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  • 1.
    Almqvist, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå kommun.
    Hanaeus, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Organic hazardous substances in graywater from Swedish households2006In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 132, no 8, p. 901-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of several selected organic hazardous substances were investigated in domestic graywater. In total, 41 of 81 organic hazardous substances were found in concentrations above the detection limits (nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates, brominated flame-retardants, organotin compounds, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates, linear-alkyl benzene sulfonate, and triclosan). Moreover, total solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur were investigated and presented for graywater. Another objective was to suggest potential household sources for a selected number of organic hazardous substances. The present and past investigations reveal households to be obvious contributors of organic hazardous substances to municipal wastewater, and that graywater is an important media in this transport. The spreading derives from diffuse household sources like everyday activities (laundry, cleaning, etc.), the wearing down of things such as pipe material and interior fittings, and from airborne deposition.

  • 2.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Merriman, Laura S.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Hunt, William F.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Survey of the operational status of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater management ponds2017In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 143, no 6, article id 05017001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past 50 years, wet stormwater ponds have been constructed to reduce negative environmental impacts of urban stormwater discharges on receiving aquatic environments. However, in many jurisdictions there is little information on the current operational status of such ponds and their functioning. This paucity of information prompted a field survey of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater ponds, aged between 3 and 26 years. The pond survey focused on estimating the pond hydraulic loading and efficiency, the state of littoral vegetation, characteristics of bottom sediment in the inlet and outlet zones (sizes and the chemistry), and the overall operational pond status, including the access for maintenance. The hydraulic efficiencies of ponds were estimated for pond footprint shapes and relative locations of the inlets and outlets using literature data. The estimated hydraulic efficiencies correlated well with the pond length-to-width ratios and the ratio of the pond surface area to the impervious area of the runoff contributing catchment (i.e., the hydraulic loading). Littoral vegetation was inspected visually and found to be overgrown at some facilities, which impeded the maintenance access. Benthic sediments in ponds contained silt and clay (&lt;63&#x2009;&#x2009;&#x3BC;m" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;"><63  μm<63  μm), sand and gravel fractions, and when compared with the literature data, such sediments appeared relatively coarse. Chemical characteristics of sediments reflected anthropogenic (traffic) activities, but without excessive contamination warranting special disposal requirements. Of the 25 ponds surveyed, four were fenced off and inaccessible to machinery. In fact, the design of these four ponds was such that it made inspection and maintenance very difficult, which may pose potential risks to ponds operation. Fifty-four percent of the investigated ponds were in need of minor maintenance, primarily because of sediment and litter accumulation in their inflow and outflow sections. The fact that the inspection survey revealed relatively few minor issues that could be corrected easily demonstrates the importance of relatively simple regular inspections serving to detect minor problems at an early stage before they would seriously impact pond functioning. The above survey methodology should be helpful for developing similar low-cost surveys in other jurisdictions.

  • 3.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Karlsson, Kristin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Closure to “Environmental Risk Assessment of Sediments Deposited in Stormwater Treatment Facilities: Trace Metal Fractionation and Its Implication for Sediment Management”2018In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 144, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Factors influencing chemical and mineralogical changes in RDF fly ashes during aging2014In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, no 3, article id 4013014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of aging should be considered for reliable long-term assessments of the environmental risks of the use of refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ash as landfill top cover liner material. Mineral transformations that occur in RDF fly ash, and the effects of selected factors on these transformations, were studied on compacted fly ash specimens in an accelerated aging experiment using a reduced factorial design. Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, relative air humidity, time, and the quality of added water were varied in six factor combinations. Acid neutralization capacity and leaching behavior were analyzed after four different periods of time. The results were evaluated with multivariate data analysis. A significant change in the acid neutralization capacity, a decrease in leaching of Ba, Ca, Cl − , Cr, Cu, Pb, K, and Na, and an increase in solubility of Mg, Si, Zn, and SO 2− 4 could be attributed to different aging conditions

  • 5.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing2015In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 141, no 5, article id 4014083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) fly ashes was investigated in a long-term laboratory experiment. Aging affected the chemical stability of RDF fly ash in terms of leaching behavior, ANC, and mineralogical transformations. The design of experiment model evaluation showed that the use of RDF ashes in a top cover liner construction has the following advantages: most of the investigated hazardous elements like Pb, Cl, Cr, Cu, etc., will not be released from the ashes, and their buffer capacity will increase with time. However, aging has the disadvantage that leaching of Zn and SO 4 is likely to increase. The multivariate data analysis of the coefficients of variation did not reveal any systematic errors in the performance of the experiment. However, batch leaching test not always reflect the real situation in the landfill top cover environment.

