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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, 752 36, Uppsala, Sweden.
    de la Torre Castro, Maricela
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hughes, Alice C.
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jernelöv, Arne
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Department of Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, 851 70, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Fish, Wildlife and Environmental Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Department of Geography, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    McNeely, Jeffrey A.
    Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section, Petchburi, Thailand.
    Mohr, Claudia
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Tero
    Snowchange Cooperative, Lehtoi, Finland.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Department of Technology, Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Centre for Sustainable Development, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria
    Institució Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB), 08193, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rusch, Graciela M.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, 7485, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England at Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thomas, David N.
    University of Helsinki, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wulff, Angela
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Söderström, Bo
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 104 05, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ambio fit for the 2020s2022Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 1091-1093Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    SLU.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Örebro.
    Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger
    Östman, Anders
    Lazdinis, Marius
    SLU.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    SLU.
    Arnberg, W.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro.
    Two-dimensional Gap Analysis: A Tool for Efficient Conservation Planning and Biodiversity Policy Implementation2003Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 527-534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  • 3.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Developing an analytical framework for assessing progress toward ecosystem-based management2015Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, nr 3 Suppl., s. 357-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has become a key instrument of contemporary environmental policy and practice. Given the increasingly important role of EBM, there is an urgent need for improved analytical approaches to assess if and to what extent EBM has been accomplished in any given case. Drawing on the vast literature on EBM, we identify five key ecosystem aspects for assessment. By linking these aspects to four phases of management, we develop an interdisciplinary, analytical framework that enables a high-resolution and systematic assessment of the degree of specificity and integration of ecosystem aspects in an EBM. We then apply the framework to evaluate five coastal EBM initiatives in Sweden, four on the Baltic coast and one on the west coast. Our results demonstrate our framework’s usefulness for in-depth and continuous assessments of processes aiming for EBM, and also provide an empirical basis for inferences about the key challenges for successful EBM.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lazdinis, Marius
    Faculty of Public Management, Law University of Lithuania.
    Institutional frameworks for sustainability?: a comparative analysis of the forest sectors of Russia and the Baltic States2004Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 366-370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    After the break-up of the Soviet system, the divergence in forest management among Soviet republics became obvious. While the forest sectors of the Baltic States have been fundamentally changed, Russia has not been able to develop an institutional framework that would fit the prerequisites for social-ecological resilience. It is argued that sustainable development requires institutional frameworks that have the capacity to adapt and learn, and thus to treat policies as experiments that are constantly assessed and readjusted. This, however, requires a participatory approach and in this respect the Baltic States are believed to be on a more promising track. Finally, it is concluded that only to the extent that suitable institutional frameworks will be developed will social-ecological resilience be a significant feature of the natural resources management in the former communist countries.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Chiwona-Karltun, Linley
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    University of Gothenburg, Box 645, 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wamala-Larsson, Caroline
    Institute of Computer and Systems Sciences -SPIDER, DSV, Stockholm University, Postbox 7003, 164 07, Kista, Sweden.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Salome
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hatab, Assem Abu
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden. Department of Economics & Rural Development, Arish University, Al-Arish, Egypt.
    Made, Nolwandle
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kanuma Taremwa, Nathan
    College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM), University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Melyoki, Lemayon
    University of Dar es Salaam Business School, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kinunda Rutashobya, Lettice
    University of Dar es Salaam Business School, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Madonsela, Thulisile
    Faculty of Law Trust Chair in Social Justice, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Lourens, Marna
    Faculty of Law Trust Chair in Social Justice, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stone, Wendy
    Faculty of Law Trust Chair in Social Justice, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Bizoza, Alfred R.
    College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM), University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    COVID-19: From health crises to food security anxiety and policy implications2021Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 794-811Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Like the rest of the world, African countries are reeling from the health, economic and social effects of COVID-19. The continent’s governments have responded by imposing rigorous lockdowns to limit the spread of the virus. The various lockdown measures are undermining food security, because stay at home orders have among others, threatened food production for a continent that relies heavily on agriculture as the bedrock of the economy. This article draws on quantitative data collected by the GeoPoll, and, from these data, assesses the effect of concern about the local spread and economic impact of COVID-19 on food worries. Qualitative data comprising 12 countries south of the Sahara reveal that lockdowns have created anxiety over food security as a health, economic and human rights/well-being issue. By applying a probit model, we find that concern about the local spread of COVID-19 and economic impact of the virus increases the probability of food worries. Governments have responded with various efforts to support the neediest. By evaluating the various policies rolled out we advocate for a feminist economics approach that necessitates greater use of data analytics to predict the likely impacts of intended regulatory relief responses during the recovery process and post-COVID-19.

