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  • 1.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support, Externfinansiering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University. Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Effect of residue combinations on plant uptake of nutrients and potentially toxic elements2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 132, p. 287-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the plant pot experiment was to evaluate potential environmental impacts of combined industrial residues to be used as soil fertilisers by analysing i) element availability in fly ash and biosolids mixed with soil both individual and in combination, ii) changes in element phytoavailability in soil fertilised with these materials and iii) impact of the fertilisers on plant growth and element uptake.Plant pot experiments were carried out, using soil to which fresh residue mixtures had been added. The results showed that element availability did not correlate with plant growth in the fertilised soil with. The largest concentrations of K (3534mg/l), Mg (184mg/l), P (1.8mg/l), S (760mg/l), Cu (0.39mg/l) and Zn (0.58mg/l) in soil pore water were found in the soil mixture with biosolids and MSWI fly ashes; however plants did not grow at all in mixtures containing the latter, most likely due to the high concentration of chlorides (82g/kg in the leachate) in this ash. It is known that high salinity of soil can reduce germination by e.g. limiting water absorption by the seeds. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in grown plants were negligible in most of the soils and were below the instrument detection limit values.The proportions of biofuel fly ash and biosolids can be adjusted in order to balance the amount and availability of macronutrients, while the possible increase of potentially toxic elements in biomass is negligible seeing as the plant uptake of such elements was low. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 2. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Wolters, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Tekedo AB, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Elements availability in soil fertilized with pelletized fly ash and biosolids2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 159, p. 27-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of combined and pelletized industrial residues on availability and mobility of nutrients and potentially toxic elements in soil, plant growth and element uptake. Plant pot experiments were carried out using soil to which 2% of pelletized residue containing biosolids mixed with either municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MFA) or biofuel fly ash (BFA) was added. The tests showed that the plant growth did not correspond to the content of available nutrients in fertilised soil. MFA application to soil resulted in elevated concentrations of P (506 mg/kg), As (2.7 mg/kg), Cd (0.8 mg/kg) and Pb (12.1 mg/kg) in soil, lower plant uptake of Al (25 mg/kg) and Ba (51 mg/kg), but higher accumulation of As (4.3 mg/kg) and Cd (0.3 mg/kg) in plants compared to the unamended soil and soil amended with BFA. On average, the biomass of the plants grown in the soil containing MFA was larger than in other soils.Considering the use of industrial residue mixtures as soil amendments or fertilizers, the amount of added elements should not exceed those taken up by plants, by this preventing the increase of soil background concentrations.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berkes, Fikret
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
    Co-management: concepts and methodological implications2005In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-management, or the joint management of the commons, is often formulated in terms of some arrangement of power sharing between the State and a community of resource users. In reality, there often are multiple local interests and multiple government agencies at play, and co-management can hardly be understood as the interaction of a unitary State and a homogeneous community. An approach focusing on the legal aspects of co-management, and emphasizing the formal structure of arrangements (how governance is configured) runs the risk of neglecting the functional side of co-management. An alternative approach is to start from the assumption that co-management is a continuous problem-solving process, rather than a fixed state, involving extensive deliberation, negotiation and joint learning within problem-solving networks. This presumption implies that co-management research should preferably focus on how different management tasks are organized and distributed concentrating on the function, rather than the structure, of the system. Such an approach has the effect of highlighting that power sharing is the result, and not the starting point, of the process. This kind of research approach might employ the steps of (1) defining the social-ecological system under focus; (2) mapping the essential management tasks and problems to be solved; (3) clarifying the participants in the problem-solving processes; (4) analyzing linkages in the system, in particular across levels of organization and across geographical space; (5) evaluating capacity-building needs for enhancing the skills and capabilities of people and institutions at various levels; and (6) prescribing ways to improve policy making and problem-solving.

