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  • 1.
    Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Dewulf, Jo
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Guinée, Jeroen
    Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Schulze, Rita
    Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    Euromines, Belgium.
    Towards product-oriented sustainability in the (primary) metal supply sector2019In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 145, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consideration of sustainable supply of (primary) metals is increasingly influencing the policy agenda of western societies. Environmental sustainability can be managed from different perspectives, including a site-oriented one (strongly used by the mining sector) and a product-oriented one (as with life cycle assessment). The objectives of this article are to analyse and discuss the differences in these perspectives; to discuss potential benefits to the metal/mining sector of also considering the product-oriented perspective; and to propose ways for a smooth implementation. We made use of literature and expert knowledge, on top of interviews with different stakeholders, to identify why and how these perspectives are (not) used in the metal/mining sector. Moreover, we identified three key concerns related to the implementation of a product-oriented perspective in the sector (e.g., use of unrepresentative life cycle inventory (LCI) datasets for metal-based products) and proposed three corrective actions for all of them (e.g., increase the quantity and quality of LCI). Finally, we discuss how the corrective actions could be implemented in the sector in a smooth way and some potential benefits from its implementation.

  • 2. Berglund, Christer
    Spatial cost efficiency in waste paper handling: the case of corrugated board in Sweden2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 367-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the spatial cost efficiency of the Swedish legislation regarding waste disposal handling. We focus on the case of corrugated board and recognize that the different counties in Sweden possess different economic prerequisites in terms of waste paper recovery and utilization potential. We employ data for six corrugated board mills and 20 counties and a non-linear programming model to identify the least cost strategy for reaching the politically specified recycling target of a 65% recovery rate for corrugated board. That is, the total costs of recovering a minimum of 65% in each county are calculated and compared with the case when the country as a whole recovers 65% of all old corrugated board is collected but there exist no uniform target for each county. The conclusion is that from an efficiency point of view the recovery efforts should be concentrated to the highly populated and urbanized counties, and not be uniformly divided throughout the country. In the base case, the results suggest that the cost efficient county-specific recovery rates should range from 51 to 72%.

  • 3. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish Competition Authority.
    A note on inter-country differences in waste paper recovery and utilization2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries worldwide express waste paper recycling targets in terms of recovery and utilization rates. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the most important determinants of inter-country differences in these waste paper rates. By employing two regression models and using data for 89 and 81 countries, respectively, the paper concludes that relative waste paper recovery and use are largely market-determined, and depend thus on long-standing economic factors such as population intensity and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. We also find evidence that supports the conjecture that rich countries tend to recover relatively more waste paper than is the case in low-income countries, reflecting the higher demand for waste management and environmental policies in more developed economies. As recovery and utilization rates are determined largely by long-standing economic and demographic characteristics the degree of policy flexibility in affecting these rates may be limited. In particular, an ambitious utilization rate target may be very costly to enforce as it can conflict with existing trade patterns of paper and board products as well as with other environmental goals. Additional policy targets may, therefore, be desirable, especially since paper recycling is motivated primarily by environmental concerns and seldom is a benign activity in itself.

  • 4. Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of secondary aluminium supply: an econometric analysis based on European data2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economics of secondary aluminium supply in Western Europe. We derive a supply model of secondary aluminium recovery and recycling, which integrates microeconomic theory of production with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The supply function contains the secondary output price, a vector of input prices, and a measure of the size of the stock of old aluminium scrap. The model is estimated using pooled cross-section and annual time-series data for four European countries, Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom, over the time period 1983-2000. The estimated own-price elasticity of secondary aluminium supply is low (0.21) as is the supply response to changes in the stock of old scrap. The empirical results are useful for analyzing market behavior and policy impacts in the secondary aluminium market. The low supply responses to changes in the output price can - in combination with the high-income elasticity of material demand - help explain the observed price volatility of secondary aluminium prices. They also suggest that price-based policies influencing the supply side of the market may only have limited impacts on aluminium recycling rates, and that national collection of aluminium scrap is likely to have small influences on secondary aluminium production internationally.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Naroznova, Irina
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Möller, Jacob Steen
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 102, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A need for improvement of food waste (FW) pre-treatment methods has been recognized, but few life cycle assessments (LCA) of FW management systems have considered the pre-treatment with respect to input energy, loss of organic material and nutrients for anaerobic digestion (AD) and/or further treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact of changes in mass distribution within framework conditions that were varied with respect to biogas utilization and energy system, representing different geographical regions and/or different time-frames. The variations of the GWP due to changes in pre-treatment efficiency were generally small, especially when biogas and refuse were substituting the same energy carriers, when energy conversion efficiencies were high and slurry quality good enough to enable digestate use on land. In these cases other environmental aspects, economy and practicality could be guiding when selecting pre-treatment system without large risk of sub-optimization with regards to GWP. However, the methane potential of the slurry is important for the net LCA results and must be included in the sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, when biogas is used as vehicle fuel the importance of pre-treatment is sensitive to assumptions and approach of modelling marginal energy which must be decided based on the focus and timeframe of the study in question

  • 6.
    Durinck, D.
    et al.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Arnout, S.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Heulens, J.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Jones, P.T.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Blanpain, B.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Wollants, P.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Hot stage processing of metallurgical slags2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1121-1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slags are an indispensable tool for the pyrometallurgical industry to extract and purify metals at competitive prices. Large volumes are produced annually, leading to important economical and ecological issues regarding their afterlife. To maximise the recycling potential, slag processing has become an integral part of the valorisation chain. However, processing is often directed solely towards the cooled slag. In this article, the authors present an overview of the scientific studies dedicated to the hot stage of slag processing, i.e. from the moment of slag/metal separation to complete cooling at the slag yard. Using in-depth case studies on C2S driven slag disintegration and chromium leaching, it is shown that the functional properties of the cooled slag can be significantly enhanced by small or large scale additions to the high temperature slag and/or variations in the cooling path, even without interfering with the metallurgical process. The technology to implement such hot stage processing steps in an industrial environment is currently available. No innovative technological solutions are required. Rather, advances in hot stage slag processing seem to rely primarily on further unravelling the relationships between process, structure and properties. This knowledge is required to identify the critical process parameters for quality control. Moreover, it could even allow to consciously alter slag compositions and cooling paths to tailor the slag to a certain application.

  • 7.
    Forssberg, Eric
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pugh, Robert
    Shen, Huiting
    Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
    Review of plastics waste recycling and the flotation of plastics1999In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 85-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the importance of plastic waste recycling and plastic waste separation. Based on an analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of plastics and plastic waste, the potentials and limitations of several technological processes are discussed. In addition, a review of the surface chemical aspects of plastic flotation is presented. It can be concluded that the flotation of plastics is a fairly flexible technique and could prove to be a useful process for the separation of mixtures of several different types of plastics. However, more research and development effort is required before this technology can be introduced to industry.

  • 8. Gahan, Chandra Sekhar
    et al.
    Sundkvist, Jan-Eric
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Sandström, Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Utilisation of steel slags as neutralising agents in biooxidation of a refractory gold concentrate and their influence on the subsequent cyanidation2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 541-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study on the possibilities to utilise steel slag as neutralising agent in biooxidation of a refractory gold concentrate has been done with reference to commercial grade slaked lime. The idea has been to reduce the operating costs for neutralisation in the biooxidation plant, which is known to be the second largest operating cost. Other benefits would be savings in cost for landfilling of slag, possibilities to recycle elements present in the slag and savings of virgin limestone deposits. The slags used were an EAF slag and a slag from ladle refining; both originating from Swedish scrap based steel-making. Continuous biooxidation of the refractory gold concentrate was conducted in a single-stage 5 L reactor at a retention time of 56 h. The neutralisation capacity was determined by comparing the amount needed, per ton of feed concentrate added, to maintain the desired pH of 1.5 during steady state operation. Slaked lime had the highest neutralisation capacity with 110 kg/ton feed followed by ladle slag and EAF slag with values of 152 and 267 kg/ton feed, respectively. Sulphide mineral oxidation was similar and high in all cases although the ladle slag results were slightly better. Gold recoveries after cyanide leaching on the residues obtained were also similar and were in the range of 86–89%. However, the cyanide consumption expressed as kilogram cyanide per ton of concentrate fed to biooxidation, was double in the case of ladle slag and three times as much for the EAF slag compared to the slaked lime experiment. The increased cyanide consumption could not be explained only by the increased amount of elemental sulphur obtained in the slag experiments. The elemental sulphur formed had different reactivities as seen from the thiocyanate formation and cyanide losses due to thiocyanate formation were 16%, 32% and 40% for EAF slag, slaked lime and ladle slag, respectively. It is concluded that the ladle slag could be a possible replacement for limestone if they are mixed in proper proportions so that the microbial carbon dioxide demand is met whereas the EAF slag is less suitable due to the very fine reaction products obtained which gave operational problems with filtration and washing. To come further, experiments with the normal multi-stage biooxidation set-up with total retention time of 120 h should be performed which would increase the sulphur oxidation and eventually also reduce the cyanide consumption.

  • 9.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK).
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 554-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste of food is a topic of considerable policy interest. However, few studies have been done on food waste at the retail level. The aim of this study was to examine how large retail waste is for 16 different horticultural products, selected among typical fruit and vegetables. The levels of retail waste were examined in cooperation with one of the leading Swedish retail companies. The results showed that retail waste of horticultural products amounted between 0.4% and 6.3% of store supplies for different horticultural products. The results did not show that packaging reduced waste of horticultural products.

  • 10.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Swedish producer responsibility for paper packaging: an effective waste management policy?2007In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 314-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the incentive structure and the effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility ordinance, i.e., the ability of the system to induce producers to economize with cardboard packaging and to fulfill the related environmental goals cost effectively. A secondary purpose is to discuss if the empirical evidence in any way suggests that an alternative supply chain management regime, i.e., the UCTS-system, could be more effective. According to the results, both the Swedish producer responsibility scheme and the UCTS system fulfill two important cost effectiveness criteria. The packaging fee in the present Swedish system and the packaging tax in the UCTS system provide similar incentives to an output effect. Furthermore, both systems also give rise to input substitution effects. For instance, both systems encourage the use of secondary materials at the expense of virgin materials by subsidizing collection and recycling activities. However, in the Swedish producer responsibility system, waste collection entrepreneurs in areas with high marginal costs of collection also often obtain high refunds. This implies a violation of the cost effectiveness principle. Neither of the systems tends to encourage enough of design for recyclability, but here the Swedish producer responsibility seems to be somewhat more effective than the UCTS system. Our analysis of the transformation and transaction costs involved in the two waste management systems suggests that it is hard to a priori determine which system will minimize waste management costs. It will depend on, for instance, households’ valuation of sorting efforts, and the presence of economies of scale in the waste collection system. This implies that different systems can be preferred in different parts of the country.

  • 11. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Norms and economic motivation in household recycling: empirical evidence from Sweden2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of recycling efforts in Swedish households, and focuses on the case of packaging waste (i.e., paper, glass, plastic, and metal). The analysis builds on a theoretical framework that integrates norm-motivated behavior into a simple economic model of household choice by assuming that the individuals have preferences for maintaining a self-image as morally responsible, and thus norm-compliant, persons. A postal survey was sent out randomly to 2800 households in four different Swedish municipalities, and in the paper self-reported information on recycling rates at the household level is analyzed in an ordered probit regression framework. The results indicate that both economic and moral motives influence inter-household recycling rates. Specifically, convenience matters in the sense that property-close collection in multi-family dwelling houses leads to higher collection rates. The strength of moral (self-enforced) norms explains a large part of the variation across households, but the importance of such norms in driving recycling efforts partly diminishes if improved collection infrastructure makes it easier for households to recycle. Recycling rates at the household level are also positively influenced by the felt ability to favourably affect environmental outcomes as well as by others' recycling efforts. The paper discusses a number of policy implications that follow from the empirical results.

  • 12.
    Hou, Yong
    et al.
    College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China.
    Wei, Sha
    College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China.
    Ma, Wenqi
    College of Resources and Environmental Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, PR China.
    Roelcke, Marco
    Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig 38106, Germany.
    Nieder, Rolf
    Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig 38106, Germany.
    Shi, Shengli
    College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China.
    Wu, Jiechen
    College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China.
    Zhang, Fusuo
    College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China.
    Changes in nitrogen and phosphorus flows and losses in agricultural systems of three megacities of China, 1990–20142018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 139, p. 64-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban expansion is a crucial process altering nutrient cycles in agro-ecosystems, often accompanied by negative impacts on the environment. Quantitative analysis of nutrient flows in agricultural systems of megacities and their interactions with urbanization is still lacking. This study reports on changing patterns in inputs, outputs, losses and cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in agricultural systems in three of China’s megacities–Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing during 1990–2014, using the substance flow analysis method. Results show that changing patterns of nutrient flows varied among cities. With rising urbanization rate in Chongqing, nutrients were increasingly imported to agricultural systems to sustain food demand, which led to increased nutrient losses. An opposite trend occurred in Beijing and Shanghai with high urbanization levels (over 80%) since the early 2000s, resulting from a decline in cropland and livestock numbers, and stricter enforcement of environmental laws. Mineral fertilizers and livestock husbandry both contributed largely to ammonia emissions from agriculture. Losses of nutrients to water bodies in Beijing were sourced mainly from the livestock sector, while derived from overuse of mineral fertilizers in Chongqing, suggesting that priority management practices need to be designed differently among regions. Increased intensity of nutrient losses from agriculture was significantly correlated with increased mineral fertilizer input, livestock density and feed import and with reduced recycling ratio of manure. Integrated management for better use of nutrients in fertilizers, feed and manure are urgently required at regional scales. Our findings can serve as basis for policy decisions for sustainable agricultural systems in megacities.

  • 13.
    Lundkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Optimisation of a centralised recycling system for steel plant by-products: a logistics perspective2013In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 77, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the optimisation of a recovery strategy for waste materials and thereby improved material efficiency in the iron and steel industry. A joint venture between four Nordic steel plants is considered in order to recycle materials otherwise mainly put to landfill, i.e. dusts and sludges from the steel production processes. Process integration (PI) was used to investigate the possibilities for recovering the materials by developing a system optimisation model of the steel plants and integrating a dedicated material upgrading process in the system. This work aims to develop a model suitable for analysing and finding a logistic solution needed to achieve a common recycling system by studying material supply, required material storage, shipping system and shipping frequency. The developed optimisation model is presented, using a case study of the steel production plants with the dedicated upgrading process and the logistics system. The prospect for shipping materials from the steel production sites to the material upgrading process site as well as the material supply to the upgrading unit is essential in the system analysis. A mathematical optimisation model based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) for the common system is presented. The integration of the dedicated material upgrading process show a system in balance regarding the materials generated and processed in the upgrading unit. Generated material amounts suitable for the upgrading process can be fully recovered thereby decreasing the landfilled amounts from the four steel production sites.

  • 14.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Choice of location for investments in the European paper industry: the impact of wastepaper2001In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies and estimates the relative impact that factor input prices, output market size and agglomeration effects have on the choice of location for investment projects in the European pulp and paper industry, with special focus on the price of waste paper A conditional logit model was developed to fit investment projects across 16 European countries for the period 1985-95. The results suggest that factor input prices, in general, and the price for waste paper in particular, are neither a statistical nor an economic significant location determinant for a paper manufacturer. Furthermore, the results suggest that market size and agglomeration effects are considered more important than the price of raw material when an investment site is chosen.

  • 15.
    Magnusson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Macsik, Josef
    Ecoloop Stockholm.
    Analysis of energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases, metals and organic substances from construction materials used for artificial turf2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applied a life cycle analysis approach to identify significant posts for energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with construction, use and removal of an artificial turf field. A chemical analysis of infills was conducted to describe leachability of metals and organic substances. The infill types studied were recycled tires (RT), virgin thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), virgin ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) and recycled EPDM (R-EPDM) from cables and automotive mats. The result shows that energy use and GHG emissions of an artificial turf field significantly correlates with material choice, maintenance and management of removed turf. Energy use and GHG emissions for infills was highest for TPE followed by EPDM. In summary, use of recycled material as infill, reuse of soil and rock on site and reuse of removed turf and infill could reduce energy use and GHG emissions. Leachates from RT and R-EPDM contained detectable concentrations of zinc, which was relatively high from R-EPDM. Organic substances, harmful for aquatic environments and/or humans were detected in all leachates but in highest concentration from R-EPDM followed by EPDM. In the literature, risk assessments focused predominantly on RT while assessments of other infills was less extensive or was missing. The result in this article stressed the need to include all infill types in risk assessments. Previous environmental risk assessments based on field measurements concluded risks with infills to be small or minimal. However, since these assessments are few, this study suggested verification of those results by field measurements.

  • 16. Menad, Nourreddine
    Cathode ray tube recycling1999In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 26, no 3-4, p. 143-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead and polybrominated flame retardants are the two hazardous materials that can be found in electronic appliances. Particularly, cathode ray tubes (CRT) contain leaded glasses. In a computer monitor, over 98% of the lead is in the CRT. This material is generally not accepted for reuse as a component; only those from televisions can be reused. However, this currently represents only a very small market. Envirocycle (a US company) has developed a process to recycle all glasses contained in CRTs; this process includes cleaning and sorting glass. The product obtained is used for the manufacture of new CRT glass. Some industries have used pulverized glass from CRTs in smelting processes as slagging material instead of sand or slag. In this paper, some environmental issues related to the recycling of computers and television sets, and CRTs from computers are presented and discussed. Different processes used to recycle CRTs are described along with an economic analysis.

  • 17. Menad, Nourreddine
    et al.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Polyvinyl chloride used as a chlorinating and a reducing agent1998In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 24, no 3-4, p. 257-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or vinyl is a recyclable material. It can be used as a chlorinating and a reducing agent. Two tests of chlorination and reduction of two different samples of jarosite and hematite were realized using PVC, results are presented in this paper. The chlorination test shows that the HCl gas produced from PVC and heated at ≈250°C can be used as a chlorine source to recover as chlorinated compounds the valuable metals such as Zn, Pb contained in jarosite. The XRD reveals the presence of lead and zinc chlorides in the condensates obtained. The second test of reduction was conducted using a mixture of PVC and hematite treated in a nitrogen atmosphere between 200 and 1000°C. The results show that at low temperature, PVC produces HCl and with kinetic consideration, no reactions can be observed with hematite. However, at high temperature, the weight of the hematite sample decreases by ≈15%, due to the reduction of hematite to iron metal.

  • 18. Menad, Nourreddine
    et al.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Allain, Eric G.
    University of Missouri–Rolla, School of Mines and Metallurgy, Center for Pyrometallurgy.
    Combustion of plastics contained in electric and electronic scrap1998In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 65-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic materials have been associated with electric and electronic applications since the early days of the electrical industry. Plastics can amount up to 30% of the scrap mass. Generally, they contains flame retardants such as halogenated compounds which can lead to the formation of different toxic products. Recycling, incineration and landfilling are the current methods used to treat these plastics. They also can be used as combustibles in some metallurgical processes. However, during their combustion, halogenated flame retardants can produce dibenzop-dioxins and dibenzo-furans.

  • 19. Menad, Nourreddine
    et al.
    Kanari, N.
    Mineral Processing and Environmental Engineering Team, LEM, Associated to CNRS.
    Allain, E.
    Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Missouri Rolla.
    Gaballah, I.
    Mineral Processing and Environmental Engineering Team, LEM, Associated to CNRS.
    Thermal treatments of industrial wastes in controlled atmospheres for the elimination of As, Hg, Cd, Se and the concentration of Pb, Cu and Zn1999In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 25, no 3-4, p. 233-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatments of five different types of non-ferrous metallurgical wastes, under a controlled atmosphere, were carried out at temperatures lower than 800°C for the separation of their toxic compounds and the concentration of valuable metals in the treatments residues. The best results were obtained by the treatments in air or hydrogen, or both successively. Simple treatments, using air or hydrogen, of three samples allowed the elimination of more than 95% of their toxic elements and almost doubled their valuable metals concentration. For the rest of the samples, a combined treatment was necessary for their efficient decontamination. In this case, the valuable metals content in the treatment's residue was increased to a reasonable value. Most of the solids issuing from these treatments can be recycled in current non-ferrous metallurgical processes.

  • 20.
    Miliute-Plepienea, Jurate
    et al.
    Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS), Lund University.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Plepys, Andrius
    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University.
    Reipas, Algirdas
    Alytus Region Waste Management Centre, Vilniaus.
    What motivates households recycling behaviour in recycling schemes of different maturity?: Lessons from Lithuania and Sweden2016In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 113, p. 40-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the determinants of household recycling behaviour in a recycling system at an early stage of development (Lithuania) and compares them with those of a more mature recycling scheme (Sweden). The analysis builds on the empirics from household surveys and focuses on four fractions of household packaging waste. Several similarities within the two recycling schemes were found, including convenience, norm-based motivators, and the interactions between such factors. The analysis tested and confirmed the so-called ABC Hypothesis of moral norms being less important as motivators to recycle when it is easy and convenient to collect packaging waste, e.g. when kerbside collection is in place. One important difference between the two schemes was that social norms were found to be important for source sorting in the early-stage recycling system but not in the mature recycling system. This suggests not only that more effort should be devoted to shaping social norms that facilitate household recycling behaviour when collection systems are launched, but also that the focus should be on moral norms when the convenience factors in waste management schemes are still underdeveloped.

  • 21.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Söderström, Mats
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Assessing the climate impact of district heating systems with combined heat and power production and industrial excess heat2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 96, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat demand is a large contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU), as heat is largely produced using fossil fuel resources. Extended use of district heating (DH) could reduce climate impact, as DH systems can distribute heat produced in efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants and industrial excess heat, thus utilising heat that would otherwise be wasted. The difficulty to estimate and compare GHG emissions from DH systems can however constitute an obstacle to an expanded implementation of DH. There are several methods for GHG emission assessments that may be used with varying assumptions and system boundaries. The aim of this paper is to illuminate how methodological choices affect the results of studies estimating GHG emissions from DH systems, and to suggest how awareness of this can be used to identify possibilities for GHG emission reductions. DH systems with CHP production and industrial excess heat are analysed and discussed in a systems approach. We apply different methods for allocating GHG emissions between products and combine them with different system boundaries. In addition, we discuss the impact of resource efficiency on GHG emissions, using the framework of industrial symbiosis (IS). We conclude that assessments of the climate impact of DH systems should take local conditions and requirements into account. In order for heat from CHP production and industrial excess heat to be assessed on equal terms, heat should be considered a by-product regardless of its origin. That could also reveal opportunities for GHG emission reductions

  • 22.
    Shen, Huiting
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Nordström, Ulf
    Physicochemical and mineralogical properties of stainless steel slags oriented to metal recovery2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 245-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, physicochemical and mineralogical properties of stainless steel slags oriented to metal recovery were studied by using various methods. The tests were conducted on two types of slag, namely EAF slag (Electric Arc Furnace) and AOD slag (Argon Oxygen Decarburisation). The samples were collected from the tailings of a slag processing plant operated by Bergslagens Stålservice AB in Sweden. Chemical analysis showed that the EAF and AOD samples contain 3.22% Cr and 0.075% Ni, and 1.71% Cr and 0.20% Ni respectively. Fe and Cr are mainly (about 70%) in the form of oxide while Ni is in the form of metal. Particle size analysis demonstrated that the EAF and AOD had been finely ground at the plant with 56 and 65% (−75 μm), respectively, containing a large amount of slime. According to X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and other studies, the main phases identified in EAF and AOD include Fe–Cr–Ni alloys, Fe–Cr oxides, Ca–Mg–Al silicates and Ca–Mg oxides (free CaO and periclase) with many mineral species. From SEM, Fe, Cr and Ni exist in the liberated alloy particles, association particles and complex particles. It is possible to recover the former two but the Fe–Cr–Ni in the latter one will not be easy to recover by mechanical separation. Some Cr also exists in the silicate phases and this Cr is impossible to recover by mechanical separation. However, Ni seldom exists in the silicate phases. Dissolution test showed that only a very small amount of EAF or AOD is dissolved in water, but in 1 M HCl solution, as high as 23.68% EAF and 31.04% AOD are dissolved, respectively. In addition, a phenomenon of particle size growth of the ground AOD was found and demonstrated by particle size analysis with a laser particle size analyzer and a Cyclosizer. Particle size growth of the ground EAF is not obvious, indicating that the hydraulic property of AOD is higher than EAF.

  • 23. Shen, Huiting
    et al.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pugh, R.J.
    Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm.
    Selective flotation separation of plastics by chemical conditioning with methyl cellulose2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 229-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The floatability of seven plastics (POM, PVC, PET, PMMA, PC, PS and ABS) in the presence of methyl cellulose (MC) and separation of plastics mixtures were investigated in this paper. It was found that the seven plastics can be separated into three groups by using the wetting agent MC. Group one includes POM and PVC. They are depressed at very low MC concentrations. Group two, including PET, PMMA and PC, has an intermediate floatability. Group three (ABS and PS) has a high floatability. They are almost not depressed within the given MC concentration range. In order to understand the mechanism of selective flotation of plastics and the chemical conditioning process, surface chemical factors, such as wettability of plastics and surface tension of flotation medium, and gravity factors, such as particle density and shape, were studied. It was found that the depressing effect of MC on plastics is ascribed mainly to its adsorption on the plastics surfaces. The MC molecules absorbed on plastics expose some of their polar groups oriented towards the aqueous phase, hence making the plastics surfaces hydrophilic. In addition, flotation selectivity for the plastics is dominated not only by wettability of plastics, but also by particle size, density and shape.

  • 24.
    Shen, Huiting
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pugh, R.J.
    Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm.
    Selective flotation separation of plastics by particle control2001In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study on the control of particle size distribution (PSD) of the ground carbonate product in stirred media mills (wet Drais stirred bead mill and dry Sala Agitated Mill) is presented in this paper. The results indicated that the slope of product size distribution can be controlled by altering some operating parameters, such as size of grinding media and tip or peripheral speed. The profile of product size distribution from the stirred media mills was found to follow most closely the Rosin-Rammler-Bennett (RRB) model.

  • 25.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Review of A handbook of primary commodities in the global economy2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 8-9, p. 1112-1113Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present is a period of strong interest in world commodity markets, and for many commodities prices have soared during the last five years. However, during the 1980s and 1990s the interest in these markets was much more limited given the depressed prices at the time. In spite of these cyclical movements, commodities - minerals, metals and agricultural products - have constantly remained important inputs to the global economy, and commodity markets and public policy measures influencing these markets therefore deserve scrutiny and critical analysis. Marian Radetzki's book contributes with such analyses, and it does not only cover the present commodity boom but provides also an in-depth analysis of the historical development of commodity markets at the global level. It is therefore essential reading for anyone who wants to learn more about the long-term forces that shape the production and use of commodities worldwide.Radetzki is a Swedish professor of economics, and he has written extensively on commodity and energy markets during the last 40 years. The book represents a successor to one of his previous books, A Guide to Primary Commodities in the World Economy, published by Blackwell in 1990, thus at a time when the interest in raw materials was much weaker than it is at the present.

  • 26.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Taxing virgin natural resources: Lessons from aggregates taxation in Europe2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 911-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this review paper is to analyze the efficiency of environmentally motivated taxes on virgin raw materials. We analyze both the economic–theoretical foundations of virgin natural resource taxation, and the empirical experiences of aggregates taxes i.e., taxes on, for instance, gravel, rock, stone, etc. in three European countries. These include Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom. The theoretical analysis indicates that taxing natural resource output or use typically represents a ‘second-best’ policy alternative, which can be used when, for instance, the monitoring of non-point source emissions is difficult or efficient property rights regimes cannot be established. The empirical analysis shows that the European aggregate taxes have assisted in reducing virgin resource use in spite of the relatively low own-price responses. However, generators of recycled materials typically have few incentives to enhance their waste sorting activities in the presence of a tax on virgin materials. Unless additional policies to increase the supply of recycled materials are implemented, supply will not increase much even in the presence of high demand. Finally, although second-best taxes are sometimes motivated by the desire to keep administration costs low, they could come at the cost of improper incentives and of limited policy legitimacy.

  • 27.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tilton, John E.
    Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
    Material efficiency: an economic perspective2012In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 75-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an economic perspective of material efficiency, and discusses the role of public policy in providing market incentives for a more efficient use of materials. In doing so, it comments on the engineering approach to material efficiency presented by Allwood et al. (2011) in an earlier issue of Resources, Conservation and Recycling. We argue that concerns over potential future natural resource scarcities do not represent a strong motive for introducing policies to foster greater material efficiency but that various environmental externalities and information failures in the relevant material markets do. Moreover, in such instances policy makers should opt for policy measures that target the relevant market failures (e.g., environmental damages) as closely as possible. This normally means avoiding policies that directly encourage specific material efficiency options. Policy measures that address particular environmental problems and information externalities will enhance material efficiency in a more effective manner. This is because ex ante it is difficult for policy makers to know in what ways and by how much to alter material production and use.

  • 28.
    Wårell, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Price effects of mergers in natural resources industries2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 1-2, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and analyse the price and welfare effects from the mergers between Rio Tinto and North Ltd. in 2000, and CVRD and Caemi in 2001. The analyses are conducted using a merger simulation model that, based on the pre-merger situation estimates the post-merger outcome. This paper applies a standard Cournot framework model where each firm produces a single homogenous product, and the firms' strategic variable is quantities. The results from the merger simulation regarding the Rio Tinto/North Ltd. merger show that the merged firm has a combined market share of almost 20%. The estimated price increase due to the merger is 5.8%. Regarding the CVRD/Caemi merger the initial concentration in the pre-merger market is substantially larger than the year before, and the results indicate that the estimated price effect from the merger is more significant, almost 7%. Regarding the effect of prices on resource extraction, the estimated higher price of iron ore after the merger implies that substitution towards steel scrap in the steel-making process increases. This finding implies that resource extraction possibly has been lower than what might have been the case without the merger. Note that this effect is analysed as ceteris paribus, i.e., other impacts on iron ore demand and prices than the specific mergers have not been considered. In both merger simulations the overall welfare effect is estimated to be negative, something which thus does not support the European Commission's decisions to allow these mergers. However, none of the simulations did take into account possible cost efficiencies resulting from the mergers.

  • 29.
    Zhang, Shunli
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Mechanical separation-oriented characterization of electronic scrap1997In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 247-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever-increasing amount of electronic scrap and the steadily-decreasing contents of the precious metals used in electronics, as well as the ever-growing environmental awareness, challenges such conventional precious-metal-oriented recycling techniques as pyrometallurgy. Separation and beneficiation of various materials encountered in electronic scrap might provide a correct solution ahead. In this context, mechanical separation-oriented characterization of electronic scrap was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Liberation degrees of various metals from the non-metals, which are crucial for mechanical separation, were analyzed by means of a grain counting approach. It is found that the metallic particles below 2 mm achieve almost complete liberation. Particle shapes were also quantified through an image processing system. The results obtained show that the shapes of the particles, as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis. It has been shown that density-based separation techniques shall be viable in separating metals from plastics, light plastics (ABS, PS and PVC, etc.) from glass fiber reinforced resins and aluminum from heavy metals. Specifically, a high quality copper concentrate can be expected by density-based separation techniques. Moreover, FT-IR spectra of plastics pieces from the light fractions after the sink–float testing show that PC scrap primarily contains ABS, PS and PVC plastics with the density range of +1.0–1.5 g/cm3, whereas PCB scrap mainly contains glass fiber reinforced epoxy resins plastics with the density range of +1.5–2.0 g/cm3.

  • 30.
    Zhang, Shunli
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Optimization of electrodynamic separation for metals recovery from electronic scrap1998In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 143-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of an electrodynamic separator has been optimized in the present study for metals recovery from electronic scrap. Eight variables involved in the system was investigated by a 2IV8-4 fractional factorial design in an attempt to determine the significant variables. The effects of those variables were detailed with glass, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a representative of plastics, copper wires, copper and aluminum granulates. For various binary mixtures of copper wires and glass or PVC plastic, the electrodynamic separator is able to produce copper products with the grade ranging from 93 to 99%, and recovery from 95 to 99%, respectively, under the optimized conditions. Further, one sample which is a middling fraction resulting from air table separation was also tested. For a single pass, copper and aluminum was upgraded approximately from 11 and 7% to 34 and 22%, while maintaining the corresponding recovery of 87 and 99%, respectively.

  • 31.
    Zhang, Shunli
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Arvidson, Bo R.
    International Process Systems, Inc., Golden, CO.
    Moss, William
    International Process Systems, Inc., Golden, CO.
    Aluminum recovery from electronic scrap by High-Force R eddy-current separators1998In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 225-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of electronic scrap which contains a substantial portion of non-ferrous metals, primarily copper and aluminum, has been growing. The present study is directed toward aluminum recovery by a newly developed eddy current separator. The investigation on shredded personal computer and printed circuit board scrap demonstrates that the High-Force® eddy-current separator will be applicable for this purpose. It has been shown that, by a single pass of the materials on the High-Force® eddy-current separator, an aluminum concentrate out of personal computer scrap can be obtained with a purity of 85%, while maintaining a recovery in excess of 90%, with the feed rate being up to 0.3 kg/min.

  • 32.
    Zhang, Shunli
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Arvidsson, Bo R.
    International Process Systems, Inc., Golden, CO.
    Moss, William
    International Process Systems, Inc., Golden, CO.
    Separation mechanisms and criteria of a rotating eddy-current separator operation1999In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 215-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much work has so far been done for modelling the magnetic deflecting (repulsive) force of eddy current separators. However, selective separation of various materials by eddy current separation depends not only on magnetic deflecting forces but also on competing forces like the gravitational force and the centrifugal force. Co-acting forces on a particle leaving the external drum are analyzed and evaluated in this study. Separation mechanisms of metal/non-metal and metal/metal separation systems have been investigated by a newly-developed High-Force® eddy-current separator. Further, a separation model governing an effective separation among various materials is presented. Based on this separation model, four practical separation criteria for metal/metal separation systems are put forward and have been substantiated experimentally.

  • 33.
    Zhang, Shunli
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Rem, Peter C
    Delft University of Technology.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Particle trajectory simulation of two-drum eddy current separators1999In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 71-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle trajectories of the newly-developed two-drum eddy current separators are simulated by the ECSIM software package. The simulation results have been substantiated by measuring the horizontal displacements of the particles to be investigated under the same conditions. It is shown that the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Further, on the basis of the simulation results obtained, the potential for improving the design of two-drum eddy current separators is discussed. It appears that the performance of two-drum eddy current separators, when processing small particles, may be enhanced by strengthening the magnetic field intensity and simultaneously increasing the maximum drum speed.

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