  • 6. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and the impact on metal mobility2003In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 129, no 5, p. 435-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered as hazardous waste that calls for a robust, reliable, and reasonable treatment technique. This investigation aims to assess the impact of CO2 partial pressure, water addition, time, and temperature on the stabilization of MSWI fly ash with particular emphasis on Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. Carbonation and element mobility were studied by applying thermal analysis and leaching assays on fly ash samples treated according to a 24 factorial design. The relationship between the factors and the response variables was evaluated using partial least squares modeling. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed so as to complement the experimental findings. Decalcification of carbonated fly ash in a typical Swedish landfill was estimated at 0.13 mm.yr(-1) Treatment through carbonation reduced the availability of Pb and Zn about 100 times and also the carbonate alkalinity of 7.4 eq. (kg.FS)(-1) (FS represents the fixed solids) was remedied successfully. However, shortcomings that need to be resolved are the remobilization of Cr with time and the mobilization of Cd.

  • 7.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Vatten Östersund, Water Engineering, Water Department Östersund, Östersund Municipality.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Inter-Event and Intra-Event Variations of Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the Storm Sewer System of the City of Östersund, Sweden2016In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, no 7, article id 6016003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An episode of microbiological contamination of the drinking water supply of the City of Östersund, Sweden (63°10′45″N; 14°38′09″E) prompted a study of fecal pollution in four storm drainage catchments discharging in the vicinity of the water treatment plant intake, with the overall aim of determining the presence and variation of standard fecal indicator bacteria strains and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater from urban catchments with specific land uses and sizes varying from 5 to 40 ha. Four bacteria strains used as indicators of fecal pollution in Sweden were studied: total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). In dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in storm sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL, but during wet weather, total coliform and enterococci concentrations increased 10 2 102 to 10 3 103 times, compared to those in baseflow, and considerably less in the case of E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and in the majority of events observed in the four catchments; higher bacteria concentrations were observed during the early phases of runoff. Only in one catchment, positive correlations were observed between TSS and total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci, suggesting similar sources; in the remaining catchments, no such correlations were observed. The collected indicator bacteria data represent a useful addition to the available data on indicator bacteria in stormwater in cold-climate regions.

  • 8.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ion exchange of ammonium in zeolites: a literature review2001In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 127, no 8, p. 673-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this review was to acquire knowledge concerning the ammonium ion exchange technique within the field of wastewater treatment. General concepts as well as details concerning the loading and the regeneration phases were included. Both chemical and biological regeneration processes were reviewed. Concerning ion exchangers, the study focused on different kinds of zeolites. The possibilities of employing the ion exchange technique for the recovery of nitrogen was also discussed. The study was carried out as a literature review. Conclusions from this study are that full-scale wastewater treatment plants that employ the ammonium ion exchange technique are scarce and few applications have been developed to recover ammonia nitrogen, for example, for agricultural purposes. Zeolites are somewhat heterogeneous because of natural variations of the minerals. Factors that influence the ammonium adsorption during the loading phase are well known. Biological regeneration has primarily been developed to decrease the brine consumption at regeneration or to improve the conventional nitrification-denitrification process. If the ion exchange technique is to be used to recover ammonium, both chemical and biological regeneration might be employed.

  • 9.
    Hedström, Annelie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Amofah, Lea Rastas
    Methodological aspects of using blast furnace slag for wastewater phosphorus removal2006In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 132, no 11, p. 1431-1438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blast furnace (BF) slag is a by-product of steel plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate experimental methods to determine the phosphorus sorption capacity of BF slag. The handling of BF slag, before usage and clogging were also considered, as well as estimating the phosphorus retention capacity. Agitation and pilot-scale experiments were performed using both wastewater and phosphate solutions. This investigation showed that sorption capacities derived by wastewater experiments were considerably lower compared to those by phosphate solutions. Fresh BF slag briefly exposed to rainfall had a higher phosphorus sorption than weathered BF slag, indicating the importance of handling the slag carefully before usage. The risk for leakage of sulfuric compounds is considerable, especially during the initial operation phase of BF slag filters. Locations of BF slag filter beds for wastewater treatment must be carefully chosen from an environmental point of view.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Environmental Risk Assessment of Sediments Deposited in Stormwater Treatment Facilities: Trace Metal Fractionation and Its Implication for Sediment Management2016In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, no 11, article id 4016057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gather further data about metal mobility in accumulated sediments in stormwater treatment facilities, metal mobility in sediments from sedimentation tanks, gully pot sediment traps, and sedimentation ponds was investigated using the sequential extraction procedure. This method allows distinguishing the metal speciation between ion-exchangeable, carbonate-associated, reducible, organic matter/sulfide-associated, and residual fractions. The metal fractionation reveals that, for all treatment facilities, the majority of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn and a significant amount of Ni were in potentially mobile forms. Cd, Pb, and Zn are, to a large extent, associated with Fe-Mn oxides while Cu is commonly present as Cu–organic matter complexes. The metals in these potentially mobile fractions may represent a potential environmental hazard, e.g., due to release during maintenance (sediment removal) when the chemical phase distribution might change.

