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  • 1.
    Adu, Cynthia
    et al.
    Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Eichhorn, Stephen J.
    Bristol Composites Institute (ACCIS), Queens Building, School of Engineering, Bristol University.
    Jolly, Mark
    Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University.
    Zhu, Chenchen
    Bristol Composites Institute (ACCIS), Queens Building, School of Engineering, Bristol University.
    Properties of cellulose nanofibre networks prepared from never-dried and dried paper mill sludge2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, no 1, p. 765-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper mills yield large volumes of sludge materials which pose an environmental and economic challenge for disposal, despite the fact that they could be a valuable source for cellulose nanofibres (CNF) production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the production process and properties of CNF prepared by mechanical fibrillation of never-dried and dried paper mill sludge (PMS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that average diameters for both never-dried and dried paper sludge nanofibres (PSNF) were less than 50 nm. The never-dried and dried sludge nanofibres showed no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) in strength 92 MPa, and 85 MPa and modulus 11 GPa and 10 GPa. The study concludes that paper mill sludge can be used in a dried state for CNF production to reduce transportation and storage challenges posed on industrial scale.

  • 2.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Value visualization in product service systems preliminary design2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, p. 103-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from a study in the European aerospace industry, this paper identifies a gap in the way value-related information is communicated to designers of hardware in the preliminary stages of Product Service System (PSS) design. To fit this gap a Lifecycle Value Representation Approach, named LiVReA, that uses color-coded 3D CAD models to enable value information to be translated into visual features, is presented. Such approach aims at enhancing designers’ awareness of the value contribution of an early design concept on the overall PSS offer by complementing requirements-based information with criteria reflecting the fulfillment of customers and system value. The paper details the development of the approach, its underlying rationale, the results of preliminary validation activities and the potential for industrial application in the light of the currently available PSS representation tools.

  • 3.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Robèrt, K.-H.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Oldmark, Jonas
    Natural Step International, Stockholm.
    Assessment of eco-labelling criteria development from a strategic sustainability perspective2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 14, p. 1631-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To turn current patterns of consumption and production in a sustainable direction, solid and understandable market information on the socio-ecological performance of products is needed. Eco-labelling programmes have an important role in this communication. The aim of this study is to investigate what gaps there may be in the current criteria development processes in relation to a strategic sustainability perspective and develop recommendations on how such presumptive gaps could be bridged. First a previously published generic framework for strategic sustainable development is described and applied for the assessment of two eco-labelling programmes. Data for the assessment is collected from literature and in semi-structured interviews and discussions with eco-labelling experts. The assessment revealed that the programmes lack both an operational definition of sustainability, and a statement of objectives to direct and drive the criteria development processes. Consequently they also lack guidelines for how product category criteria might gradually develop in any direction. The selected criteria mainly reflect the current reality based on a selection of negative impacts in ecosystems, but how this selection, or prioritization, is made is not clearly presented. Finally, there are no guidelines to ensure that the criteria developers represent a broad enough competence to embrace all essential sustainability aspects. In conclusion the results point at deficiencies in theory, process and practice of eco-labelling, which hampers cohesiveness, transparency and comprehension. And it hampers predictability, as producers get no support in foreseeing how coming revisions of criteria will develop. This represents a lost opportunity for strategic sustainable development. It is suggested that these problems could be avoided by informing the criteria development process by a framework for strategic sustainable development, based on backcasting from basic sustainability principles.

  • 4.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Kim, Nam Kyeun
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland,New Zealand.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bhattacharyya, Debes
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Johansson, Eva
    Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Crop Production Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Holder, Shima
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Naturally-occurring bromophenol to develop fire retardant gluten biopolymers2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 243, article id 118552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to impart fire retardancy in wheat gluten polymer through naturally-occurring additives such as lanosol. The fire properties of lanosol were compared with two other conventional brominated fire retardants (Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane). Samples containing fire retardants and gluten were prepared through compression moulding process and then characterised for their fire and mechanical properties. All fire retardants enhanced the reaction-to-fire and thermal properties of gluten while generating V-0 (i.e. vertical position and self-extinguished) ratings in the UL-94 test. The presence of all the fire retardants increased the modulus of the gluten polymer but the fire retardant particles were detrimental for the tensile strength. Nevertheless, lanosol addition delayed ignition and lowered peak heat release rate of gluten by the maximum amount, thereby leading to relatively higher fire performance index (compared to the other fire retardants). Lanosol also allowed the gluten to create a dense char barrier layer during burning that impeded the transfer of heat and flammable volatiles. The fact that only 4 wt% lanosol was able to cause self-extinguishment under direct flame and reduce peak heat release rate by a significant 50% coupled with its inherent occurrence in nature, raises the question if lanosol can be a potential fire retardant in polymeric systems, although it is a bromophenol.

  • 5.
    Feng, Yan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. School of Resource and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Yang, Qixing
    Energy School, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710054, China.
    Chen, Qiusong
    School of Resource and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Kero, Jakob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Andersson, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Characterization and evaluation of the pozzolanic activity of granulated copper slag modified with CaO2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 232, p. 1112-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GCS, granulated copper slag, is currently utilized in cement and concrete with a low rate, due mainly to its low pozzolanic activity. The present study was thus performed by first mixing the GCS with CaO, and then melting and water-granulating the GCS-CaO mixtures, as to enhance the reactivity of GCS. Blended cements were formulated by replacing 30 wt. % of the cement, PC, with the modified GCS. The addition of CaO in GCS increased the release rates of heat from the early-age hydration of the blended cement pastes. The pastes with CSC20, the GCS of the highest CaO content (19.5%), acquired higher compressive strengths than those for the PC and other PC-GCS pastes at both 28 and 90 days of curing. The GCS richer in CaO consumed more calcium hydroxide for the formation of calcium silicate hydrates, with SEM micrographs showing a microstructure of more gel phases and less pores in PC-GCS paste. These results indicate that the modification by addition of CaO is an effective way to achieve a high reactivity for the GCS. It may then be possible to utilize the modified GCS as a high-quality supplementary cementitious material to enhance the sustainability for both copper and cement industries.

