preparation as low as possible. Different approaches such as use of an internal quality control sample, spike recovery tests and comparison between different analytical techniques, were used to ensure the quality of the results. Variations in element concentrations within individual sampling sites were estimated, based upon in-site duplicate sampling and analysis. The contribution from surface contamination to total berry concentrations was assessed by analysis of samples before and after rinsing with water. A comparison of the two species showed that, in spite of very similar concentrations for the majority of the elements, the highest Tl, Sr and Ba values were found in lingonberry while the highest Cl and Re concentrations were found in blueberry. The highest total concentrations of Ag, As, Be, Bi, Br, Cd, Hg, I, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl were found in berries from mining areas, whereas those of Li, V, Hf, W, Ta and REE were found in the vicinity of high-traffic roads.

  • 30.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Flow regulation effects on the hydrogeochemistry of the hyporheic zone in boreal rivers2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 499, p. 424-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River-aquifer interfaces are essential for ecosystem functioning in terms of nutrient exchange and biological habitat, but are greatly threatened world-wide. This study examined geochemical aspects of river-aquifer interaction in one regulated and one unregulated boreal river in Northern Sweden to determine whether the geochemical functioning of the hyporheic zone is affected by hydrological alterations, e.g. regulated river discharge and river-aquifer connectivity. In the unregulated Kalix River, the hyporheic pore water was well-oxygenated with orthogonal fluxes (≈0.6-0.7 m d-1) and acted as a sink for Fe, Mn, Al, NH4, and Ca, with fractional losses of 95%, 92%, 45%, 31%, and 15%, respectively. A corresponding elevation in the concentrations of these elements in the hyporheic sediment was observed, with higher saturation indices of Fe-, Mn-, and Al-bearing secondary minerals in hyporheic waters. In the regulated Lule River, hydraulic connectivity at the river-aquifer interface was altered by the presence of a clogging layer (0.04 m d–1). In addition, the river discharge oscillated daily, severely reducing exchange flows across the riverbed (<0.01 m d-1). As a result, the hyporheic pore water was suboxic, with elevated concentrations of filtered Fe and Mn (fractional increase of ≈3700% and ≈2500%, respectively) and other solutes (NH4, Si, S, Ca). A conceptual model revealed functional differences between geochemical features of the hyporheic zone of regulated and unregulated rivers. Overall, the results showed that hyporheic processes are altered along regulated rivers, with resulting impacts on the geochemistry of riverine, riparian and related marine ecosystems.

  • 31.
    Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da
    et al.
    University of Aveiro.
    Almeida, Salomé F.P.
    University of Aveiro.
    Nunes, Marcelo L.
    University of Aveiro.
    Luís, Ana T.
    University of Aveiro.
    Borg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hedlund, Markus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sá, Carlos Marques de
    University of Porto.
    Patinha, Carla
    University of Aveiro.
    Teixeira, Paula
    University of Aveiro.
    Heavy metal pollution downstream the abandoned Coval da Mó mine (Portugal) and associated effects on epilithic diatom communities2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 21, p. 5620-5636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined trace-element concentrations in 39 sediment samples collected in the vicinity of the abandoned Coval da Mó mine, and evaluated the anthropogenic contaminant effects and other environmental variables in the taxonomic composition, structure and morphological changes of benthic diatom communities.The results show the existence of extremely high contamination in Pb, Zn and Cd (the mean values exceed the background values 376, 96 and 19 times, respectively) on the first 2.5 km in the water flow direction. Also Co, Cu, Mn and Ni are present in high concentrations. Dilution by relatively uncontaminated sediment reduces metal concentrations downstream, but Zn concentrations increase downstream Fílvida stream, as a result of several factors such as sewage and agriculture.To evaluate the biological effects caused by Pb, Cd and Zn, three sites were selected. In the stressed environment, near the mining area (C232), diatoms were extremely rare, however there was a slight recovery at site C79 located 2 km downstream. Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens, Fragilaria cf. crotonensis and Achnanthidium minutissimum showed abnormal valves which may be related to high levels of metals.Six km downstream, in Fílvida stream (C85), an increase in species richness and diversity was registered while the relative percentage of valve teratologies was lower. In the absence of OM, nutrients and low pH the diatom community patterns must be attributed to the metal concentration at some sites. Considering that community diversity can be affected by abiotic and biotic variables and valve deformations are caused by a small number of variables, basically metals, and acid conditions, we consider the presence of teratologies as an indication of the presence of metals.