  • 11. Karlsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Trace metal composition in water and sediment from catch basins2008In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 134, no 10, p. 870-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When eductor trucks are used to maintain catch basins, the mixture of water and sediment that is produced has to be disposed of in some way. This paper considers the quality of this mixture after it has been discharged from the eductor truck. The results show that the metal concentrations varied more in the water phase than in the sediment phase and that most of the metals were attached to particles. No significant difference could be found in the water between a housing area and a road, whereas a significant difference could be found for Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in the sediment at a 95% confidence level. The smallest fraction (<63 µm) in the sediment had the largest concentration of metals. Sampling procedure, time, and traffic intensity had an impact on the particle-size distribution. The water exceeded the guidelines for all studied metals; however, the concentration for the water will be affected by the wash water volume, whereas, for the sediment, only copper exceeded the guidelines.

  • 12.
    Mattsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Fat, Oil, and Grease Accumulation in Sewer Systems: Comprehensive Survey of Experiences of Scandinavian Municipalities2014In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, no 3, article id 4014003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems with fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems have received relatively little attention, although in the longer term this might imply (inter alia) blockages and sanitary overflows. Therefore, the experiences of Swedish and Norwegian executive water engineers concerning FOG-related issues were assessed using a comprehensive questionnaire that was distributed to all Swedish and Norwegian municipalities (with a response rate of 35% and 25% in Sweden and Norway, respectively). Blockages caused by FOG in sewers and pumping stations were the most prevalent reported problem, followed by increased demand for line flushing. The water engineers singled out city centers as the areas whose sewers had the most severe problems with FOG buildups. Most municipalities mandated the use of grease interceptors (GIs) by businesses, but the maintenance and functional status of these devices were reported to be inadequate. Commonly, water engineers had faith in the functioning of the GI despite the lack of stringent inspections. Where FOG collection systems had been implemented, they generally targeted businesses and other enterprises rather than private households. Because problems caused by FOG buildups are likely to become more common in the future, it is important that prevention strategies characterize management to a higher degree than ones based on removal.

  • 13.
    Mattsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Mattsson, Ann E.
    Gryaab AB, Utveckling, Kvalitet och miljö, Göteborg.
    Davidsson, Fredrik
    Gryaab AB, Utveckling, Kvalitet och miljö, Göteborg.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Normalization of Wastewater Quality to Estimate Infiltration/Inflow and Mass Flows of Metals2016In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, no 11, article id 4016050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of wastewater varies between catchments due to variation in urbanisation, sewer system properties, and pollution levels. This study was conducted to identify wastewater quality parameters that could be normalized to estimate levels of infiltration/inflow (I/I) in selected catchments and to investigate the geographic origins of metals entering sewer systems. Two sampling campaigns were conducted in the five catchments of the Gothenburg area focusing on 14 water quality parameters. Data from a reference study on domestic wastewater quality to normalize the mass flows associated with pure domestic wastewater was applied. The level of dilution due to I/I in wastewater entering Rya Wastewater Treatment Plant, estimated using Tot-N and Tot-P as indicators, provided the closest fit among the water quality parameters with results obtained by established methods for the two campaigns. The results from the study also indicated which catchments generated nondomestic wastewater with higher mass flows of specified metals.