  • 4.
    Cettner, Annicka
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Assessing receptivity for change in urban stormwater management and contexts for action2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 146, p. 29-41, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual and organisational receptivity for change towards the use of sustainable stormwater management systems has been previously examined, but the significance of the different contexts for achieving this has been largely unexplored. This paper examines the significance of contexts associated to the actions to bring this about by proposing and evaluating an emerging framework based on two related receptivity theories: the individual or organisational approach and the contextual approach. Results from a Swedish national questionnaire with professionals in stormwater management have been used, together with a limited number of interviews to develop and understand the validity of the framework. The analysis has indicated that the respondents were professionally prepared for change (action) but not practically prepared due to inadequate supportive contexts. In response, a number of potential contexts associated to the necessary actions were identified. The framework was found to provide new insights into the influence of receptive contexts for a change in water management practice. These insights can be used by policy makers and others to better support the realization of professional openness for change and thus accelerate the process of change to sustainable stormwater practice.

  • 5.
    Chen, Long
    et al.
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Ji, Tuo
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Mu, Liwen
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Wang, Huaiyuan
    College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Pore size dependent molecular adsorption of cationic dye in biomass derived hierarchically porous carbon2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 196, p. 168-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchically porous carbon adsorbents were successfully fabricated from different biomass resources (softwood, hardwood, bamboo and cotton) by a facile two-step process, i.e. carbonization in nitrogen and thermal oxidation in air. Without involving any toxic/corrosive chemicals, large surface area of up to 890 m2/g was achieved, which is comparable to commercial activated carbon. The porous carbons with various surface area and pore size were used as adsorbents to investigate the pore size dependent adsorption phenomenon. Based on the density functional theory, effective (E-SSA) and ineffective surface area (InE-SSA) was calculated considering the geometry of used probing adsorbate. It was demonstrated that the adsorption capacity strongly depends on E-SSA instead of total surface area. Moreover, a regression model was developed to quantify the adsorption capacities contributed from E-SSA and InE-SSA, respectively. The applicability of this model has been verified by satisfactory prediction results on porous carbons prepared in this work as well as commercial activated carbon. Revealing the pore size dependent adsorption behavior in these biomass derived porous carbon adsorbents will help to design more effective materials (either from biomass or other carbon resources) targeting to specific adsorption applications.

  • 6.
    Kosawang, Chatchai
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika
    Resman, Lars
    Umeå university.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå university.
    Hydrogen yield from a hydrogenase in Frankia R43 at different levels of the carbon source propionate2012In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, p. 365-368Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hamberg, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Simanavičienė, Rūta
    Department of Mathematical Modelling, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Česlovas Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas
    Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Leaching of arsenic, copper and chromium from thermally treated soil2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 183, no 3, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment, if properly performed, is an effective way of destroying organic compounds in contaminated soil, while impact on co-present inorganic contaminants varies depending on the element. Leaching of trace elements in thermally treated soil can be altered by co-combusting different types of materials. This study aimed at assessing changes in mobility of As, Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil as affected by addition of industrial by-products prior to soil combustion. Contaminated soil was mixed with either waste of gypsum boards, a steel processing residue (Fe3O4), fly ash from wood and coal combustion or a steel abrasive (96.5% Fe0). The mixes and unamended soil were thermally treated at 800 °C and divided into a fine fraction <0.125 mm and a coarse fraction >0.125 mm to simulate particle separation occurring in thermal treatment plants. The impact of the treatment on element behaviour was assessed by a batch leaching test, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results suggest that thermal treatment is highly unfavourable for As contaminated soils as it increased both the As leaching in the fine particle size fraction and the mass of the fines (up to 92%). Soil amendment with Fe-containing compounds prior to the thermal treatment reduced As leaching to the levels acceptable for hazardous waste landfills, but only in the coarse fraction, which does not justify the usefulness of such treatment. Among the amendments used, gypsum most effectively reduced leaching of Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil and could be recommended for soils that do not contain As. Fly ash was the least effective amendment as it increased leaching of both Cr and As in majority of samples.

  • 8.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Evaluation of leachate composition by multivariate data analysis (MVDA)2003In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 367-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills generate emissions in the form of gas and leachate. The emissions are often measured within monitoring programmes. It is likely that the requirements of such monitoring programmes can be extended in the future, particularly in light of the increased interest in specific organic substances. Multivariate data analyses (MVDA) have been used to evaluate the possibility of predicting the content of specific organic substances from more common analyses. The results indicate that this is possible for a specific leachate. MVDA can also be used to reduce the number of analyses performed within existing monitoring programmes while retaining information about all the variables formerly included in the programmes.