  • 32.
    Søberg, Laila
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Do salt and low temperature impair metal treatment in stormwater bioretention cells with or without a submerged zone?2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 579, p. 1588-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although seasonal temperature changes and (road) salt in winter and/or coastal stormwater runoff might interfere with the metal treatment performance of stormwater bioretention cells, no previous study has evaluated the effect of these factors and their interactions under controlled conditions. In this 18 week long study 24 well established pilot-scale bioretention columns were employed to evaluate the individual and combined effect(s) of low/high temperature, salt and presence of a submerged zone with an embedded carbon source on metal removal using a three factor, two-level full factorial experimental design. In most instances, the three factors significantly influenced the metal outflow concentrations and thus the treatment performance; the effect of temperature depended on the metal in question, salt had an overall negative effect and the submerged zone with carbon source had an overall positive effect. Despite these statistically significant effects, the discharge water quality was generally markedly improved. However, leaching of dissolved Cu and Pb did occur, mainly from bioretention cells dosed with salt-containing stormwater. The highest concentrations of metals were captured in the top layer of the filter material and were not significantly affected by the three factors studied. Overall, the results confirmed that bioretention provides a functioning stormwater treatment option in areas experiencing winter conditions (road salt, low temperatures) or coastal regions (salt-laden stormwater). However, validation of these results in the field is recommended, especially focusing on dissolved metal removal, which may be critically affected under certain conditions.

  • 33. Tossavainen, Mia
    et al.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Potential leachability from natural road construction materials1999In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 239, no 1-3, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching characteristics are used for the evaluation of waste materials in road construction. Few leaching tests have been performed on natural rock materials which implies that there is a lack of data to be used in comparison with waste materials. In order to form a basis for comparison of the leachability, nine natural road construction materials in Sweden were investigated using the availability test NT ENVIR 003. The results show that the leachable amounts of heavy metals and sulphur generally are very small, but under oxidizing conditions the solubility of sulphide bound elements increases notably. Vanadium and chromium are probably present as ionic substitutes for other elements in mineral lattices and show very low leachability. The leachable amounts of some heavy elements, e.g. zinc, nickel and copper are higher in the rock materials and gravels than in the blast furnace slags.

  • 34.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Snow quality in the city of Lulea, Sweden: time-variation of lead, zinc, copper and phosphorus1998In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 216, no 1-2, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of urban snow was studied with regard to how the concentrations of selected metals and phosphorus vary over time. The area studied is situated in northern Sweden (65°36 prime N; 22°13 prime E). Snow samples were taken at three different locations in the city centre, approximately every second week, throughout winter. This study has clearly shown the importance of local conditions and snow clearance operations on snow quality. The study also shows that it is difficult to interpret and predict the concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and phosphorus in the snow. However, it should be possible to predict the mass loads of these substances from the deposition velocities, if the snow handling methods and routines, as well as the local circumstances are known.

  • 35.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Urban snow deposits: pathways of pollutants1996In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 189-190, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathways of pollutants in urban snow deposits have been studied in the laboratory, in a pilot study and at an actual deposit. The fractions of dissolved and particle-bound substances in the snow and melt water were studied. The results showed that almost all substances in the snow were attached to particles, while in the melt water more than 50% of most substances were dissolved. A large part of the substances which were attached to particles stayed in the sediment below the deposit, while the dissolved substances were mainly removed with the melt water.

