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  • 1.
    Minz, Friederike
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lasskogen, Jonas
    Boliden Mines, Exploration Department.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lithology and mineralisation types of the Rockliden Zn–Cu massive sulphide deposit, north-central Sweden: Implications for ore processing2014In: Transactions - Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Section B. Applied earth science, ISSN 0371-7453, E-ISSN 1743-2758, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 2-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rockliden Zn–Cu volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposit is located approximately 150 km south of the Skellefte ore district, north-central Sweden. Most of the mineralisation is found at the altered stratigraphic top of the felsic volcanic rocks, which are intercalated in the metamorphosed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks of the Bothnian Basin. Mafic dykes cross-cut all lithological units, including the massive sulphides, at the Rockliden deposit. The relatively high Sb grade of some parts of the mineralisation results in challenges in handling of the Cu–Pb concentrate in the smelting process. The aim of this study is to characterise different host rock units and ore types by their main mineralogy, as well as by their trace mineralogy with focus on the Sb-bearing minerals. Ore types are distinguished largely on the basis of their main base-metal bearing sulphide minerals, which are chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Several Sb-bearing minerals are documented and differences in the trace mineralogy between rock and ore types are highlighted. Based on the qualitative ore characterisation, rock- and ore-intrinsic parameters, such as the pyrite, pyrrhotite and magnetite content of the massive sulphides, the trace mineralogy and its association with base-metal sulphide minerals, are outlined and discussed in terms of relevance to the ore processing.

  • 2.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kontturi, M,
    Boliden AB.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Copper and gold distribution at the Aitik deposit, Gällivare area, northern Sweden2003In: Transactions - Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Section B. Applied earth science, ISSN 0371-7453, E-ISSN 1743-2758, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 260-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aitik is a disseminated Cu-Au deposit with an annual production of 18 Mt of ore containing 0·38% copper and 0·22 ppm gold. It is situated in northern Sweden in 1·9 Ga Svecofennian, metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks formed in a volcanic arc environment. The Aitik Deposit entered production in 1968. All geological and geochemical information obtained since then has been used to summarise the distribution pattern for Cu and Au in the deposit. A large-scale vertical metal zoning results from a slight increase of Au with depth. Restricted Cu-rich areas at the surface gradually change into more extensive, medium-grade areas with depth, resulting in approximately the same average Cu content for each level. The vertical metal zoning is accompanied by a lithological change from biotite gneiss to biotite-amphibole gneiss with depth. The mineralised areas trend predominantly north-east and north-south, and plunge north-east (Au) and northnorthwest (Cu). The ore body also shows horizontal metal zoning. A 'high-grade' area (> 0.6% Cu and >. 0.3 ppm Au) of disseminated sulphides is situated in biotite gneiss in the centre of the ore zone. Towards the hanging wall, grades are lower (< 0·4% Cu and < 0·30 ppm Au) and the host rocks are strongly sericite altered, pyrite-rich schists. A 'gold-rich' area (> 0·6 ppm Au) is located within 50 m from the hanging wall, in a residual part of pyrite-rich biotite schist that is strongly K-feldspar, epidote and quartz altered. Another 'gold-rich' area (> 0·6 ppm Au) is situated below 400 m depth on the footwall side of the ore in the northern part of the deposit, where the amphibole content of the host rock is high. Cu-dominated mineralisation is mainly developed close to the footwall side of the ore, where disseminated sulphides and massive veins of chalcopyrite are common. It is suggested that the rich dissemination in the central part of the ore represents the primary mineralisation at Aitik. Later features, such as shear zone related fluid-rock interaction and deformation, caused remobilisation of metals into favourable structural traps, creating local higher-grade zones. The possibility cannot be discounted, however, that the metal distribution has been caused, not only by multistage remobilisation, but also by repeated introduction of metals.

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