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  • 1.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. National Institute of Economic Research.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish legislation makes municipalities responsible for recycling or disposing of household waste. Municipalities therefore play an important role in achieving Sweden’s increased levels of ambition in the waste management area and in achieving the goal of a more circular economy. This paper studies how two municipal policy instruments – weight-based waste tariffs and special systems for the collection of food waste – affect the collected volumes of different types of waste. We find that a system of collecting food waste separately is more effective overall than imposing weight-based waste tariffs in respect not only of reducing the amounts of waste destined for incineration, but also of increasing materials recycling and biological recovery, despite the fact that the direct incentive effects of these two systems  should be similar. Separate food waste collection was associated with increased recycling not only of food waste but also of other waste. Introducing separate food waste collection indirectly signals to households that recycling is important and desirable, and our results suggest that this signalling effect may be as important as direct incentive effects.

  • 2.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Steel slags in a landfill top cover: Experiences from a full-scale experiment2014In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 692-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A full scale field study has been carried out in order to test and evaluate the use of slags from high-alloy steel production as the construction materials for a final cover of an old municipal landfill. Five test areas were built using different slag mixtures within the barrier layer (liner). The cover consisted of a foundation layer, a liner with a thickness of 0.7 m, a drainage layer of 0.3 m, a protection layer of 1.5 m and a vegetation layer of 0.25 m. The infiltration varied depending on the cover design used, mainly the liner recipe but also over time and was related to seasons and precipitation intensity. The test areas with liners composed of 50% electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and 50% cementitious ladle slag (LS) on a weight basis and with a proper consistence of the protection layer were found to meet the Swedish infiltration criteria of ⩽50 l (m2 a)−1 for final covers for landfills for non-hazardous waste: the cumulative infiltration rates to date were 44, 19 and 0.4 l (m2 a)−1 for A1, A4 and A5, respectively. Compared to the precipitation, the portion of leachate was always lower after the summer despite high precipitation from June to August. The main reason for this is evapotranspiration but also the fact that the time delay in the leachate formation following a precipitation event has a stronger effect during the shorter summer sampling periods than the long winter periods. Conventional techniques and equipment can be used but close cooperation between all involved partners is crucial in order to achieve the required performance of the cover. This includes planning, method and equipment testing and quality assurance.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Holmström, David
    Profu AB, Mölndal.
    Bohn, Irene
    NSR, North Western Scania Waste Management Company, Helsingborg.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Mölndal.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    AnoxKaldnes AB, Klosterängsvägen 11A, 226 47 Lund.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Impact of physical pre-treatment of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste on greenhouse-gas emissions and the economy in a Swedish anaerobic digestion system2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 38, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methods for physical pre-treatments of source sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SSOFMSW) before for anaerobic digestion (AD) are available, with the common feature that they generate a homogeneous slurry for AD and a dry refuse fraction for incineration. The selection of efficient methods relies on improved understanding of how the pre-treatment impacts on the separation and on the slurry’s AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the performance of physical pre-treatment of SSOFMSW on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and on the economy of an AD system including a biogas plant with supplementary systems for heat and power production in Sweden. Based on the performance of selected Swedish facilities, as well as chemical analyses and BMP tests of slurry and refuse, the computer-based evaluation tool ORWARE was improved as to accurately describe mass flows through the physical pre-treatment and anaerobic degradation. The environmental and economic performance of the evaluated system was influenced by the TS concentration in the slurry, as well as the distribution of incoming solids between slurry and refuse. The focus to improve the efficiency of these systems should primarily be directed towards minimising the water addition in the pre-treatment provided that this slurry can still be efficiently digested. Second, the amount of refuse should be minimised, while keeping a good quality of the slurry. Electricity use/generation has high impact on GHG emissions and the results of the study are sensitive to assumptions of marginal electricity and of electricity use in the pre-treatment.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    AnoxKaldnes AB.
    The effects of substrate pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion systems: a review2012In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 1634-1650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus is placed on substrate pre-treatment in anaerobic digestion (AD) as a means of increasing biogas yields using today’s diversified substrate sources. Current pre-treatment methods to improve AD are being examined with regard to their effects on different substrate types, highlighting approaches and associated challenges in evaluating substrate pre-treatment in AD systems and its influence on the overall system of evaluation. WWTP residues represent the substrate type that is most frequently assessed in pre-treatment studies, followed by energy crops/harvesting residues, organic fraction of municipal solid waste, organic waste from food industry and manure. The pre-treatment effects are complex and generally linked to substrate characteristics and pre-treatment mechanisms. Overall, substrates containing lignin or bacterial cells appear to be the most amendable to pre-treatment for enhancing AD. Approaches used to evaluate AD enhancement in different systems is further reviewed and challenges and opportunities for improved evaluations are identified.

  • 5. Cui, Jirang
    et al.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Characterization of shredded television scrap and implications for materials recovery2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 415-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of TV scrap was carried out by using a variety of methods, such as chemical analysis, particle size and shape analysis, liberation degree analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, sink-float test, and IR spectrometry. A comparison of TV scrap, personal computer scrap, and printed circuit board scrap shows that the content of non-ferrous metals and precious metals in TV scrap is much lower than that in personal computer scrap or printed circuit board scrap. It is expected that recycling of TV scrap will not be cost-effective by utilizing conventional manual disassembly. The result of particle shape analysis indicates that the non-ferrous metal particles in TV scrap formed as a variety of shapes; it is much more heterogeneous than that of plastics and printed circuit boards. Furthermore, the separability of TV scrap using density-based techniques was evaluated by the sink-float test. The result demonstrates that a high recovery of copper could be obtained by using an effective gravity separation process. Identification of plastics shows that the major plastic in TV scrap is high impact polystyrene. Gravity separation of plastics may encounter some challenges in separation of plastics from TV scrap because of specific density variations.

  • 6.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Methods for household waste composition studies2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1100-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question is how to conduct household waste composition studies. The review is divided into three parts: overview of known methods, sampling theory, and the waste components. Twenty methods are listed and commented on. There is no adopted, working international standard. In accordance with Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling, the seven types of sampling errors, when collecting and splitting solid samples, are described and commented on in relation to sampling of household solid waste. It is concluded that the most crucial choices in household waste composition studies are: to divide the investigation into relevant number and types of strata; to decide the required sample size and number of samples; to choose the sampling location, i.e., sampling at household level or sampling from loads of waste collection vehicles; and to choose the type and number of waste component categories to be investigated. Various classifications of household waste components used in composition studies are listed and discussed. Difficulties and weaknesses of the reviewed methods are discussed and concluded in suggested questions for further research.

  • 7. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pay as you throw: strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing in household waste collection systems in Sweden2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  • 8.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Comparison of different collection systems for sorted household waste in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1298-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composition and quantity per person of municipal solid waste (MSW) have been analyzed in six municipalities in southern Sweden with similar socio-economic conditions but with different collection systems. Samples of residual waste have been sorted, classified and weighed in 21 categories during 26 analyses that took place from 1998-2004. Collection data of the total waste flow, including source sorted recycling materials, in the same area have been compiled and compared. Multivariate data analyses have been applied. Weight-based billing reduced delivered amounts of residual household waste by 50%, but it is unknown to what extent improper material paths had developed. With curbside collection more metal, plastic and paper packaging was separated and left to recycling. When separate collection of biodegradables was included in the curbside system, the overall sorting of dry recyclables increased. The large uncertainty associated with waste composition analyses makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the effects on specific recyclables or the changes in the composition of the residual waste.

  • 9.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Åberg, Helena
    Department of Food, Health and Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Berg, Per E.O.
    HB Anttilator, Stagnellsgatan 3, SE, 652 23, Karlstad.
    Inconsistent pathways of household waste2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1798-1806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  • 10. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions.Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  • 11. Ecke, Holger
    Sequestration of metals in carbonated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 631-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management is in need of a reliable and economical treatment method for metals in fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). However, no state-of-the-art technique has gained wide acceptance yet. This paper is a synthesis of five elsewhere published investigations covering a project which aimed to assess the possibilities and limitations of adding carbon dioxide (CO2) to fly ash as a stabilization method. Carbonation factors that were studied are the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), the addition of water, the temperature, and the reaction time. Laboratory experiments were performed applying methods such as factorial experimental design, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching assays including pHstat titration and sequential extraction. Leaching data were verified and complemented using chemical equilibrium calculations. Data evaluation was performed by means of multivariate statistics such as multiple linear regression, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares (PLS) modeling. It was found that carbonation is a good prospect for a stabilization technique especially with respect to the major pollutants lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Their mobility decreased with increasing factor levels. Dominating factors were the partial pressure of CO2 and the reaction time, while temperature and the addition of water were of minor influence. However, the treatment caused a mobilization of cadmium (Cd), requiring further research on possible countermeasures such as metal demobilization through enhanced silicate formation.

  • 12.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Svensson, Malin
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 1301-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  • 13.
    Edo, Mar
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gao, Qiuju
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Persson, Per-Erik
    VafabMiljö Kommunalförbund, SE-721 87 Västerås.
    Jansson, Stina
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Fate of metals and emissions of organic pollutants from torrefaction of waste wood, MSW, and RDF2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 68, p. 646-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Torrefaction of municipal solid waste (MSW), refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and demolition and construction wood (DC) was performed at 220 °C and a residence time of 90 min in a bench-scale reactor. The levels of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) contained in emission from the torrefaction process were evaluated. In addition, main ash-forming elements and trace metals in the raw feedstock and char were determined. The use of MSW in fuel blends with DC resulted in lower PCDD and PCDF emissions after torrefaction, compared with the RDF blends. The migration of chlorine from the feedstock to the gas phase reduces the chlorine content of the char which may reduce the risk of alkali chloride-corrosion in char combustion. However, trace metals catalytically active in the formation of PCDD and PCDF remain in the char, thereby may promote PCDD and PCDF formation during subsequent char combustion for energy recovery; this formation is less extensive than when the feedstock is used.

  • 14. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1720-1731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  • 15.
    Hietala, Maiju
    et al.
    Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Varrio, Kalle
    Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Soini, Jaakko
    Fortum Recycling and Waste Solutions, Oulu, Finland.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Potential of municipal solid waste paper as raw material for production of cellulose nanofibres2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 80, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When aiming for higher resource efficiency, greater utilization of waste streams is needed. In this work, waste paper separated from mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) was studied as a potential starting material for the production of cellulose nanofibres (CNFs). The waste paper was treated using three different techniques, namely pulping, flotation and washing, after which it was subjected to an ultrafine grinding process to produce CNFs. The energy consumption of the nanofibrillation and nanofibre morphology, as well as properties of the prepared nanofibers, were analysed. Despite the varying amounts of impurities in the waste fibres, all samples could be fibrillated into nanoscale fibres. The tensile strengths of the CNF networks ranged from 70 to 100 MPa, while the stiffness was ∼7 GPa; thus, their mechanical strength can be adequate for applications in which high purity is not required. The contact angles of the CNF networks varied depending on the used treatment method: the flotation-treated networks were more hydrophilic (contact angle 52.5°) and the washed networks were more hydrophobic (contact angle 72.6°).

  • 16.
    Ilankoon, I.M.S.K
    et al.
    Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia. Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21) Multidisciplinary Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia.
    Ghorbani, Yousef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Nan Chong, Meng
    Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia. Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21) Multidisciplinary Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia. Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia.
    Herath, Gamini
    Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21) Multidisciplinary Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia. School of Business, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia.
    Moyo, Thandazile
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Petersen, Jochen
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    E-waste in the international context: A review of trade flows, regulations, hazards, waste management strategies and technologies for value recovery2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 82, p. 258-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-waste, or waste generated from electrical and electronic equipment, is considered as one of the fastest-growing waste categories, growing at a rate of 3–5% per year in the world. In 2016, 44.7 million tonnes of e-waste were generated in the world, which is equivalent to 6.1 kg for each person. E-waste is classified as a hazardous waste, but unlike other categories, e-waste also has significant potential for value recovery. As a result it is traded significantly between the developed and developing world, both as waste for disposal and as a resource for metal recovery. Only 20% of global e-waste in 2016 was properly recycled or disposed of, with the fate of the remaining 80% undocumented – likely to be dumped, traded or recycled under inferior conditions. This review paper provides an overview of the global e-waste resource and identifies the major challenges in the sector in terms of generation, global trade and waste management strategies. It lists the specific hazards associated with this type of waste that need to be taken into account in its management and includes a detailed overview of technologies employed or proposed for the recovery of value from e-waste. On the basis of this overview the paper identifies future directions for effective e-waste processing towards sustainable waste/resource management. It becomes clear that there is a strong divide between developed and developing countries with regard to this sector. While value recovery is practiced in centralised facilities employing advanced technologies in a highly regulated industrial environment in the developed world, in the developing world such recovery is practiced in a largely unregulated artisanal industry employing simplistic, labour intensive and environmentally hazardous approaches. Thus value is generated safely in the hi-tech environment of the developed world, whereas environmental burdens associated with exported waste and residual waste from simplistic processing remain largely in developing countries. It is argued that given the breadth of available technologies, a more systematic evaluation of the entire e-waste value chain needs to be conducted with a view to establishing integrated management of this resource (in terms of well-regulated value recovery and final residue disposal) at the appropriately local rather than global scale.

  • 17. Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments: a review2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxyhydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.

  • 18.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Bjurstöm, Henrik
    ÅF-Engineering AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Ecke, Holger
    Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment.

  • 19.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    A comparison of small scale pilot-scale and large-scale tests for predicting leaching behaviour of landfilled wastes2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 45-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills generate emissions over long periods, often longer than a lifetime. The longest lasting emission is leachate. In order to estimate the future requirements for leachate treatment, different kinds of leaching tests may be applied. In this paper, shaking leaching tests (SLT), landfill-simulator leaching tests and a field-cell leaching test performed with ash, municipal solid waste (MSW) and MSW+ash are evaluated. The tests are compared and the factors influencing leaching are identified and discussed. The factors are: liquid to solid (L/S) ratio, water withdrawal, recirculation rate, presence or absence of biological processes, size of particles, duration of experiment, temperature and pre-treatment of the waste. The presence of biological processes has the greatest impact on leaching and is the main reason why SLT is less useful for long-term predictions. The landfill simulator tests were found to be useful for several different kinds of predictions. However, they are not reliable for predicting the L/S required for reaching a certain concentration. The possibilities for reliable long-term predictions would be facilitated by a better knowledge of the influence of various factors on leaching. Such an increased knowledge would make it possible to enhance waste stabilisation in leaching tests as well as in full-scale landfills.

  • 20.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Academic research on solid waste in Sweden 1994-20032006In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 277-283Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A small desk survey was conducted in the spring of 2004 to get an overview on the development of waste research. The survey targeted the last 10 years of waste research at Swedish academic institutions trying to identify the total amount of research and trends over time with regard to issues, volume and distribution over academic disciplines. In the survey, only the theses written at major Swedish universities were considered. All post-graduate theses from major Swedish universities were reviewed. Data were obtained from the homepages and search engines of the various libraries as of May 13 2004. Altogether 90 theses were identified from nine universities, i.e., an average of 1 thesis per University per year. The results of the survey indicate that: (1) the academic waste research is very small in comparison to the R&D performed by the industry; there seems to be a lack of interaction between industry and academia; (2) waste research is slowly getting into established academic environments and gains in quantity and diversion over time; (3) in addition to being driven by environmental protection legislation, there also seems to be emerging more industry interest from a production perspective.

  • 21.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Wikström, Tommy
    Quick-start of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) using aeration2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 38, p. 102-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conventional 1300 m3 continuously stirred anaerobic tank reactor at the city of Boden, north Sweden, which was receiving a feed of both sewage sludge and food waste, was put out of operation due to the build-up of a float phase. The reactor was emptied and cleaned. At start-up there was no methanogenic sludge available, so an unconventional start-up procedure was applied: The reactor was rapidly (8 days with 1200 kg of total solids (TS) added daily) filled with thickened, and slightly acidic sewage sludge, showing only slight methane generation, which was subsequently heated to 55 °C. Then compressed air was blown into the digester and within a month a fully functional methanogenic culture was established. The transfer from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions happened in about one week. As a start-up technique this is fast and cost efficient, it only requires the access of a compressor, electricity and a source of air. In total, about 16 tonnes of oxygen were used. It is proposed that this method may also be used as an operational amendment technique, should a reactor tend to acidify.

  • 22. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of leachate emissions from crushed rock and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash used in road construction2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1356-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three years of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock in a full-scale test road were evaluated. The impact of time, construction design, and climate on the emissions was studied, and the predicted release from standard leaching tests was compared with the measured release from the road. The main pollutants and their respective concentrations in leachate from the roadside slope were Al (12.8-85.3 mg l-1), Cr (2-125 μg l-1), and Cu (0.15-1.9 mg l-1) in ash leachate and Zn (1-780 μg l-1) in crushed rock leachate. From the ash, the initial Cl- release was high (≈20 g l-1). After three years, the amount of Cu and Cl- was in the same range in both leachates, while that of Al and Cr still was more than one order of magnitude higher in ash leachate. Generally, the release was faster from material in the uncovered slopes than below the pavement. Whether the road was asphalted or not, however, had minor impacts on the leachate quality. During rain events, diluted leachates with respect to, e.g., salts were observed. The leaching tests failed to simulate field leaching from the crushed rock, whereas better agreement was observed for the ash. Comparisons of constituent release from bottom ash and conventional materials solely based on such tests should be avoided.

  • 23.
    Macsik, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jacobsson, Arvid
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Leachability of V and Cr from LD-Slag/Portland cement stabilised sulphide soil1996In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 699-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to improve the mechanical stability of a sulphide soil with additives of an industrial waste product (LD-Slag) and Portland Cement. The criterion of using LD-Slag was if it could be done in an environmentally proper way. Sequential Leaching Tests were performed on monolithic LD-Slag/Portland Cement stabilised sulphide soil samples in order to register the leachability and pollution potentials. Different pH and Eh conditions were established in these tests in order to control the leachability of Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are important during cementation processes inside as well as outside an inforced monolith, and the leachability of V, which is regarded as a pollutant. The contents of Cr and V of pure LD-Slag, monolithic samples and leachates were compared with Canadian and Finnish Maximum Containment Level standards. The investigation showed that acidic conditions will increase the leachability of V. An acidic environment will even change the physical properties of a monolith. However, acidic conditions are not likely to occur in an in-situ anaerobic sulphide soil.

  • 24. Menad, Nourreddine
    et al.
    Ayala, J. N.
    Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas Avda.
    Garcia-Carcedo, Fernando
    Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas Avda.
    Ruiz-Ayúcar, E.
    Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas Avda.
    Hernández, A.
    Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas Avda.
    Study of the presence of fluorine in the recycled fractions during carbothermal treatment of EAF dust2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 483-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbothermal treatment tests of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD) using the Waelz kiln process were carried out in pilot-scale for the production of zinc oxide. The association of halides in the EAFD, and the recycled products, such as zinc oxide fumes and high-grade iron contents fractions were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. XRD reveals the presence of chlorine and fluorine in the dusts in the form of KCl, NaCl and CaF2. An ultra-pure fraction of zinc was obtained after the Double Leaching Waelz Oxide (DLWO) process was performed on the zinc oxide fumes. The halide contents were reduced to approximately 100 ppm Cl and 700 ppm F. The rest of these elements are in the form of CaF2. About 65% F is volatilised as lead and zinc fluorides, 15% is expected in the magnetic fractions and 20% in non-magnetic fractions as CaF2 and MnF2, respectively.

  • 25. Mostaghel, Sina
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE)2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 140-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the European Union, it is estimated that between 8 and 9 million tonnes of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) arises annually, of which television sets and computers account for an important part. Traditionally, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) have been used for TVs and computer monitors, but are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technology. Only part of the discarded CRT glass is being recycled. Primary smelters use large amounts of silica flux to form iron-silicate slag, and can, in most cases, tolerate lead input. Use of discarded CRT glass in copper smelting is a potential alternative for utilization of the glass.The mineralogical composition of a slag sampled during ordinary slag praxis has been compared with that of a mixture of slag and CRT glass when re-melted and slowly cooled. Slag (iron-silicate slag) from Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, was used for the experiments. Slag and glass have been mixed in various proportions: pure slag, pure glass, 90% slag-10% glass and 65% slag-35% glass, and heated in an inert atmosphere up to 1400 °C in a Netzsch Thermal Analysis (TA) instrument. The re-melted material has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in mineralogical composition after mixing with glass.The results show that the main mineralogical component of the slag is fayalite; the CRT glass is amorphous. The main crystalline phases of the slag do not change with addition of glass. An amorphous phase appears when the addition of glass is increased, which gives the sample a different structure.

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, p. 97-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient.As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment.In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment.Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo. The effects of Fe(0) addition can be related to binding of the studied elements to newly formed iron oxides. The effects of Fe(0) addition were often more distinct at pH values between 7 and 9, which indicates that a single treatment with only Fe addition would be less effective and a combined treatment is recommended. The pHstat results showed that accelerated carbonation in combination with Fe(0)0 addition widens the pH range for low solubility of about one unit for several of the studied elements. This indicates that pre-treating the bottom ash with a combination of accelerated carbonation and Fe(0) addition makes the leaching properties of the ash less sensitive to pH changes that may occur during reuse. All in all, the addition of Fe0 in combination with carbonation could be an effective pre-treatment method for decreasing the mobility of potentially harmful components in bottom ash.

  • 27.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 727-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from a cogeneration plant near Sundsvall in Sweden was treated in an ash-washing facility. The leaching of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) from the ash residue exceeded the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. In this study factors that influence the leaching of Cr and Mo were identified and methods that can reduce the leaching were evaluated. The results revealed that the mobility of Cr and Mo are mainly controlled by pH and redox reactions and sequential extraction tests also showed that the fraction of highly soluble species of Cr and Mo increased after washing due to pH reactions in the ash during the process. Stabilization of the pH at ∼8 through carbonation of the washed ash and a lowering of the redox potential by adding ferrous iron to the process resulted in decreased leaching. Treatment with carbon dioxide yielded a decrease (from 10.7 to 8.2) in the pH and, hence, the leaching of Cr and Mo by 93 and 91%, respectively. And the addition of ferrous iron reduced the leaching of Cr by 50%. Carbonation of the ash can be achieved via treatment with flue gases from the power plant or treatment with landfill gas at the disposal site.

  • 28. Ore, Solvita
    et al.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Ecke, Holger
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Toxicity of leachate from bottom ash in a road construction2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 1626-1637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A test road constructed with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was monitored over a period of 36 months. Using chemical and toxicological characterisation, the environmental impact of leachates from bottom ash was evaluated and compared with leachates from gravel used as reference. Initial leaching of Cl, Cu, K, Na, NH4-N and TOC from bottom ash was of major concern. However, the quality of the bottom ash leachate approached that of the gravel leachate with time. Leachates from the two materials were compared regarding the concentration of pollutants using multivariate data analyses (MVDA). A standardized luminescent bacteria assay using Vibrio fischeri did not show any toxicity, most likely because saline contamination can mask the toxic response and stimulate luminescence in these marine bacteria. A mung bean assay using Phaseolus aureus revealed that the toxicity of bottom ash leachate collected at the very beginning of the experimental period (October 2001 and May 2002) might be attributed to the following components and their respective concentrations in mg l-1: Al (34.2-39.2), Cl (2914-16,446), Cu (0.48-1.92), K (197-847), Na (766-4180), NH4-N (1.80-8.47), total-N (12.0-18.5), and TOC (34.0-99.0). The P. aureus assay was judged as a promising environmental tool in assessing the toxicity of bottom ash leachate.

  • 29.
    Pineau, J.L.
    et al.
    LEM, CNRS UMR 7569, ENSG, INPL, BP 40, 54501 Vandœuvre.
    Kanari, N.
    LEM, CNRS UMR 7569, ENSG, INPL, BP 40, 54501 Vandœuvre.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Representativeness of an automobile shredder residue sample for a verification analysis2005In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 737-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To apply a decision-making scheme using a statistical classification while conforming to the meaning of representativeness as defined by the US EPA, we propose an equation defining the representativeness of a sample. To utilize this equation, the batch must be homogenized. This requires analyzing the constitution and distribution heterogeneities. The equation relates the sample weight ms to its representativeness R either by a statistical approach or by a physical approach using the following equation:ms={4/(1-R)2}·[K+ke(1-2te)/te] In the equation, K and ke are the heterogeneity factors determined from a descriptive analysis. This equation is applicable to solid waste with majority constituents such as automobile shredder residue (ASR) and domestic waste. This analysis was applied to a sample of ASR in the framework of a verification for France. The results of the analysis showed that the sample weight must be at least 140 kg to have a representativeness of 90%.

  • 30.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Bolton, Kim
    Physics Department, Göteborg University, Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Lundin, Magnus
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 40, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household’s application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system.

  • 31.
    Shen, Huiting
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    An overview of recovery of metals from slags2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 933-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various slags are produced as by-products in metallurgical processes or as residues in incineration processes. According to the origins and the characteristics, the main slags can be classified into three categories, namely ferrous slag, non-ferrous slag and incineration slag. This paper analysed and summarised the generation, characteristics and application of various slags, and discussed the potential effects of the slags on the environment. On this basis, a review of a number of methods for recovery of metals from the slags was made. It can be seen that a large amount of slags is produced each year. They usually contain a quantity of valuable metals except for blast furnace slag and they are actually a secondary resource of metals. By applying mineral processing technologies, such as crushing, grinding, magnetic separation, eddy current separation, flotation and so on, leaching or roasting, it is possible to recover metals such as Fe, Cr, Cu, Al, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni, Nb, Ta, Au, and Ag etc. from the slags. Recovery of metals from the slags and utilisation of the slags are important not only for saving metal resources, but also for protecting the environment.

  • 32.
    Singh, Maneesh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Upadhayay, S.N.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Banaras Hindu University.
    Prasad, P.M.
    Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Banaras Hindu University.
    Preparation of special cements from red mud1996In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 665-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red mud from HINDALCO (Hindustan Aluminium Corporation) Industries Limited, Renukoot, India, contains significant quantities of alumina, iron oxide and silica. Presence of the said constituents makes it a suitable ingredient for the preparation of special cements. Preparation of three varieties of cements was investigated, namely: (a) aluminoferrite (C4AF)- belite (β-C2S) using lime + red mud + fly ash; (b) aluminoferrite-ferrite (C2F)-aluminates (C3A and C12A7) utilising lime + red mud + bauxite; and (c) sulfoaluminate (C4A3S̄)-aluminoferrite-ferrite using lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum. The effects of composition (proportions of lime, red mud, fly ash, bauxite and gypsum), firing temperature and duration on the properties of cements produced were studied in detail. Cements made from lime + red mud + bauxite or lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum exhibit strengths comparable or superior to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). On the other hand, those prepared using lime + red mud + fly ash did not have sufficient strength. Moreover, it was not possible to replace bauxite by fly ash (as a source of alumina) in any significant quantity.

  • 33.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Demobilisation of critical contaminants in four typical waste-to-energy ashes by carbonation2006In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 430-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two bottom ashes, one air pollution control (APC) residue and one fly ash from three different Swedish municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants were characterised regarding the leaching of environmentally relevant components. Characterisation was performed using a diffusion tank leaching test. The impact of carbonation on the release of eight critical components, i.e., Cl-, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn, was assessed at a lab-scale and showed carbonation to have a more pronounced demobilising effect on critical components in bottom ashes than in APC residue and fly ash. From grate type incinerator bottom ash, the release of Cr decreased by 97%, by 63% for Cu and by 45% for Sb. In the investigated APC residue, the releases of Cr, Se and Pb were defined as critical, although they either remained unaffected or increased after carbonation. Cl- and remained mobile after carbonation in all investigated residues.

  • 34. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Solidification with water as a treatment method for air pollution control residues2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of solidification with water was studied on air pollution control (APC) residues from incineration of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) regarding mechanical strength and leaching behaviour of solidified material. Factorial design in two levels was applied to investigate the impact of water addition, time, and temperature to mechanical strength of solidified material. Factors time and temperature, as well as the interaction between the addition of water and time significantly (α=0.05) influenced the mechanical strength of solidified material. The diffusion-leaching test NEN 7345 was performed to investigate if the leaching behaviour of elements from solidified material was determined by diffusion. Since it was found that leaching is not diffusion controlled, the long-term leaching behaviour was not assessed. However, the investigation showed that some of the studied components (Al, Hg, Mn, Pb, Si, and Zn) could be considerably demobilised by solidification with water. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni were either below or not quite above the detection limits to be included in the analysis of leaching behaviour. The elements least demobilised by solidification were Cl, Cr, K, and Na.

  • 35. Tossavainen, Mia
    et al.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Yang, Qixing
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Björkman, Bo
    Characteristics of steel slag under different cooling conditions2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1335-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four types of steel slags, a ladle slag, a BOF (basic oxygen furnace) slag and two different EAF (electric arc furnace) slags, were characterized and modified by semi-rapid cooling in crucibles and rapid cooling by water granulation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different cooling conditions on the properties of glassy slags with respect to their leaching and volume stability. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and a standard test leaching (prEN 12457-2/3) have been used for the investigation. The results show that the disintegrated ladle slag was made volume stable by water granulation, which consisted of 98% glass. However EAF slag 1, EAF slag 2 and the BOF slag formed 17%, 1% and 1% glass, respectively. The leaching test showed that the glass-containing matrix did not prevent leaching of minor elements from the modified slags. The solubility of chromium, molybdenum and vanadium varied in the different modifications, probably due to their presence in different minerals and their different distributions.

  • 36.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 35, p. 148-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl−, N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two–three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient.

  • 37.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1336-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl-, nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, <3-30 l (m2 yr)-1. Geochemical modelling indicated that precipitation of clay minerals and other secondary compounds in the ash liner was possible within 3 years after construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  • 38.
    Windt, Laurent De
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, David
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, Rabia
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    MSWI bottom ash used as basement at two pilot-scale roads: comparison of leachate chemistry and reactive transport modeling2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 267-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires assessing the long-term evolution of leachate chemistry. The Dåva (Sweden) and Hérouville (France) pilot-scale roads were monitored during 6 and 10 years, respectively. Calculated saturation indices were combined to batch test modeling to set a simplified geochemical model of the bottom ash materials. A common reactive transport model was then applied to both sites. At Hérouville, pH and the concentration of most elements quickly drop during the first two years to reach a set of minimum values over 10 years. The decrease is less pronounced at Dåva. The evolutions of pH and major element concentrations are fairly well related to the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, C-S-H phases or pseudo-wollastonite and, finally, calcite in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. Al(OH)3, barite, ettringite and monohydrocalcite may also control leachate chemistry. Cu release is correctly modeled by DOM complexation and tenorite equilibrium. Temperature has no significant effect on the modeling of leachate chemistry in the range 5-30 °C, except at high pH. Effects at road edges and roadside slopes are important for the release of the less reactive elements and, possibly, for carbonation processes.

  • 39.
    Österlund, Helene
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ylinenjärvi, Karin
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1258-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na2CO3 and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 °C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

1 - 39 of 39
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