  • 36. Westerlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Particles and associated metals in road runoff during snowmelt and rainfall2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 362, no 1-3, p. 143-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed road runoff in northern Sweden with respect to the concentrations of and the loads of particles in different size fractions (4-6, 6-9, 9-15, 15-25, 25-40, and 40-120 μm) between a snowmelt period and a rainfall period, as well as during events within each period. There are also comparisons of the transport of different particle sizes between the two periods and during events within the periods and discussions on how different metals are associated with the varying particle sizes. The results showed, on average, eight times higher concentrations and five times higher loads of particles during the snowmelt period compared to the rain period for all particle size intervals. Using a t-test with 14 degrees of freedom, at a 90% and 95% confidence level, the mean- and the event mean concentrations of all particle size intervals were higher during the melt period compared to the rain period. Also, the particle concentrations for both periods decrease as the particle size increases. During the snowmelt and rainfall period, important factors influencing the concentrations and loads were the availability of material, the intensity of the lateral flow for the transport of the particles, and, additionally, for the rain period, the length of dry weather in between events. During the melt period, investigated particle sizes and TSS were highly correlated with total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. During the rain period, the correlations between total metal concentrations and the different particle sizes were not as significant.

  • 37.
    Widerlund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Chlot, Sara
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sedimentary records of δ13C, δ15N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485-486, p. 205-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ15N and δ13C values in 210Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ~ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ15N ~ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ15N–NO3 = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ15N–NH4 = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ15N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters.

  • 38.
    Widerlund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ebenå, Gustav
    Department of Biology, Linköping University.
    Landin, Jan
    Department of Biology, Linköping University.
    Potential biogeochemical and ecological development of a flooded tailings impoundment at the Kristineberg Zn-Cu mine, northern Sweden2004In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 333, no 1-3, p. 249-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential short-term (≤102 years) and long-term (>102 years) biogeochemical and ecological effects of diverting stream water (pH 4.9-6.7) into a limed, flooded tailings impoundment (pH 8-12) were studied by combining geochemical and biological data. In the long-term perspective, the successional development of lakes was used as a natural analogue. Based on the vertical distribution of temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS<0.22 μm), the impoundment can be characterised as a continuous/discontinuous cold polymictic lake, with holomictic summer circulation. A re-inoculation study indicated that the growth of autotrophic, aerobic bacteria (presumably Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) presently is inhibited by the high pH in the impoundment. In a short-term perspective, termination of liming and diversion of stream water into the impoundment will result in a complex interplay between physical, biogeochemical and ecological effects. A reduced vertical mixing of the ≈2-m-deep water column, dissolution of calcite and gypsum (compounds of a sludge formed in the impoundment) and an enhanced microbiological activity are major expected effects. The dissolution of calcite may act as a pH buffer and result in metal remobilisation from the sludge. Excluding autochthonous organic matter produced in the impoundment, streamwater input of suspended matter and formation of settling flocculants are expected to result in a sediment accumulation rate of ≈1.5 mg cm-2 year-1 (1.6-3.3 cm/102 years). Settling allochthonous organic C (0.15-0.30 mg C cm-2 year-1) may serve as an oxygen barrier and as a reservoir of organic compounds capable of driving redox reactions. In a long-term perspective, a hydroseral development into a wetland/peatland can be expected, with a bog lake, poor fen or flat bog as final stage. This development presupposes a decreasing pH when liming is terminated and stream water is diverted into the impoundment. It also assumes that the impoundment will be similar to an acidified lake, and that the succession is driven by Sphagnum colonizing the impoundment. If the hydrological conditions/water level is affected (e.g., by climatic changes or a dam failure), a terrestrialization culminating in coniferous forest on peat soil may occur.