  • 9.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Macsik, Josef
    Ecoloop Stockholm.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Leaching behaviour of copper slag, construction and demolition waste and crushed rock used in a full-scale road construction2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 695-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The leaching behaviour of a road construction with fayalitic copper slag, recycled concrete and crushed rock as sub-base materials was monitored over ten years. All studied materials used in the road construction, including crushed rock, contained concentrations of several elements exceeding the guideline values recommended by the Swedish EPA for total element concentrations for waste materials used in constructions. Despite that, leaching from the road construction under field conditions in general was relatively low. The leachates from the recycled materials contained higher concentrations of several constituents than the leachates from the reference section with crushed rock. The leaching of the elements of interest (Cr, Mo, Ni, Zn) reached peak concentrations during the second and fourth (Cu) years and decreased over the observation period to levels below the Swedish recommended values. Carbonation of the concrete aggregates caused a substantial but short-term increase in the leaching of oxyanions such as chromate. The environmental risks related to element leaching are highest at the beginning of the road life. Ageing of materials or pre-treatment through leaching is needed prior to their use in construction to avoid peak concentrations. Also, the design of road constructions should be adjusted so that recycled materials are covered with low-permeability covers, which would minimize the exposure to atmospheric precipitation and weathering.

  • 10.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Competing pathways to sustainability?: Exploring conflicts over mine establishments in the Swedish mountain region2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 218, p. 402-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural resource (NR) exploitation often gives rise to conflict. While most actors intend to manage collectively used places and their NRs sustainably, they may disagree about what this entails. This article accordingly explores the origin of NR conflicts by analysing them in terms of competing pathways to sustainability. By comparing conflicts over mine establishments in three places in northern Sweden, we specifically explore the role of place-based perceptions and experiences.

    The results indicate that the investigated conflicts go far beyond the question of metals and mines. The differences between pathways supporting mine establishment and those opposing it refer to fundamental ideas about human–nature relationships and sustainable development (SD). The study suggests that place-related parameters affect local interpretations of SD and mobilisation in ways that explain why resistance and conflict exist in some places but not others. A broader understanding of a particular conflict and its specific place-based trajectory may help uncover complex underlying reasons. However, our comparative analysis also demonstrates that mining conflicts in different places share certain characteristics. Consequently, a site-specific focus ought to be combined with attempts to compare, or map, conflicts at a larger scale to improve our understanding of when and how conflicts evolve. By addressing the underlying causes and origins of contestation, this study generates knowledge needed to address NR management conflicts effectively and legitimately.

  • 11.
    Lu, Jinmei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 139, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings

  • 12.
    Lundmark, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The transforming capacity of collaborative institutions: belief change and coalition reformation in conflicted wildlife management2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 226, p. 226-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the transformative capacity of top-down imposed collaborative institutions on participants’ beliefs and coordination patterns. First, do collaborative arenas enhance learning in terms of belief change and belief convergence among participating actors? Second, what types of beliefs are changed and, third, how are changes in beliefs reflected in the formation of coalitions? To answer these questions, a longitudinal study encompassing three collaborative decision-making arenas in the highly adversarial system for wildlife management in Sweden is performed. The empirical analysis indicates both stability and change within the new management system that confirms, as well as challenges, the theoretical assumptions guiding the analysis. While beliefs overall are rather stable, we note, surprisingly, how some participants’ more normatively oriented policy core beliefs have been slightly modified over time. A more expected result was that these adjustments in normative policy core beliefs were accompanied by a reformed coalition structure within the studied decision-making arenas. The study contributes to our understandings of policy beliefs and coalitions in conflicted policy areas; it underlines the mixed results of collaborative institutions found in previous research; yet, lends a modest support in favor of the transformative capacity of collaborative institutions.

  • 13.
    Mattsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Impacts and managerial implications for sewer systems due to recent changes to inputs in domestic wastewater: a review2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 161, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the advent of major sewer construction in the 1850s, the issue of increased solids deposition in sewers due to changes in domestic wastewater inputs has been frequently debated. Three recent changes considered here are the introduction of kitchen sink food waste disposers (FWDs); rising levels of inputs of fat, oil and grease (FOG); and the installation of low-flush toilets (LFTs). In this review these changes have been examined with regard to potential solids depositional impacts on sewer systems and the managerial implications. The review indicates that each of the changes has the potential to cause an increase in solids deposition in sewers and this is likely to be more pronounced for the upstream reaches of networks that serve fewer households than the downstream parts and for specific sewer features such as sags. The review has highlighted the importance of educational campaigns directed to the public to mitigate deposition as many of the observed problems have been linked to domestic behaviour in regard to FOGs, FWDs and toilet flushing. A standardized monitoring procedure of repeat sewer blockage locations can also be a means to identify depositional hot-spots. Interactions between the various changes in inputs in the studies reviewed here indicated an increased potential for blockage formation, but this would need to be further substantiated. As the precise nature of these changes in inputs have been found to be variable, depending on lifestyles and type of installation, the additional problems that may arise pose particular challenges to sewer operators and managers because of the difficulty in generalizing the nature of the changes, particularly where retrofitting projects in households are being considered. The three types of changes to inputs reviewed here highlight the need to consider whether or not more or less solid waste from households should be diverted into sewers.

  • 14.
    Panasiuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Contamination of stormwater by wastewater: A review of detection methods2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 152, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even in separate sewer systems, wastewater may find its way into the receiving waters through stormwater sewers. The main reasons for this are cross-connections, illicit connections, overflows and leakages through broken sewers. Such discharges may affect receiving water quality and increase risks to public health and aquatic organisms. Detecting wastewater contamination and locating its points of ingress into storm sewer systems can be a challenging task, which should be addressed using proper methods and indicator parameters. A number of detection methods have already been proposed in this area, yet there is a lack of a general overview of such methods. This literature review summarizes and evaluates the methods used for detecting wastewater in stormwater, including those recently developed. The advantages, weaknesses and limitations of individual methods are discussed. It is concluded that while no single method can as yet produce results in a precise, fast and inexpensive way, the use of human waste specific chemical and microbiological markers, and their innovative sampling, offer the way forward. Guidance for selecting the most effective combinations of detection methods, under specific conditions, is also provided.

  • 15.
    Sevä, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Inspecting environmental management from within: The role of street-level bureaucrats in environmental policy implementation2013In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 128, p. 1060-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we assert that an important element is largely missing in much of the current environmental policy literature regarding different management ideals: street-level bureaucrats (i.e., the practicing and, typically, anonymous civil servants at the very end of the environmental policy chain). Thus, we aim to enhance a deeper understanding of the role that street-level bureaucrats play within different management ideals, and through this discussion, we indicate how they affect the functionality of governing structures and processes. We do so by interviewing street-level bureaucrats carrying out their role in different management settings, enabling evaluations of the degree to which their practices correspond with the ideals expressed in the literature and in official directives. We find a rather poor match between these ideals on one hand and the way street-level bureaucrats actually perceive that they are internally steered and how they carry out their commissions on the other hand.

  • 16.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Complex governance structures and incoherent policies: implementing the EU water framework directive in Sweden2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 183, no 1, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary processes of environmental policymaking in general span over several territorial tiers. This also holds for the EU Water Framework Directive system of environmental quality standards (EQS), which are part of a complex multi-level institutional landscape, embracing both EU, national and sub-national level. Recent evaluations show that many EU member states, including Sweden, have not reached the ecological goals for water in 2015. Departing from theories on policy coherence and multi-level governance, this paper therefore analyses Swedish water governance as a case to further our understanding of policy implementation in complex governance structures: how does policy coherence (or the lack thereof) affect policy implementation in complex governance structures? To answer this question, the paper maps out the formal structure of the water governance system, focusing on power directions within the system, analyses policy coherence in Swedish water governance through mapping out policy conflicts between the EQS for water and other goals/regulations and explore how they are handled by national and sub-national water bureaucrats. The study concludes that without clear central guidance, ‘good ecological status’ for Swedish water will be difficult to achieve since incoherent policies makes policy implementation inefficient due to constant power struggles between different authorities, and since environmental goals are often overridden by economic and other societal goals. Further research is needed in order to explore if similar policy conflicts between water quality and other objectives occur in other EU member states and how bureaucrats handle such conflicts in different institutional settings. This study of the Swedish case indicates that the role of the state as a navigator and rudder-holder is important in order to improve policy implementation in complex governance structures – otherwise; bureaucrats risk being lost in an incoherent archipelago of ecological, social and economic goals.

  • 17.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The release of As, Cr and Cu from contaminated soil stabilized with APC residues under landfill conditions2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 151, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil treated with air pollution control residues under landfill conditions. The influence of landfill gas and temperature on the release of trace elements from stabilized soil was simulated using a diffusion test. The air pollution control residues immobilized As through the precipitation of Ca–As minerals (calcium arsenate (Ca5H2(AsO4)3 × 5H2O), weilite (CaAsO4) and johnbaumite (Ca5(AsO4)3(OH)), incorporation of As into ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 × 26H2O) and adsorption by calcite (CaCO3). The air pollution control residues generally showed a high resistance to pH reduction, indicating high buffer capacity and stability of immobilized As in a landfill over time. Generation of heat in a landfill might increase the release of trace elements. The release of As from stabilized soil was diffusion-controlled at 60 °C, while surface wash-off, dissolution, and depletion prevailed at 20 °C. The air pollution control residues from the incineration of municipal solid waste immobilized Cr, indicating its stability in a landfill. The treatment of soil with air pollution control residues was not effective in immobilization of Cu. Contaminated soils treated with air pollution control residues will probably have a low impact on overall leachate quality from a landfill.

  • 18.
    Winston, Ryan
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt, William
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Maintenance measures for preservation and recovery of permeable pavement surface infiltration rate: The effects of street sweeping, vacuum cleaning, high pressure washing, and milling2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 169, p. 132-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface infiltration rates (SIR) of permeable pavements decline with time as sediment and debris clog pore spaces. Effective maintenance techniques are needed to ensure the hydraulic functionality and water quality benefits of this stormwater control. Eight different small-scale and full-scale maintenance techniques aimed at recovering pavement permeability were evaluated at ten different permeable pavement sites in the USA and Sweden. Maintenance techniques included manual removal of the upper 2 cm of fill material, mechanical street sweeping, regenerative-air street sweeping, vacuum street sweeping, hand-held vacuuming, high pressure washing, and milling of porous asphalt. The removal of the upper 2 cm of clogging material did not significantly improve the SIR of concrete grid paves (CGP) and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP) due to the inclusion of fines in the joint and bedding stone during construction, suggesting routine maintenance cannot overcome improper construction. For porous asphalt maintenance, industrial hand-held vacuum cleaning, pressure washing, and milling were increasingly successful at recovering the SIR. Milling to a depth of 2.5 cm nearly restored the SIR for a 21-year old porous asphalt pavement to like-new conditions. For PICP, street sweepers employing suction were shown to be preferable to mechanical sweepers; additionally, maintenance efforts may become more intensive over time to maintain a threshold SIR, as maintenance was not 100% effective at removing clogging material.

  • 19.
    Zerva, Anastasia
    et al.
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Zervakis, Georgios I.
    Agricultural University of Athens, Laboratory of General and Agricultural Microbiology.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Topakas, Evangelos
    National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Degradation of olive mill wastewater by the induced extracellular ligninolytic enzymes of two wood-rot fungi2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 203:2, p. 791-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a major problem in olive oil – producing countries, due to its high organic load and concentration in phenols that are toxic for marine life, plants and soil microorganisms. In the present study, two mushroom species were tested in regard to their OMWW's oxidative capacity, Pleurotus citrinopileatus LGAM 28684 and Irpex lacteus LGAM 238. OMWW (25% v/v) degradation was investigated for several culture conditions, namely pH, agitation speed, nitrogen-based supplements and their concentration. The selected values were pH 6, agitation rate 150 rpm, 30 g L−1 corn steep liquor as nitrogen source for P. citrinopileatus and 20 g L−1 diammonium tartrate for I. lacteus. The two strains performed well in cultures supplemented with OMWW, generating very high titers of oxidative enzymes and achieving more than 90% color and phenols reduction within a 24 days cultivation period. In addition, the amount of glucans present in the fungal biomass was assessed. Hence, P. citrinopileatus and I. lacteus appear as potent degraders of OMWW with the ability to use the effluent as a substrate for the production of biotechnologically important enzymes and valuable fungal glucans. 

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