  • 6.
    Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk, Science Park, 751 83, Uppsala.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Bergh, Johan
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnæus University.
    Björkman, Christer
    Department of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Drössler, Lars
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Gong, Pichen
    Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Umeå.
    Holmström, Emma
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå universitet, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Department of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    SLU, Umeå.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU, Umeå.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Nordin, Annika
    SLU, Umeå.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Sténs, Anna
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious studies, Umeå University.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Asa Research Station, SLU, Lammhult.
    Replacing monocultures with mixed-species: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr Suppl. 2, s. 124-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  • 7.
    Havenhand, Jonathan N.
    et al.
    Department of Marine Sciences, Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Helena L.
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Department of Political Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Langlet, David
    Department of Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Turner, David
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winder, Monika
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    de Wit, Pierre
    Department of Marine Sciences, Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ecological and functional consequences of coastal ocean acidification: Perspectives from the Baltic-Skagerrak System2019Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, nr 8, s. 831-854Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean temperatures are rising; species are shifting poleward, and pH is falling (ocean acidification, OA). We summarise current understanding of OA in the brackish Baltic-Skagerrak System, focussing on the direct, indirect and interactive effects of OA with other anthropogenic drivers on marine biogeochemistry, organisms and ecosystems. Substantial recent advances reveal a pattern of stronger responses (positive or negative) of species than ecosystems, more positive responses at lower trophic levels and strong indirect interactions in food-webs. Common emergent themes were as follows: OA drives planktonic systems toward the microbial loop, reducing energy transfer to zooplankton and fish; and nutrient/food availability ameliorates negative impacts of OA. We identify several key areas for further research, notably the need for OA-relevant biogeochemical and ecosystem models, and understanding the ecological and evolutionary capacity of Baltic-Skagerrak ecosystems to respond to OA and other anthropogenic drivers.

  • 8.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Langlet, David
    Department of Law, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Havenhand, Jonathan N
    Department of Marine Sciences-Tjärnö, Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden .
    Troell, Max
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Helena L
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Galaz, Victor R
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anderson, Leif G
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Societal causes of, and responses to, ocean acidification2019Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, nr 8, s. 816-830Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Major climate and ecological changes affect the world's oceans leading to a number of responses including increasing water temperatures, changing weather patterns, shrinking ice-sheets, temperature-driven shifts in marine species ranges, biodiversity loss and bleaching of coral reefs. In addition, ocean pH is falling, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). The root cause of OA lies in human policies and behaviours driving society's dependence on fossil fuels, resulting in elevated CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. In this review, we detail the state of knowledge of the causes of, and potential responses to, OA with particular focus on Swedish coastal seas. We also discuss present knowledge gaps and implementation needs.

  • 9.
    Juhna, Talis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet. Department of Civil Engineering, Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Klavins, Maris
    Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Water-Quality Changes in Latvia and Riga 1980–2000: Possibilities and Problems2001Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 30, nr 4-5, s. 306-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term changes in the environmental quality of water in Latvia (chemical composition of inland waters, wastewater treatment, and drinking-water treatment practices and quality) as a response to socioeconomic changes have been studied. Water composition, the major factors influencing water chemistry, and human impacts (wastewater loading) were studied to determine changes that occurred after recent reductions in pollution emissions, particularly nutrient loading, to surface waters. After 1991, (Latvia regained independence in 1991) inland water quality has begun to improve mainly as a result of decreases in nutrient loads from point and nonpoint sources and substantial efforts in the area of environmental protection. The situation differs, however, for drinking-water treatment, where practices have also changed during the whole period from 1980 till 2000. More stringent drinking-water-quality standards and novel insights regarding changes in water quality in the distribution network, necessitate further improvements in public water supply, and place this particular water issue among Latvia's main priorities.

  • 10.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Hopkins, Anna J.M.
    Centre of Excellence for Climate Change, Woodlands and Forest Health, Murdoch University.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Schroeder, Martin
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Lindelöw, Åke
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Rönnberg, Jonas
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå universitet, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Kenis, Marc
    CABI Europe-Switzerland.
    Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr Suppl. 2, s. 223-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens.

  • 11.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Liljedahl, Thomas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Kessler, Elisabeth
    Ambio: Editorial2007Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 429-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Liljedahl, Thomas
    Umeå university.
    Maurice, Christian
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå university.
    Kessler, Elisabeth
    Editorial2007Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 429-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, contaminated soil has become of both public and scientific concern. National inventories have shown very large numbers of potentially contaminated sites originating from various industrial activities. Industrial technologies in the old days were often based on open systems designed without the insight of their being potential environmental threats. Legal actions taken against organizations responsible for water and air pollution have led to the development of new water and flue gas cleaning technologies. Today, contaminated land plays a major role in sustainable future land use, not only with regard to pollution resulting from old industrial activities but also with regard to the management of present industrial technologies and waste products.Issues related to contaminated soil are by definition interdisciplinary. In the Northern Sweden Soil Remediation Center (MCN), scientists from three universities (Umeå University, Luleå University of Technology, and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) have focused on developing a detailed understanding of the mechanisms and processes in the soil system. Fundamental and applied research in collaboration with enterprises has been performed concerning critical knowledge gaps.The MCN was initiated in 2001 and consists of scientists, representatives from authorities, consultants, and entrepreneurs. The major goals of the MCN have been to increase the scientific basis for the risk assessment of contaminated soil and, by improved knowledge of the interactions between different contaminants and the soil system, to guide the development of remediation methods. New scientific results have been implemented by collaboration enterprises and authorities that have added strategic value for the whole sector in general.This issue of AMBIO summarizes the MCN's research activities, which have focused on inorganic and organic pollutant behavior, analytical methods, and risk assessments of brownfields. In addition, invited contributions from research groups outside the MCN have added other valuable aspects to the multidisciplinary research field.

  • 13.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology, Division of Population Genetics, Stockholm University.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jansson, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholm University.
    Edman, Mari
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology, Division of Population Genetics, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lack of recognition of genetic biodiversity: international policy and its implementation in Baltic Sea marine protected areas2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 661-680Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic diversity is needed for species’ adaptation to changing selective pressures and is particularly important in regions with rapid environmental change such as the Baltic Sea. Conservation measures should consider maintaining large gene pools to maximize species’ adaptive potential for long-term survival. In this study, we explored concerns regarding genetic variation in international and national policies that governs biodiversity and evaluated if and how such policy is put into practice in management plans governing Baltic Sea Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Germany. We performed qualitative and quantitative textual analysis of 240 documents and found that agreed international and national policies on genetic biodiversity are not reflected in management plans for Baltic Sea MPAs. Management plans in all countries are largely void of goals and strategies for genetic biodiversity, which can partly be explained by a general lack of conservation genetics in policies directed toward aquatic environments.

  • 14.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Department of Threat Assessment, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Rydvall, Björn
    Pelagia Miljökonsult AB.
    Berglind, Rune
    Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI), Department of Threat Assessment, Toxicology.
    Haglund, Peter
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Johnson, Torbjörn
    Pelagia Miljökonsult AB.
    Leffler, Per
    Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI), Department of Threat Assessment, Toxicology.
    Luthbom, Karin
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    von Heijne, Patrik
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    Improving soil investigations at brownfield sites using a flexible work strategy and screening methods inspired by the US Environmental Protection Agency's Triad approach2007Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 502-511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of polluted brownfield sites and sample analyses are expensive, and the resulting data are often of poor quality. Efforts are needed, therefore, to improve the methods used in investigations of brownfield sites to both reduce costs and improve the quality of the results. One approach that could be useful for both of these purposes is the triad strategy, developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, in which managing uncertainty is a central feature. In the investigations reported here, a field study was conducted to identify possible ways in which uncertainties could be managed in practice. One example considered involves optimizing the uncertainty by adjusting the sizes of samples and the efforts expended in analytical work according to the specific aims of the project. In addition, the potential utility of several toxicity assessment methods for screening sites was evaluated. As well as presenting the results of these assessments, in this contribution we discuss ways in which a flexible work strategy and screening methods inspired of the triad philosophy could be incorporated into the Swedish approach to remediate brownfield sites. A tiered approach taking advantage of field and screening methods is proposed to assess brownfield sites focusing on the response and acceptable uncertainty that are required for the task.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Lättström, Anders
    Umeå university.
    Ragnvalssson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Leffler, Per
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå university.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå university.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Techniques for the stabilization and assessment of treated copper- chromium- and arsenic-contaminated soil2007Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 430-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Remediation mainly based on excavation and burial of the contaminated soil is impractical with regard to the large numbers of sites identified as being in need of remediation. Therefore alternative methods are needed for brownfield remediation. This study was conducted to assess a chemical stabilisation procedure of CCA-contaminated soil using iron-containing blaster sand or oxygen scarfing granulate. The stabilisation technique was assessed with regard to the feasibility of mixing ameliorants at an industrial scale and the efficiency of the stabilisation under different redox conditions. The stability was investigated under natural conditions in 1-m3 lysimeters in a field experiment and the effect of redox conditions was assessed in a laboratory experiment (10 l). The treatments with high additions of ameliorant (8 and 17%) were more successful in both the laboratory and field experiments, even though there was enough iron on a stochiometric basis even at the lowest addition rates (0.1 and 1%). The particle size of the iron and the mixing influenced the stabilisation efficiency. The development of anaerobic conditions, simulated by water saturation, increases the fraction of AsIII and, consequently, arsenic mobility. The use of high concentrations of OSG under aerobic conditions increased the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the pore water. However, under anaerobic conditions, it decreased the arsenic leaching compared to the untreated soil and Ni and Cu leaching was not critical. The final destination of the treated soil should govern the amendment choice, e.g. an OSG concentration around 10% may be suitable if the soil is to be landfilled under anaerobic conditions. Alternatively, the soil mixed with 1% BS could be kept under aerobic conditions in a landfill cover or in situ at brownfield site. In addition, the treatment with BS appeared to produce better effects in the long term than with OSG.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Pascual, Didac
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Becher, Marina
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Box 670, 751 28, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK; Department of Botany, National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, Russia, 634050.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Mobergavägen 19, 373 54, Senoren, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Hanna, Edward
    School of Geography, Think Tank, Ruston Way, Lincoln, LN6 7FL, UK.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Torgarden, P.O. Box 5685, 7485, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jin, Hongxiao
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden; Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs., Lyngby, Denmark.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 752 36, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Box 513, 751 20, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin, Erik
    Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, Luleå tekniska universitet, 971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Olefeldt, David
    Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, T6G 2H1, Canada.
    Persson, Andreas
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Phoenix, Gareth K.
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
    Rączkowska, Zofia
    Department of Geoenvironmental Research, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organisation PAS, Św. Jana 22, 31-018, Kraków, Poland.
    Rinnan, Riikka
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Ström, Lena
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Tang, Jing
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Varner, Ruth K.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Morse Hall Rm 455, 8 College Rd., Durham, NH, 03824, USA.
    Wookey, Philip
    Biology and Environmental Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The missing pieces for better future predictions in subarctic ecosystems: A Torneträsk case study2021Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 375-392Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic and subarctic ecosystems are experiencing substantial changes in hydrology, vegetation, permafrost conditions, and carbon cycling, in response to climatic change and other anthropogenic drivers, and these changes are likely to continue over this century. The total magnitude of these changes results from multiple interactions among these drivers. Field measurements can address the overall responses to different changing drivers, but are less capable of quantifying the interactions among them. Currently, a comprehensive assessment of the drivers of ecosystem changes, and the magnitude of their direct and indirect impacts on subarctic ecosystems, is missing. The Torneträsk area, in the Swedish subarctic, has an unrivalled history of environmental observation over 100 years, and is one of the most studied sites in the Arctic. In this study, we summarize and rank the drivers of ecosystem change in the Torneträsk area, and propose research priorities identified, by expert assessment, to improve predictions of ecosystem changes. The research priorities identified include understanding impacts on ecosystems brought on by altered frequency and intensity of winter warming events, evapotranspiration rates, rainfall, duration of snow cover and lake-ice, changed soil moisture, and droughts. This case study can help us understand the ongoing ecosystem changes occurring in the Torneträsk area, and contribute to improve predictions of future ecosystem changes at a larger scale. This understanding will provide the basis for the future mitigation and adaptation plans needed in a changing climate.