  • 14.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lind, Bo
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Arm, Maria
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Geochemical Behavior of a Gravel Road Upgraded with Wood Fly Ash2014In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, no 10, article id 5014002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An insufficient bearing capacity of gravel roads is a common problem in Sweden during thaw periods. In this study, a gravel road at Timrå in central Sweden was mechanically stabilized by mixing 30% wood fly ash into the road base material. Testing of pollutant mobilization was performed both in the lab and at the field site over three years. The differences at a given liquid-to-solid ratio reached several orders of magnitude for some elements. K, Ca, Cl, and SO 4 were easily mobilized and found at elevated concentrations in leachate from the road one year after the road was stabilized. Two years after stabilization, the concentrations had returned to background levels. The stabilization also impacted the infiltration capacity of the road, reducing it by a factor of four. The weathering of Mg, Cu, and Zn from surrounding soil was higher, while the leaching of Al and K was higher from the amended road. Using fly ash in this fashion did not result in any noticeable adverse environmental impacts

  • 15.
    Panasiuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Detection of Wastewater Discharges into Stormwater Sewers: Effects of Travel Distance on Parameters2016In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, no 5, article id 4016016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In separate sewer systems, there is a risk that wastewater from illicit connections may enter a stormwater sewer and ultimately outfall into receiving waters, adversely affecting receiving water quality and increasing risks to public health. A common approach in using methods for the detection of wastewater pollution in stormwater systems for some municipalities is to take grab samples at the outlet of a stormwater sewer, some distance away from the point(s) of ingress of the pollution. However, once pollution enters a stormwater network, the concentration or detectability of indicator parameters may change. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation in detectability of various wastewater quality parameters depending upon the distance from the point of ingress of the wastewater into a stormwater sewer. This includes E. coli, total coliform, Enterococci, conductivity, turbidity, total suspended solids, and ammonium. This study introduces a maximum detection distance—the maximum distance at which the detection of individual quality parameters would no longer be reliable. Recommendations on planning a wastewater detection program and selecting appropriate indicator parameters are given.

  • 16. Reinosdotter, Karin
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Handling of urban snow with regard to snow quality2006In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow-handling strategies employed in Swedish municipalities today are not very different from those used 10years ago. However, to reduce the environmental negative effects of snow from urban areas, such as contamination of ground water, surface water and soil, in 1990 the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) presented a snow-separation strategy. The separation strategy implies that the snow is separated into "heavily polluted" and "less polluted" snow. In this study, snow from different urban areas, i.e. housing areas and central areas with different traffic loads, was compared. The results show the importance of both the location and time, that is, what happens to the snow while it stays at the ground. A comparison was made with quality criteria for stormwater and for different types of recipients to establish the quality criteria required for snow to be handled in local snow deposits. To decrease, for example, municipalities' costs for analyzing pollutants in snow, proposals for establishing standard metal concentrations in snow and for recommending snow-handling strategies were discussed.

  • 17.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Particle size distribution and metal content in street sediments1998In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 124, no 8, p. 761-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments that had accumulated during the winter season, and which were left at the surface when the snow had melted, were studied with regard to physical and chemical characteristics. The investigation was carried out in the city of Luleå, which is located in northern Sweden. Sediment samples were collected in the city center and in a housing area at streets with different traffic loads. The results showed that the amount of the sediments at a street surface was evidently affected by the presence of a sidewalk. The street with a sidewalk accumulated much more sediment than the street without a sidewalk did. Both of these streets had approximately the same traffic load. The sidewalk also affected the particle size distribution. The content of heavy metals in the sediments varied with the traffic load and the area type. The highest concentration of cadmium, lead, and zinc was found in the street with the highest traffic load.

  • 18.
    Winston, Ryan
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt, William F.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    A Simple Infiltration Test for Determination of Permeable Pavement Maintenance Needs2016In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, no 10, article id 6016005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permeable pavements allow stormwater to pass through the pavement surface, filtering out sediment and debris; over time, regular preventative maintenance will be needed to maintain the pavement surface infiltration rate (IR). IR testing is commonly used to determine maintenance needs and frequencies. ASTM standard methods may be used to measure permeable pavement IR; however, these tests can take hours to complete and require infiltrometers not readily available to maintenance contractors. A simple infiltration test (SIT) has been devised which (1) is conducted using easily acquired materials, (2) has a larger surface area (i.e., more representative of average pavement conditions), and (3) requires, on average, 72% less time to conduct than the ASTM test. ASTM and SIT methods were compared by conducting a total of 873 IR tests at the same locations on 12 permeable pavements in North Carolina, Ohio, and Sweden. Results showed that (1) a segmented linear relationship related SIT and ASTM-measured IRs; (2) the SIT and ASTM tests predicted approximately the same IR up to 250  mm/min 250  mm/min; (3) the larger surface area of the SIT reduced the variability in measurements (average 40% less) compared to the ASTM method. The SIT took one-quarter the time to run, on average, making this newly-devised tool more efficient when assessing IR than ASTM methods, potentially saving maintenance personnel time and money.

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