  • 6.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Chalmers Industriteknik.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Innovation System Strengths and Weaknesses in Progressing Sustainable Technology: The Case of Swedish Biorefinery Development2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 131, p. 702-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the combination of economic challenges and uncertain policy conditions in the United States, European Union, and elsewhere, the development of advanced biorefineries has progressed slower than anticipated. This has delayed the transition to a more sustainable and less carbon-intensive economy. In this article, we adopt the technological innovation system (TIS) approach to analyze advanced biorefinery development in Sweden, a front-runner country in current development. The analysis highlights a number of system strengths (e.g., long-term research funding; significant research infrastructure; strong actor networks) that have contributed to developing the Swedish TIS, but also important system weaknesses (e.g., weak coordination among ministries; lack of industrial absorptive capacity; unclear roles) inhibiting it. The article highlights a combination of four policy measures that build on the system strengths to address the system weaknesses: (a) the implementation of a deployment policy for creating domestic niche markets; (b) improved policy timing and more structured coordination among different governmental agencies; (c) the provision of stronger incentives for mature industries to invest in R&D and improve their absorptive capacity; and (d) improved organization and financing of existing research infrastructure. In addition to the empirical contribution, the article contributes with novel insights into the TIS framework by highlighting the dynamics between system strengths and weaknesses, and suggests that system strengths should be better emphasized in future TIS studies

  • 7.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Department of Political Science and Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), University of Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology.
    How information about hazardous fluorinated substances increases willingness-to-pay for alternative outdoor garments: A Swedish survey experiment2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many outdoor garments are impregnated to make them water and, in some cases oil repellent, but the impregnation agents can be hazardous to human health and the environment. Some examples of such hazardous impregnation agents include per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. To reduce the risks related to these fluorinated substances, a phase-out is necessary, and voluntary avoidance by consumers may be one way to make this happen. This experimental survey investigates the extent to which information about the hazardous properties of fluorinated substances affects consumer willingness-to-pay for alternative outdoor garments without hazardous chemicals. The experiment was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to more than 4000 Swedish respondents via the Laboratory of Opinion Research's Citizen Panel. The results show a generally high willingness-to-pay, and that the effects of providing information are higher when the price increase is high. This suggests that there is room for a price increase if the non-hazardous options are more expensive. This survey experiment indicates that the Swedish general public is ready for substitution to garments without hazardous fluorinated chemicals if the alternative provides an identical function. Information campaigns, however, will have limited ability to increase the willingness-to-pay for an alternative as it is already high. Despite the general willingness of the Swedish public to choose less hazardous options, legislative measures may potentially be the most effective action when supply chains are opaque and information to consumers is limited.

  • 8.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Creating a sense of urgency for sustainable development: Testing two system models2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of good coverage of sustainability and sustainable development both in scientific journals and other publications, humanity is on a steady unsustainable track consuming more than is produced. Understanding of change needs, does not seem to convert into sufficient change action. Sustainability issues are often complex, interdependent and hard to comprehend, indicating that sustainable development, in addition to change willingness, requires a holistic perspective. Seeing and understanding systems - systems thinking - is important. This implies that sense-making of systems and of sustainable development is important as a prerequisite for change. Possibilities of realising synergies between quality management and sustainable development are often discussed but do often not seem to be fully realised. This paper tests two system models from Quality Management in the context of sustainability in cement manufacturing and building material production. The indicative results suggest that the proposed system models are able to describe and identify improvement opportunities that could be used to create interest for change.

  • 9.
    Jassim, Hassanean S.H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Assessing energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of off-highway trucks in earthwork operations: an artificial neural network model2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 198, p. 364-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods capable of predicting the energy use and CO2 emissions of off-highway trucks, especially in the initial planning phase, are rare. This study proposed an artificial neural networks (ANN) model to assess such energy use and CO2 emissions for each unit volume of hauled materials associated with each hauling distance. Data from discrete event simulations (DES), an off-highway truck database, and different site conditions were simultaneously analyzed to train and test the proposed ANN model. Six independent quantities (i.e., truck utilization rate, haul distance, loading time, swelling factor, truck capacity, and grade horsepower) were used as the input parameters for each model. The developed model is an efficient tool capable of assessing the energy use and CO2 emissions of off-highway trucks in the initial planning stage. The results revealed that the grade horsepower and haul distances yield a significant increase in the environmental impact of the trucks. In addition, the results demonstrated that, for a given set of project conditions, the environmental impact of trucks can reduced by improving their utilization rate and reducing the loading time.

  • 10.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Developing lightweight concepts in the automotive industry: taking on the environmental challenge with the SåNätt project2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 66, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the all-encompassing environmental challenge facing the automotive industry the weight of the car is one essential factor that has an effect on CO2 emissions for both conventional cars and for Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Even though automakers understand and have largely mastered the technical difficulties involved with alternatives to the all-steel body, the mainstream industry has nevertheless for the most part retained it. The purpose of this paper is to explore the SåNätt lightweight project as a concrete example of how two Swedish automakers (Saab and Volvo) have approached the lightweight challenge, but also to conceptualize the project in terms of what hinders and enables environmental innovations in the automotive industry. The result of the study indicates fundamentally different approaches between the automakers. While Saab focused on radical development of new concepts aiming to build a supplier structure for collaboration, Volvo focused on incremental development emphasizing short-term implementation. The empirical data also reveals a tendency for Volvo to be more deeply committed to its infrastructure for body manufacturing (the production of the all-steel body), thus hindering more radical changes. The paper concludes by highlighting a paradox emerging from the case, questioning whether established actors in the automotive industry can effectively deal with the environmental challenge.

  • 11.
    Klimova, Alexandra
    et al.
    ITMO University.
    Rondeau, Eric
    Université de Lorraine, Nancy.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Porras, Jari
    Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Rybin, Andrei
    ITMO University.
    Zaslavsky, Arkady
    CSIRO, Australia.
    An international Master’s program in green ICT as a contribution to sustainable development2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various principles of sustainable development are currently being integrated into national policies and programs. Such principles relate to a range of aspects of human activities requiring urgent attention, including heating, mobility, food security, and sustainable agriculture. One of the fields contributing to the transition towards a sustainable society is that of green information and communication technologies (ICT). Therefore, the implementation of educational programs in green ICT is important in ensuring further ICT development around sustainability concerns. This article describes the development of an international Master's degree program named “Pervasive computing and communications for sustainable development” (PERCCOM) by an international consortium, which aimed to combine advanced ICT with environmental, economic, and social awareness. The article presents background information regarding the role of the ICT sector in environmental challenges, and a review of the literature, in order to understand what is required of ICT and green ICT graduates. The curriculum of the PERCCOM program is then described and findings on program improvement are reported. The article is aimed at academic and research professionals in the fields of sustainable development and green technologies, with the goal of improving educational initiatives to address the societal demand for sustainable development. The findings reported here contribute toward the search for a solution for sustainability, especially regarding environmental issues, among educating professionals with high expertise in networking, computing, and programming, who are able to design, develop, deploy, and maintain both pervasive computing systems and communication architectures for sustainable development.

  • 12.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Feng, Kailun
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    ‘Eco-Hauling’ Principles to Reduce Carbon Emissions and the Costs of Earthmoving: a Case Study2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 208, p. 479-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is critical if we are to meet the increasing threats posed by global warming. Previous studies have shown conclusively that a substantial part of all carbon dioxide emissions comes from transportation, and that Eco-Driving principles based upon strategic, tactical, and operational decisions have the potential to reduce these emissions. However, these well-established principles have been neglected within the construction industry despite the large number of transport-related activities that attend most construction projects. This paper therefore aims to increase awareness and understanding within the industry of the potential reductions of both carbon dioxide emissions and the costs of earthmoving activities that could be achieved through the use of Eco-Driving principles. A new concept labeled ‘Eco-Hauling’, which extends the Eco-Driving concept to earthmoving, is proposed. A case study of a road project has been conducted and used to demonstrate the new concept. Discrete-event simulation is used to support the data analysis as it enables modeling of the dynamic interactions between equipment and activities of multiple different construction scenarios. The presented findings show that a combination of decisions taken from the proposed Eco-Hauling concept can enable earthmoving contractors to substantially reduce carbon dioxide emissions and costs while maintaining productivity. This study has implications for the general advancement of Eco-Driving theory, as well as for project management as it sets out a viable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in construction projects.

  • 13.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Analysis of alternative road construction staging approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emissions2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 143, p. 980-988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many studies focusing on assessing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in road projects, limited attention has been given to practical methods for mitigating environmental impacts at the project planning stage. Our study addresses this issue by proposing a model incorporating a step-by-step guide for calculating carbon dioxide emissions in the project. This model is practically applied to a road construction project where two major supply chain alternatives are evaluated and compared. The findings suggest that major reductions of carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved by (1) identifying and comparing a set of realistic project alternatives, and (2) conducting this at an early stage of the project planning process so that favorable alternatives can be implemented during construction.

  • 14.
    Lundkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Brämming, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    System analysis of slag utilisation from vanadium recovery in an integrated steel plant2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 47, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium in raw materials used in iron- and steelmaking, a particular challenge for Nordic steel producers, affects the composition of the generated slag from the steelmaking vessel, i.e. the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) adversely and reduces the potential for recycling and external utilisation. A process concept under development aims to enrich and extract the vanadium content of slag from the BOF, making use of the vanadium in the slag and also increasing the overall slag use potential. Applications of this concept affect slag compositions and internal material flows in the iron and steel production system, especially when recycling BOF slags as flux in the blast furnace (BF). This paper will present a case study, based on a Process Integration (PI) approach, using a designated system model to simulate the steel production system and the implementation of the process concept, thereby analysing how to obtain maximum usage of metallurgical slags without compromising the quality of the main product, i.e. liquid steel. Different approaches were studied to improve the environmental sustainability in the production system by maximising the material efficiency through vanadium recovery (as FeV alloy) and the use of slags, thereby minimising the stored/deposited slag amounts.

  • 15.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    European trade of forest products in the presence of EU policy2009In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, no Suppl. 1, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the share of renewable energy is of principal concern for the EU energy policy. A number of policies have been adopted, and, in part, been implemented by the EU member countries. An increasing share of renewable energy implies an increasing utilisation of biofuels in general and of forest-based biomass in particular. However, in the EU, the endowment and uses of forest-base biomass are diverse suggesting that an increasing trade would become necessary in order to cost effectively increase the utilisation of forest-based biomass. The purpose of this study is to, in the presence of EU energy policy, quantify and analyse possible trade levels for forest fuels in the EU. Particularly, the consequences on trade after implementing the White Paper and the RES-E Directive are analysed. Investigating the European trade in forest fuels is important for understanding how industry sectors in the EU will be affected by the policies. The results suggest that the implementation of the White Paper and the RES-E Directive will increase the trade in forest fuels, resulting in total trade increases of up to 67 percent. Furthermore, the national net trading levels are possible to derive. Depending on policy implementation the results differ - a country that was net importing given the White Paper implementation can instead be net exporting when applying the RES-E Directive. The fact that the policy implementations will increase the trade may mitigate potential industry problems to secure the needed inputs. On the other hand, the integration of countries increases the possibility for some industries to increase their production even more, possibly strengthening any input scarcity problems. It is therefore not possible to generally conclude if a more integrated European forest fuel market, and hence an increased European forest fuel trade, will mitigate industry problems to secure their needed inputs or not.

  • 16.
    Magnusson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maria
    Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frosth, Sandra
    Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coordinating Soil And Rock Material In Urban Construction: Scenario Analysis Of Material Flows And Greenhouse Gas Emissions2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 241, article id 118236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction is associated with quarrying as well as heavy transportation of soil and rock materials, in and out of construction sites. Both quarrying and transportation of the excavated materials result in negative environmental impact due to energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, soil and rock materials of suitable geotechnical quality for construction are a scarce natural resource in some urban regions. These issues have urged the need to optimize the use of quarry materials on-site and thereby reduce transportation. Still, internal flows of soil and rock materials in urban areas have not been well analyzed. This study presents a model to analyze future soil and rock flows in terms of material quality and quantities in urban areas. Furthermore, the study analyses the possibility of recycling excavated soil and rock and thereby reduce transportation and transport-related GHG emissions. The study applies the model to analyze as a case study integrating future residential and non-residential developments and a highway project. The case study revealed that excavated material would be generated in enough volumes to potentially cover the quarry materials demanded for providing stability and permeability to buildings, streets and highway. The scenario analysis showed that provision of strategically located recycling sites for material coordination could reduce the demand for soil and rock transportation as well as transport-related GHG emissions i.e. by 23 – 36 % per area, compared to a business as usual scenario. The study shows that internal soil and rock flows within regions can be modelled by using data from development plans and geological maps. The model results may serve as a basis for decision making regarding strategic material management in urban planning.

  • 17.
    Magnusson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Svedberg, Bo
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sustainable Management of Excavated Soil and Rock: A Literature Review2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 93, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction in developing urban areas implies use of construction materials from quarries and excavation of soil and rock. From a resource perspective, there could be benefits from using excavated soil and rock as a construction material. The aim of this paper is to describe the material flow and management practices of urban excavated soil and rock from the perspective of resource efficiency. A conceptual model for the urban flow of excavated soil and rock was developed and a literature review concerning the management of excavated soil and rock was conducted. The conceptual model was subsequently used to clarify the different perspectives of the scientific literature and knowledge gaps. Conclusions drawn are that there is little knowledge about the quantities and the fate of excavated soil and rock in urban regions. Current research is focusing on the waste flows of construction material and little is known about the overall management practices of excavated soil and rock. Clearly, excavated soil and rock are often disposed at landfills and the recycling rate for high quality purposes is low. There is a need to evaluate the potential for an increased use of excavated soil and rock as construction material. However, the overall efficiency of urban construction material management can only be evaluated and improved by also including construction materials produced in quarries.

  • 18.
    Mandova, Hana
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kjärstad, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Chuan
    SWERIM AB, Luleå, Sweden; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria c.
    Gale, William
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Achieving carbon-neutral iron and steelmaking in Europe through the deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 218, p. 118-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 30 integrated steel plants operating in the European Union (EU) are among the largest single-point CO 2 emitters in the region. The deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (bio-CCS) could significantly reduce their emission intensities. In detail, the results demonstrate that CO 2 emission reduction targets of up to 20% can be met entirely by biomass deployment. A slow CCS technology introduction on top of biomass deployment is expected, as the requirement for emission reduction increases further. Bio-CCS could then be a key technology, particularly in terms of meeting targets above 50%, with CO 2 avoidance costs ranging between €60 and €100 t CO2 −1 at full-scale deployment. The future of bio-CCS and its utilisation on a larger scale would therefore only be viable if such CO 2 avoidance cost were to become economically appealing. Small and medium plants in particular, would economically benefit from sharing CO 2 pipeline networks. CO 2 transport, however, makes a relatively small contribution to the total CO 2 avoidance cost. In the future, the role of bio-CCS in the European iron and steelmaking industry will also be influenced by non-economic conditions, such as regulations, public acceptance, realistic CO 2 storage capacity, and the progress of other mitigation technologies. 

  • 19.
    Markström, Emillia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kitek Kuzman, Manja
    University of Ljubljana, Wood Science and Technology.
    Bystedt, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, RISE Bioeconomy.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Swedish architects view of engineered wood products in buildings2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a climate perspective, it could be advantageous to increase the use of wood products in buildings, but the use of sawn timber and engineered wood products (EWPs) in multi-storey buildings above two floors are a relatively new business (in Sweden since 1995) and there is a risk that wood as construction material is met with low awareness and high uncertainty by the construction sector. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to learn Swedish architects' views of using EWPs in buildings, and 2) to identify parameters that positively influence the likelihood that EWPs will be selected to a greater extent and the relative importance of those parameters.

    A survey was sent out to Swedish architects and 67 answers were received. The result indicates that architects in Sweden have a positive attitude towards EWPs in general and that the majority think that they will probably increase their use of these materials. Low impact on the environment, aesthetic appeal, and fast construction were the most common reasons stated for selecting EWPs. The Swedish architects have in general a moderate impact on the selection of materials, and the most common reason for not selecting EWPs was that other decision makers involved in the building projects prefer other materials. A lack of knowledge and information as well as uncertainties regarding the quality over time were other common reasons for not selecting EWPs.

    It was found that architects who had participated in building projects where EWPs had been chosen due to their low environmental impact and/or aesthetic appearance were more likely to state that they will increase their use of EWPs. The results also show that influence on material selection, knowledge of EWPs, experience of the use of EWPs, and the architect's own attitude to the use of EWPs affect the likelihood of an increased use.

  • 20.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    KTH XPRES – Initiative for Excellence in Production Research.
    Jönsson, Christina
    KTH XPRES – Initiative for Excellence in Production Research.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH XPRES – Initiative for Excellence in Production Research.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Nordenberg, Eva
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Strondl, Annika
    KTH XPRES – Initiative for Excellence in Production Research.
    Nano-sized by-products from metal 3D printing, composite manufacturing and fabric production2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1224-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the health and environmental perspective of nano-materials has gained attention. Most previous work focused on Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP). This paper examines some recently introduced production routes in terms of generated nano-sized by-products. A discussion on the hazards of emitting such particles and fibers is included.

    Fine by-products were found in recycled metal powder after 3D printing by Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The process somehow generated small round metal particles (∼1–2 μm) that are possibly carcinogenic and respirable, but not small enough to enter by skin-absorption. With preventive measures like closed handling and masks, any health related effects can be prevented.

    The composite manufacturing in particular generated ceramic and carbonaceous particles that are very small and respirable but do not appear to be intrinsically toxic. The smallest features in agglomerates were about 30 nm. Small particles and fibers that were not attached in agglomerates were found in a wide range of sizes, from 1 μm and upwards. Preventive measures like closed handling and masks are strongly recommended.

    In contrast, the more traditional production route of fabric production is investigated. Here, brushing residue and recycled wool from fabric production contained few nano-sized by-products.

  • 21. Menad, Nourreddine
    et al.
    Tayibi, H.
    Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas.
    Carcedo, Fernando Garcia
    Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas.
    Hernández, A.
    Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas.
    Minimization methods for emissions generated from sinter strands: a review2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agglomeration of iron ores or fine-grained recycled high-grade iron materials is an essential part of the integrated iron and steelmaking process. The 15 European countries produce more than 100 Mt of sinter per year. However, environmental regulation is becoming more stringent, and therefore, sintering plants are under pressure to minimize their generated emissions, because they are the most polluting processes. Different possibilities have been suggested to solve this problem, e.g. using imported pellets or briquettes in blast furnace or to use EAF process. Such changes are very expensive and also delete the recycling route of the by-products, thereby creating an additional treatment or disposal problem. In this paper, different methods for minimizing emissions generated from sinter strands are reviewed.

  • 22.
    Nyström, Elsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kaasalainen, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Suitability study of secondary raw materials for prevention of acid rock drainage generation from waste rock2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 232, p. 575-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention and mitigation of acid rock drainage (ARD) from mine wastes are crucial for limiting environmental impact. However, preventive measures are often too expensive, potentially harmful to the environment or not applied early enough. This study aimed to test the potential of different secondary raw materials for maintaining a circumneutral pH (6–7) in a sulfide oxidation environment, allowing secondary minerals to form on reactive sulfide surfaces to prevent release of acid, metals and metalloids, and thereby ARD generation. Five materials (blast furnace slag, granulated blast furnace slag, cement kiln dust, bark ash, lime kiln dust) were selected based on their alkaline properties, availability and yearly yield. High sulfidic (>50 wt%, sulfide) waste rock from an active Cu–Zn–Au–Ag open pit mine in northern Sweden was leached in small-scale laboratory test cells under ambient condition for 4–8 weeks before adding secondary raw materials on the surface in an attempt to prevent ARD generation. During 52 subsequent weeks of leaching, the pH and electrical conductivity in the leachate from the waste rock varied between 1.7-4.6 and 2.1–22.8 mS/cm, respectively. All secondary raw materials were able to increase the pH to circumneutral. However, blast furnace slag, granulated blast furnace slag and cement kiln dust were not able to maintain a circumneutral pH for an extended time due to self-cementation or carbonation, whereas bark ash (1 wt%) and lime kiln dust (5 wt%) prevented acidity, metal and metalloid leaching. Materials such as cement kiln dust and bark ash contained elevated concentrations of, e.g., Cd and Zn, but the release of metals and metalloids was generally low for most elements, except for Cl, K and Na, most likely due to salt dissolution.

  • 23.
    Pardo-García, Nicolás
    et al.
    Center for Energy, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Giefinggasse 4, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
    Simoes, Sofia G.
    CENSE – Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Dias, Luis
    CENSE – Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Sandgren, Annamaria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Valhallavägen 81, 114 27 Stockholm.
    Suna, Demet
    Center for Energy, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Giefinggasse 4, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sustainable and Resource Efficient Cities platform: SureCity holistic simulation and optimization for smart cities2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 215, p. 701-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, professional analytical tools and platforms are increasingly more used to analyse and support decision-making regarding urban energy systems. Most of existing urban energy platforms are focused on short-term analysis (present or 2020) and cover specific sectors and/or aspects, without considering the holistic optimisation of the whole energy system. Moreover, usually these platforms can only be operated by users with high technical skills. This article presents the design and development of the innovative SureCity Platform which aims to overcome existing gaps to support cities to achieve their mid-to-long term sustainability targets. The main novelties the SureCity platform are: (i) it is a transparent and user-friendly software which can also be used by non-technical staff, such as politicians; (ii) it allows assessment of urban policies and measures through holistic optimisation of the whole energy system towards low carbon energy systems including air quality, land-use and water use at city level. Furthermore, since it is based on a generic comprehensive model, the SureCity platform can be adjusted and applied to a large number of cities. Because it is generalised, it has been developed using a participatory approach with different city stakeholders, and since it is designed to be used by users with different levels of expertise, it can also improve communication among city actors and benchmarking with other cities.

  • 24.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A path towards sustainability for the Nordic mining industry2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 151, p. 43-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry has a major impact on society - from an economic, environmental and social perspective and due to a vast number of criteria. Which criteria should be given priority depends on where the mining operations take place. This paper’s focus on the Nordic mining industry is partly due to the positive economic trend that the industry is currently experiencing and partly because very little research has been conducted on how the European mining industry addresses sustainability. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the Nordic mining industry’s sustainability practices and to develop guidelines for such efforts.

    The research methods used in the study include a literature review, a content analysis of sustainability reports, a review of existing sustainability initiatives, guidelines and tools, a stakeholder survey and interviews with mining company officials. Based on the findings, sustainability criteria guidelines for the Nordic mining industry are suggested in the areas of corporate governance, fair operating practices, economic aspects, human rights, labour practices, society and the environment. The content of the guidelines is discussed in the light of the sustainability practices performed by the studied mining companies

  • 25.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Exploring corporate social responsibility practice versus stakeholder interests in Nordic mining2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, no Part-1, p. 668-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth, the speed of urbanization in Asia and the more sophisticated requirements of the developed world have led to an increased demand for metals. Sweden is currently one of the EU's leading producers of ores and metals and major investments have been made regarding exploration. Although mining activities may be good for the local economy, mining can also have a negative impact both on the local environment and society which have generated a significantly increased stakeholder pressure over the last twenty years. As a consequence, the mining industry wants to be in fore front when it comes to practicing corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO). The concept SLO is based on the idea that mining companies need not only government permission (or permits) but also "social permission" to conduct their business. The social license consists of different parts, depending on the conditions in place.This paper is focusing on the Nordic mining industry and its stakeholders with the purpose to explore if CSR practice actually complies with stakeholder interests. This study, based on a content analysis of sustainability reports and a stakeholder survey, indicates that the CSR practice do comply to some extent with stakeholder interests but that there are room for improvement regarding the respect for laws and regulations, anti-corruption, sustainable resource use and energy in particular, sustainable land use, sustainable transports and the recycling of metals.

  • 26.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Exploring the path from management systems to stakeholder management in Swedish mining industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, p. 128-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    is often conceptually suggested that frameworks for the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) that take all the needs of a company’s stakeholders into consideration can emanate from management systems based on international standards. This study addresses the research question of whether the adoption of established management systems is useful for putting stakeholder management into practice. It takes the form of an in-depth case study of a Swedish mining and metals company and employs an analytical framework based on the ISO 26000 CSR standard. The company in question has well-integrated and implemented work systems regarding both labor practices and the environment. This indicates that certified management systems are effective tools for CSR and can be used rather effectively as a means of stakeholder management in practice. However, analysis also shows that such management systems contribute neither to the use of more renewable energy resources nor to a systematic reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, important CSR issues, such as fair operating practices and community involvement and development, fall outside the scope of the adopted management system.

  • 27.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Revisiting the ‘how’ of corporate social responsibility in extractive industries and forestry: present situation, industry differences and knowledge gaps2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, p. 299-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extractive industries such as mining and oil, as well as the forestry industry, are in the forefront concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The research body concerning CSR in these industries is substantial. The purpose of this study is to review the part of the research in this field that primarily focuses on the ‘how’ issues of CSR in order to provide valuable information concerning which subareas of CSR that have been addressed and the characteristics of those areas. The identified research concerning extractive industries is focused mainly on CSR practices in Africa, Oceania and South America. Even if research concerning forestry to a large extent includes European activities there seem to be a lack of knowledge regarding CSR development in Europe. Several differences and similarities have been identified in how the industry sectors are practicing CSR. Forestry seems to be practicing CSR mainly through environmental issues and mining companies are focusing primarily on community involvement and development as well as environment issues. The most comprehensive and applied CSR practice is found in the oil industry. Despite the fact that most of the literature claimed to address the practical side of CSR, it still remains unknown how some CSR issues are practiced in real company life

  • 28.
    Reckien, Diana
    et al.
    Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dawson, Richard
    School of Engineering, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Newcastle University.
    How are cities planning to respond to climate change?: Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-282018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 191, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This target has wide-ranging implications for Europe and its cities, which are the source of substantial proportions of greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports the state of planning for climate change by collecting and analysing local climate mitigation and adaptation plans across 885 urban areas of the EU-28. A typology and analysis framework was developed that classifies local climate plans in terms of their spatial (alignment with local, national and international policy) and sectoral integration (alignment into existing local policy documents). We document local climate plans that we call type A1: non-compulsory by national law and not developed as part of international climate networks; A2: compulsory by national law and not developed as part of international networks; A3: plans developed as part of international networks. This most comprehensive analysis to date reveals that there is large diversity in the availability of local climate plans with most being available in Central and Northern European cities. Approximately 66% of EU cities have an A1, A2, or A3 mitigation plan, 26% an adaptation plan, 17% joint adaptation and mitigation plans, and about 30% lack any form of local climate plan (i.e. what we classify as A1, A2, A3 plans). Mitigation plans are more numerous than adaptation plans, but mitigation does not always precede adaptation. Our analysis reveals that city size, national legislation, and international networks can influence the development of local climate plans. We found that size does matter as about 70% of the cities above 1 million inhabitants have a comprehensive and stand-alone mitigation and/or an adaptation plan (A1 or A2). Countries with national climate legislation (A2), such as Denmark, France, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, are found to have nearly twice as many urban mitigation plans, and five times more likely to produce urban adaptation plans, than countries without such legislation. A1 and A2 mitigation plans are particularly numerous in Denmark, Poland, Germany, and Finland; while A1 and A2 adaptation plans are prevalent in Denmark, Finland, UK and France. The integration of adaptation and mitigation is country-specific and can mainly be observed in countries where local climate plans are compulsory, especially in France and the UK. Finally, local climate plans of international climate networks (A3) are mostly found in the many countries where autonomous, i.e. A1 plans are less common. The findings reported here are of international importance as they will inform and support decision-making and thinking of stakeholders with similar experiences or developments at all levels and sectors in other regions around the world.

  • 29.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Product-Service Systems (PSS) Business Models and Tactics: A Systematic Literature Review2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 97, p. 61-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on Product–Service Systems (PSS) are emerging as a growing body of literature driven by the desire to combine economic prosperity and sustainable resource management. However, knowledge about how companies can adopt and implement PSS has remained limited. In this study, a systematic literature review is conducted related to understanding implementation of PSS business models and five sets of tactical practices. Based on an in-depth analysis of 67 articles, it was found that PSS is increasing rapidly as a research field, which is spread across a variety of disciplines and research domains. More specifically, research findings were accumulated from the field to present a framework supporting the implementation of well-established categories of PSS business models, that is, product-oriented, use-oriented, and result-oriented business models. Each business model category is linked to five operational-level tactics that ensure the model can be implemented successfully and subsequently generates value. These tactical sets include 1) contracts, 2) marketing, 3) networks, 4) product and service design, and 5) sustainability operational practices. This study concludes by proposing suggestions for future research.

  • 30.
    Siva, Vanajah
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The Support of Quality Management for Sustainable Development: A Literature Review2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 148-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Management is considered to be suitable as support forthe integration of sustainability considerations in areas such as productdevelopment. The purpose of this paper is to review research in whichQuality Management methods, tools or practices have been used inconjunction with sustainable development initiatives. We have identifiedfour themes that synthesize the research on Quality Management and itssupport to approaches for sustainable development: (1) supportingsustainability through integration of management systems, (2) QualityManagement as support to the implementation of Environmental ManagementSystems and to the management of sustainability, (3) supportingintegration of sustainability considerations in daily work, and (4)supporting stakeholder management and customer focus. By far the mostresearch has been conducted within the first two themes. This paper alsocontributes with proposals for future research, such as the need to movebeyond existing standards and management systems to enable more radicalimprovements, and the need for empirical evidence of the effect ofintegrated management systems on environmental performance. We alsohighlight the point that Quality Management practices and tools must bedeveloped and adapted in order to support sustainability considerations.

  • 31.
    Sjöö, Karolin
    et al.
    Innovation & Green Transitions, The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Demonstration projects in sustainable technology: The road to fulfillment of project goals2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 228, p. 331-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Publicly funded demonstration projects represent a critical intermediate step between basic R&D on the one hand, and large-scale commercialization of new sustainable technology on the other. However, these projects often suffer from various technical and nontechnical difficulties, frequently fail to meet objectives, and sometimes stall despite the best intentions of their facilitators. This paper reports on a multiple case study of 21 demonstration projects in the area of sustainable technology set in Sweden and offers two contributions. First, it maps the project-internal and external factors that allow or prohibit demonstration projects to reach their goals. Second, it suggests a process model outlining the key activities for setting up a new demonstration project. By doing so, the paper provides important implications for the process of developing and commercializing sustainable technologies. The escalating environmental crisis in particular underscores the need for new knowledge about how cleaner and more sustainable technologies can be applied.

  • 32.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University.
    Uwera, Claudine
    Department of Economics, University of Rwanda.
    Prospects for establishing environmental satellite accounts in a developing country: The case of Rwanda2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 200, p. 219-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the beginning of Rwanda’s current work on natural capital accounts. Many developing countries began similar work on environmental satellite accounts in the 1990s and early 2000s, only to abandon them a few years later when the initial political interest waned. The question arises, therefore, as to whether renewed interest in these accounts has the potential to have a longer-lasting impact on national accounting practices. In Rwanda’s case, the decision was to begin satellite accounting work by focusing on resources where key economic trade-offs between different uses had already begun to be identified by policymakers, and where the gathering of economic statistics had already been improved as a result. It seems likely that this approach could lead to more durable satellite accounts, and that a similar approach would be feasible in many other countries.

  • 33.
    Steen, Bengt
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Environmental System Analysis.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Imrell, Anne-Marie
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Sanne, Karin
    Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry.
    Development of interpretation keys for environmental product declarations2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 598-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certified environmental product declarations (EPD) are beginning to be used in several countries. To date, user experience indicates that the EPD results are difficult for professional purchasers and salespeople to understand. In order to improve understanding, three interpretation keys have been developed. They recalculate the EPD results to other numbers, which are easier to value. One key calculates the degree of satisfaction of environmental goals, another calculates the damage cost and yet another compares with what is normal in economic activity. The three interpretation keys represent different ethical views of the environment. Intended users, people having some knowledge of environmental issues without being specialists, have tested the keys on several occasions after which the keys were redesigned. We concluded that the interpretation keys offer increased understanding.

  • 34.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The transition to chlorine free pulp revisited: Nordic heterogeneity in environmental regulation and R&D collaboration2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 165, p. 1328-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development paths leading to the transition to cleaner bleaching technologies in the pulp industry. It devotes particular attention to the key features of the Swedish transition, but also compares this to the Finnish experiences. The empirical investigation builds on an analytical framework highlighting the conditions under which pollution regulations can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions at industrial plants. Existing and new archive material, including not least comprehensive license trial acts for Swedish pulp mills over an extended time period, are studied. Based on this historical analysis our findings contradict previous literature, the latter emphasizing that pressures from consumers and the public were the most significant driving forces behind the adoption of–and innovation in–alternative bleaching technologies during the late 1980s. Instead, this paper asserts, the green pulp transition was characterized by regulation-induced technological change and was made possible by long history of industry-wide cooperation in environmental R&D. Furthermore, while previous research has emphasized the leading role of the Nordic countries in green pulp innovation, we identify a number of profound differences between Finland and Sweden. These emerge from various national contexts in terms of, for instance, industry structures and strategies, political cultures, and regulatory styles. Finally, at a more general level the paper provides a few policy implications for supporting the ongoing transition towards a forest-based bioeconomy

  • 35.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The political economy of a global ban on mercury-added products: positive versus negative list approaches2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, p. 287-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss and compare two regulatory options commonly used in multilateral environmental agreements. The analysis is largely conceptual but we focus in particular on the recent global efforts to gradually phase out the use of mercury-added products. In the first regulatory approach no mercury-added products would be allowed unless they are listed in an annex (the negative list), while in the second case all mercury-added products would be allowed unless they are listed in an annex (the positive list). In both cases countries may have time to make the transition away from these products through the use of exemptions. The paper provides first a conceptual discussion of bans as regulatory instruments and of the use of technology-forcing standards to attain deep reductions in the use of hazardous substances. We outline a simple theoretical framework within which different regulatory options for mercury-added products can be analyzed. This framework is employed to analyze some overall pros and cons of the negative and the positive list approaches. Speci-fically, we address a number of generic factors that may differ across the two options, such as: (a) the potential presence of different types of information inefficiencies; (b) the flexibility in compliance measures granted by the two approaches; (c) the significance of administration costs as well as other relevant policy implementation issues. The analysis indicates that the negative list approach could facilitate a more cost-effective phase-out of mercury, in part since in this case an individual country seeking exemption would bear the burden of identi-fying the need for the exemption. This requires, though, the use of long-term compliance periods for selected products groups. With the positive list approach, the one currently adopted in the so-called Minamata Convention on mercury, it may be more difficult to induce mercury users to reveal their true costs of substituting to other products. Further empirical analysis is however needed to clarify the pros and cons of each option.

  • 36. Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Nordgren, Samuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lindblom, Bo
    LKAB.
    Savonen, Stefan
    LKAB.
    Hedpalm, Theresa
    LKAB.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Hansson, Robert
    LKAB.
    Conceptual design of an integrated heating system at LKAB Malmberget with consideration of social-environmental damage costs2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 944-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LKAB Malmberget is a Swedish mining site located at Malmberget, Sweden. Seven boiler centers are located in the north part of Malmberget. There are no connections in between these boiler centers, meaning that it is a decentralized heating system. The heat generated is used to heat up buildings and for mine ventilation air mainly during the cold periods. The heat is mainly provided from electric and oil boilers. However, most boilers under use are over 20 years old, and it is time to retrofit the boiler system and infrastructure. The purpose of this work is to design and optimize the heating system by introducing an integrated concept to minimize the heat production cost.An optimization model based on the mixed integer linear programming (MILP) has been developed. Several technical options have been considered in a new centralized heating system. The optimization principle is based on two kinds of perspectives: current price and external costs. With consideration of environmental and health damage from society concerns point of view, instead of environmental taxes in the current price perspective, the monetary values of externalities due to pollutants such as CO2, NOx, SO2 and particulates emitted from the heating system are included. On the basis of data input and assumptions, modeling results indicate that a lower cost could be achieved when a waste heat recovery boiler is installed at the older pelletization plant to recover sensible heat from flue gas. This technical option is the best solution or at least contributes to the best solution in all optimization results. Including the externality cost is useful for making fair evaluation of the social-environmental impacts of the alternatives.

  • 37.
    Wang, Yaowu
    et al.
    Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Techn.
    Feng, Kailun
    Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    An environmental assessment and optimization method for contractors2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 1877-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction-related environmental impacts have increased with the rapid urbanization in China. Contractors could mitigate the environmental impacts of a building's construction phase by developing an environmentally-friendly construction scheme. However, a construction scheme that performs well on one environmental metric may perform poorly on others. Moreover, it becomes challenging to select the best plan when various construction schemes and diverse environmental metrics need to be considered.

    This research explores how a multi-objective optimization method can provide Pareto optimal solutions that will help the contractor select a construction scheme that performs well on all environmental metrics. A quantitative environmental assessment and optimization method (EAOM) was established to evaluate and optimize the construction environmental performance using a combination of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Assessment and optimization were implemented as two integrated and interactively functional modules to complement LCA in multi-objective decision support. In a case of reinforced concrete project, EAOM generated four Pareto construction schemes within 864 possible solutions in a remarkably short time. The results indicate that EAOM is an effective and efficient decision support tool that contractors can implement to improve the environmental performance of construction processes. 

  • 38.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Characterisation of environmental policy implementation in an EMS context: a multiple-case study in Sweden2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heart of an environmental management system is the implementation of environmental policy in an organisation by the use of environmental aspects, goals and management programmes. The aim of this paper is to characterise this implementation and discuss how it could be improved. In order to achieve the objective of the paper a multiple-case study was performed in ISO 14001-certified or EMAS-registered organisations in Sweden. It is concluded that the implementation of environmental policy is strictly controlled by specifications in ISO 14001 or EMAS. Some organisations, mostly smaller, are forced to form their environmental policy implementation in a way that is not suited for their type of organisation. Many organisations find it hard to measure their environmental goals and to set long-term or medium-long-term time periods for their goals. In addition, the organisations do not involve their employees to a very great extent in the implementation of the environmental policy. If they do let middle managers and line personnel to participate, it is usually early in the process, as early as in the identification of environmental aspects.

  • 39.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    ISO 14001 certification in manufacturing firms: a tool for those in need or an indication of greenness?2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 43, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adoption of environmental management systems constitutes one of the most important elements of corporate sustainability in recent years. The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge as to which firms are most likely to adopt an environmental management system, those which are in greatest need of effective approaches or those which are already environmental frontrunners. A comparison between the improvement in environmental performance over a six-year period prior to ISO 14001 certification and the corresponding improvement in firms choosing not to adopt a system was performed. Environmental data was analyzed by using t-tests for six different areas: air emissions, water emissions, resource use, energy use, waste and overall environmental performance. In none of these environmental areas have we been able to find any statistically significant differences between certified and non-certified firms at 95% confidence level regarding the change in environmental performance prior to ISO 14001-certification or the corresponding period in non-certified firms. Our results indicate that it is equally likely that firms showing less or no improvement choose to implement and certify an environmental management system as it is for firms showing more improvement to do so.

  • 40.
    Zobel, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Almroth, C.
    Stora Enso.
    Bresky, J..
    Stora Enso.
    Burman, Jan-Ola
    Identification and assessment of environmental aspects in an EMS context: an approach to a new reproducible method based on LCA methodology2002In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 381-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification and assessment of environmental aspects are crucial to an environmental management system, since significant aspects are decisive for other parts of the system. Stringency and transparency in identification and assessment are necessary if this process is to be reproducible. Reproducibility is in turn important for the credibility of the entire management system. A survey of the identification and assessment processes within the integrated forest product company Stora Enso has shown inadequacies regarding the reproducibility. Positive features and areas of improvement have been identified. The results of the survey are the basis for the development of a new, more reproducible method. This paper includes an approach for this new method that focuses on the identification process. The method is based on life cycle assessment methodology according to the international standards ISO 14040-42 and the documentation format in ISO 14048. The environmental aspects are aggregated in a classification and characterisation into impact categories. The categories are then used as operations environmental performance indicators

  • 41.
    Zobel, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Burman, Jan-Ola
    Factors of importance in identification and assessment of environmental aspects in an EMS context: experiences in Swedish organizations2004In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research is lacking on the process of identification and assessment of environmental aspects in an environmental management system (EMS) context. The aim of this paper is to contribute knowledge by identifying factors of importance for the process that can be used as a basis when developing existing methods for identification and assessment of environmental aspects. The empirical base is quantitative and qualitative data from 46 ISO 14001-certified or EMAS-registered organizations from three counties in Sweden. Problem areas are also identified through a review of the concept literature in the EMS area. Six important areas where the identification and assessment process can be improved are identified: the definition of environmental aspects, the procedures for update of aspects, the aggregation of aspects, the exclusion of business considerations in the assessment, employee and stakeholder participation, and the competence levels of people involved in the process. Since the empirical data is taken from Swedish organizations, the results of this study are valid for Swedish conditions and may not be valid for other countries.

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