  • 17.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå universitet, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Possibility to implement invasive species control in Swedish forests2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr Suppl. 2, s. 214-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive alien species constitute an increasing risk to forestry, as indeed to natural systems in general. This study reviews the legislative framework governing invasive species in the EU and Sweden, drawing upon both a legal analysis and interviews with main national level agencies responsible for implementing this framework. The study concludes that EU and Sweden are limited in how well they can act on invasive species, in particular because of the weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in the World TradeOrganisation and Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements. In the Swedish case, this interpretation also conflicts with the stronger interpretation of the precautionary principle under the Swedish Environmental Code, which could in itself provide for stronger possibilities to act on invasive species.

  • 18.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts2010Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 211-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 19. Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Nordberg, Maj-Liz
    Department of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Olsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Östman, Anders
    Evaluation of environmental monitoring strategies2003Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 495-501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental monitoring, it is important that the monitoring system should emit early warnings when undesired events occur. These events may be sudden or of a more subtle nature. In the design of such monitoring systems, a proper balance between cost and risk must be achieved. There are 2 classic types of risk connected with early warning systems, namely the risk of not detecting significant changes and the risk of false alarms. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for comparing the performance of different monitoring systems, considering the classic types of risk and cost. The method is applied to the monitoring of the lichen cover as a test case. The expected utility has been used as a measure of performance. When estimating the probabilities of the events, spatial microsimulation and Monte-Carlo simulation techniques have been used. The monitoring programs studied are based on satellite images, aerial photos, field samples, and land-cover maps. The major conclusions of this study are that standardized quality measures are extremely useful for evaluating the usability of environmental monitoring methods. In addition, when estimating gains and costs, spatial microsimulation techniques are useful. To improve the method, however, macroconstraints should also be used for aligning the simulation model.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mossing, Annika
    SLU, Umeå.
    Nordin, Annika
    SLU, Umeå.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Räty, Riita
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Understanding consistencies and gaps between desired forest futures: An analysis of visions from stakeholder groups in Sweden2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr Suppl. 2, s. 100-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicting perspectives on forests has for a long time challenged forest policy development in Sweden. Disagreements about forest futures create intractable deadlocks when stakeholders talk past each other. The purpose of this study is to move beyond this situation through the application of participatory backcasting. By comparing visions of the future forest among stakeholder groups, we highlight contemporary trajectories and identify changes that were conceived as desirable. We worked with four groups: the Biomass and Bioenergy group, the Conservation group, the Sami Livelihood group and the Recreation and Rural Development group; in total representatives from 40 organizations participated in workshops articulating the groups’ visions. Our results show well-known tensions such as intrinsic versus instrumental values but also new ones concerning forests’ social values. Identified synergies include prioritization of rural development, new valued-added forest products and diversified forest management. The results may feed directly into forest policy processes facilitating the process and break current deadlocks.

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