  • 39.
    Wu, Jiechen
    et al.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Franzén, Daniel
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Anthropogenic phosphorus flows under different scenarios for the city of Stockholm, Sweden2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 542, p. 1094-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, concerns prevail about the unsustainable use of phosphorus and worldwide eutrophication, thus requiring efficient management of phosphorus flows. With increasing population and associated urban growth, urban management of phosphorus flows in the perspectives of recycling, eutrophication and total budget becomes increasingly important. This study mapped phosphorus flows for a reference year (2013) and a future year (2030) using different scenarios for the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The results indicated that the Swedish goal of recycling phosphorus from wastewater would cover the majority of the total phosphorus budget for Stockholm. However, in 2013, only 10% of phosphorus was recycled for agricultural use, around half of which was from sewage sludge and the other half from food waste. Almost 50% of total phosphorus was sent to landfill/mining waste capping with sewage sludge, for economic reasons and lack of market. Among the scenarios of upstream and downstream urban management options studied in combination with population growth, recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge had the greatest potential to increase the fraction recycled to agriculture. However, only upstream measures, e.g. changed diet, were able to reduce the total phosphorus budget. Urban management of phosphorus flows based on the different perspectives of recycling, eutrophication or total budget was shown to potentially result in different preferred management actions and both upstream and downstream measures need to be considered. Moreover, management needs to pay attention to small but environmentally sensitive flows, particularly when setting city goals on phosphorus recycling by percentage in a large budget.

  • 40.
    Wu, Jiechen
    et al.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Nutrient loadings from urban catchments under climate change scenarios: Case studies in Stockholm, Sweden2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 518-519, p. 393-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic nutrient emissions and associated eutrophication of urban lakes are a global problem. Future changes in temperature and precipitation may influence nutrient loadings in lake catchments. A coupling method, where the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions method was tested in combination with source quantification in a Substance Flow Analysis structure, was suggested to investigate diffuse nutrient sources and pathways and climate change effects on the loadings to streamflow in urban catchments. This method may, with an acceptable level of uncertainty, be applied to urban catchments for first-hand estimations of nutrient loadings in the projected future and to highlight the need for further study and monitoring. Five lake catchments in Stockholm, Sweden (Råcksta Träsk, Judarn, Trekanten, Långsjön and Laduviken) were employed as case studies and potential climate change effects were explored by comparing loading scenarios in two periods (2000-2009 and 2021-2030). For the selected cases, the dominant diffuse sources of nutrients to urban streamflow were found to be background atmospheric concentration and vehicular traffic. The major pathways of the nitrogen loading were suggested to be from both developed areas and natural areas in the control period, while phosphorus was indicated to be largely transported through surface runoff from natural areas. Furthermore, for nitrogen, a modest redistribution of loadings from surface runoff and stormwater between seasons and an increase in the annual loading were suggested for the projected future climate scenarios as compared to the control period. The model was, due to poor monitoring data availability, only able to set an upper limit to nutrient transport by groundwater both in the control period and the future scenarios. However, for nitrogen, groundwater appeared to be the pathway most sensitive to climate change, with a considerable increase and seasonal redistribution of loadings. For phosphorus, loadings by different pathways were apparently less sensitive to climate change.

  • 41.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Evaluation and prediction of emissions from a road built with bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI)2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 355, no 1-3, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In autumn 2001, a full-scale test road was built with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash at the Dåvamyran landfill, Umeå, Northern Sweden. Leachates were collected from asphalted sections with either bottom ash or gravel as filling material. In this research, 12 months of ash leachate sampling were evaluated with respect to emissions of contaminants such as trace metals and chlorides (Cl). The usefulness of regression models describing trace metal mobility from bottom ash was also tested as predictive tools for reusability applications of MSWI bottom ash. Cl, Cu, and Cr had the highest mobility (considering leachate concentrations) in the ash leachate, though concentrations of Cl and Cu decreased during the sampling period (Cl from 10,000 to 600 mg l- 1; Cu from 1600 to 500 μg l- 1). An increased mobility of Cr during the autumns (about 3-4 times higher compared to the summer) was noted with a maximum value of nearly 70 μg l- 1 during autum 2001. Pb showed a very low mobility over the entire year with leachate concentrations of around 3-4 μg l- 1. Chemical equilibrium calculations using Minteq indicated that several Cu minerals were oversaturated in the leachate, thus mineral precipitation could be responsible for declining amounts of Cu in the leachate. Adsorption to iron oxides was found to be a probable explanation for the low mobility of Pb. A reasonably good agreement between regression models and field values were achieved for Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu, while the models for Cd and Cr were less promising. Even though a large part of the variation (R2 = 61-97%) in the leaching experiment could be explained by only pH and L / S, field data were much more scattered than expected from field pH.

1 - 41 of 41
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf