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  • 1.
    Karlsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Westerstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Physicochemical distribution of metals in the water phase of catch basin mixtures2009In: Water quality research journal of Canada, ISSN 1201-3080, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mixture of sediment and water is formed during the cleansing of catch basins. This paper discusses the concentration levels and distribution of numerous metals and organic carbon (OC) in the water phase of this mixture. The results show that due to the high concentrations of metals in the water phase, the catch basin mixture should be treated before it reaches a recipient. Three sites with different types of area and traffic intensity were sampled. Four fractions were analyzed: unfiltered, dissolved (

  • 2.
    Lundberg, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Feiccabrino, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Urban snow deposits versus snow cooling plants in northern Sweden: A quantitative analysis of snow melt pollutant releases2014In: Water quality research journal of Canada, ISSN 1201-3080, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-velocity runoff from snow deposit transports suspended grain-attached contaminants while underground snow storages trapped these contaminants within the storage. The aim here is to quantify pollutant masses from an urban snow deposit and to investigate the conditions when pollutant control was increased by turning a snow deposit into a snow cooling plant with permeable underground snow storage. Pollutant masses in an urban snow deposit in northern Sweden were: Cu = 67, Pb = 17, Zn = 160, P = 170, SS = 620, 000, Cl = 1, 200, N = 380 kg. A theoretical analysis showed that the fraction of surface runoff from a surface deposit largely depends on the hydraulic conductivity (K, m s-1) of the soil. For a melt rate of 30 mm, day-1, surface runoff would be about 97% for a soil with K = 10-8, while nonexistent for K>10-6. Similar soil conductivities are needed to ensure that all snow melt could be transported as groundwater from an underground storage. The largest pollution-control advantage with underground snow storage compared to a surface deposit would thus be that piping and filters for operation of the plant could be used to filter surface snow melt runoff before rejection

  • 3. Reinosdotter, Karin
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Road salt influence on pollutant releases from melting urban snow2007In: Water quality research journal of Canada, ISSN 1201-3080, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A snow-melting experiment was performed to study the effects of road salt on the melting of urban snow from a snow wind-row (pile) along a road in central Lulea, Sweden. Two snow piles were formed in the laboratory, with and without road salt added, and melted under similar conditions. All meltwater was collected and analyzed. The purpose of the experiment was to study the influence of the use of de-icing salt on meltwater quality and the release of pollutants from urban snow. The study indicated that the use of road salt may increase the dissolved metal phase in the urban snow meltwater. Also, the salt seems to have the largest effect at the beginning of the melting period when chloride is leaving the snow pile. Of total chloride, 90% was transported with the first 20% of the meltwater. Concentrations of the particulate-bound metals showed a fairly constant rate of release at the start of melt, but increased rapidly towards the end of the melting period, and this was more pronounced in the case of snow containing high chloride concentrations. Overall, a larger transport of solids was found for the pile with salt due to faster melting. Significantly larger masses of suspended solids and two heavy metals (Cu and Zn) were released with the meltwater from the pile with salt in comparison with the no-salt pile. The rest of the suspended solids and heavy metals stayed in the solid residue remaining at the end of the experiment

  • 4.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Pollutant release from a disturbed urban snowpack in northern Sweden2011In: Water quality research journal of Canada, ISSN 1201-3080, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water and pollutant release from a disturbed urban snowpack was studied in an experimental plot encompassing a road section and the adjacent grassed boulevard in the city of Lulea, in northern Sweden. Winter road maintenance in this area includes snow ploughing and applications of grit without any road salts. During the study period, 18 snowmelt events were observed. Compared to rural areas and urban areas with extensive use of chloride in winter road maintenance, in the former case, the observed snowmelt quality differed by relatively high and uniform pH (7.7-8.1) and, in the latter case, by low chloride event-mean-concentrations (EMCs) (5.7-123.4 mg/L) and conductivity (11.6-60.7 mS/m). Total suspended solids (TSS) EMCs greatly exceeded those reported for rural snowmelt and urban rainfall runoff and contributed to the high pH buffering capacity of deposited snow. Observed concentrations of total and dissolved heavy metals were compared to water quality guidelines that suggested a high likelihood of biological effects. Chloride was the only pollutant that indicated an early release and all other constituents showed a uniform release with snowmelt from the snowpack. The partitioning of heavy metals between total and dissolved phases indicated the highest dissolved fractions for Cu, followed by Cd, Ni and Zn, and the lowest values were observed for Pb. The urban snowmelt characteristics substantially differed from those reported for undisturbed sites with respect to higher pollutant loads, high pH buffering capacity and a general absence of early or delayed pollutant release from the snowpack

  • 5. Westerström, Göran
    Chemistry of snowmelt from an urban lysimeter1995In: Water quality research journal of Canada, ISSN 1201-3080, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 231-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 200-m super(2) lysimeter, representing an urban paved plot, was installed in Luleaa, Sweden, instrumented and monitored during the 1986 snowmelt season. Hourly and daily flow-proportional composite samples of snowmelt were collected and analyzed for pH, Cl super(-), NO sub(3) super(-) and SO sub(4) super(2) super(-) ions. The fractionation of these parameters in snowmelt was observed, indicating low pH values and high concentrations of the ions studied in the early phases of snowmelt relative to the parent snow cover. The corresponding concentration factors ranged from 5 to 8. Fluxes of hydrogen ions in snowmelt showed high values during the early phases of snowmelt, commonly described as an early (first) pollutant flush. For this type of pollutant transport response, the pollution load could be effectively controlled by storing and/or treating the initial heavily polluted part of total snowmelt and allowing the rest to bypass the control facility. By storing and/or treating the first quarter of the total meltwater volume, almost two thirds of the total hydrogen ion load could be controlled

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